Learning Objectives Describe how to use the three second rule. Describe how you can safely manage a tailgater. Describe how far ahead you should look in city traffic. Explain how to select the proper lane for driving
Emotions/ Road Rage Communicating Space Cushion Changing Lanes Passing/ Being Passed Following Distance Inclement Weather/ Road Conditions City vs. Country Driving Night Driving
Preventing Accidents Reduce chances of accident by following this formula... #1--- BE ALERT Never think the other driver will not make a mistake #2--- BE PREPARED Learn how to have a good reaction time #3--- ACT IN TIME Try not to panic. Don’t get nervous, stay calm, cool, and collected
Road Rage Road rage occurs when motorists lose their tempers or become frustrated because of traffic disturbance.
Smoking Watching children and pets in car Eating Applying makeup Using cell phones Changing CD’s Tuning radio stations or Ipod Programming GPS Avoid DISTRACTIONS
Distractions!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Changing a CD Checking out your brand new head unit Getting that perfect song on your ipod Tuning the right radio stations Programming your GPS
Get a good nights sleep Don’t take medicines that can cause drowsiness Do not drive long hours Take rest stops even if you aren’t tired Switch drivers Do not stare Chew gum or sing with radio Open window for fresh air Trance-like/ hypnotic state resulting from driving long hours on a monotonous, non-scenic road such as a highway. HOW TO AVOID… WHO IS AT RISK motorists passengers pedestrians
Turn SignalsBrake lights Horn Left Slow or Stop Right
Why is it important to keep a safe following distance? The space provides motorists with time to react in case of an emergency or sudden shift in traffic flow. Increased reaction time helps drivers avoid accidents.
There are two methods drivers can use to determine a safe following distance.
One Car-Length Method Keep at least one car length (about 20 feet) for each ten miles per hour of speed During bad weather or at higher speeds, increase following distance
You Speed: 30 mph Road Condition: Ideal 3 Car Lengths (about 60 feet)
How to: 1. Choose a fixed object such as a sign or a tree, ahead of the car directly in front of you. 2. Make sure the object does not cause any distraction 3. At least two seconds should elapse between the two cars passing the sign or tree.
Three-Seconds- Plus Rule This rule takes into account the traveling speeds of the two cars. It can help develop good judgment for proper following distances. During bad weather, the three second rule should be increased to four or more seconds.
SPACE CUSHION Space between your car and others on all sides. The space between you and other vehicles gives you time to react in emergencies. Space cushion between desks?
Here are the steps for making a lane change: 1. Check mirrors for a space in traffic where you can enter safely. 2.Check blind spot by looking over your shoulder in the direction of the lane change. Signal that you want to move left or right. 3.Check again to make sure the way is clear and that no one is coming too fast from behind or from two lanes over on a multi-lane road. 4.Steer gradually into the new lane. Do not slow down - maintain the same speed or gently increase it. Changing Lanes
Passing on the Left Your lane has a solid yellow center line. You cannot safely return to the right lane before reaching a solid yellow centerline for the right line. You cannot safely return to the right lane before any approaching vehicle comes within 200 feet of you. You are approaching a curve or the crest of a hill on a two-way road and cannot see around or over it. You are within 100 feet of a railroad crossing on a two-way roadway. You are within 100 feet of a bridge or tunnel on a two-way road and your view is obstructed. Passing will interfere with oncoming traffic. DO NOT Pass if…
What is the best thing to do in bad weather? It is best not to drive! = But if you have too…
Reduced Visibility Slow down and give yourself more time. Scan in and around your path of travel. Predict others will make maneuvers into your path of travel. Make maneuvers gently to maintain control so that others know what you are doing.
Your Vehicles Windows Keep them clean! If windows fog up Turn on front and rear defrosters. Use air conditioning/heater if it will help. Open window if needed.
Sun Glare At times the sun can create severe and blinding glare conditions. Sun visors can help, but avoid looking directly into the sun. Having headlights on can help other drivers see you. Be prepared for other divers not to see your signals.
Hot Weather Hot weather can cause your vehicle to overheat. Watch your temperature gauge to make your engine is not to hot. If engine is overheating, you can put the heat on or pull over and let the vehicle cool down. Never remove the radiator cap on a hot engine.
When driving in the rain… Turn on windshield wipers. WIPERS ON, LIGHTS ON! Allow additional stopping distance. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GxwgH GCrrS4&feature=autoplay&list=PL61BBA0 BBFD412110&index=12&playnext=2http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GxwgH GCrrS4&feature=autoplay&list=PL61BBA0 BBFD412110&index=12&playnext=2
Rain Keep windshield clear by using wipers. If wipers are on your headlights must be on. If the rain is so heavy that you can not see, pull over and find a place to sit out the storm.
During the first few minutes of rainfall, road surfaces are the most slippery. Hydroplaning –35 mph and up- contact with road surface is like a windshield wiper –Like water skiing –At about 55mph the tire will lose control with the road. –No friction to brake
Reduced Traction Deep Water – when you don’t know how deep water is, don’t driver through it. If you must, try to estimate the depth. If there is any possibility it will reach the bottom of your car do not enter. Drive slow and ride the brake. Test brakes after you get through the puddle.
Snow The combination of snow, slushly water, and ice can make very slippery surfaces. Gentle acceleration, steering, and braking are the keys to driving in the snow. To improve traction you can put chains on your tires. (Nov.15-April 1) Rocking a Vehicle – can help move you out of deep snow, mud, or sand by moving forward and back.
Ice Be alert if temperatures are below freezing for ice. Squeeze brakes in icy areas to check traction. Ice on Bridges – bridges will freeze before other roadway surfaces. Black Ice – thin sheets of ice on the road surface that is hard to see.
Before driving in cold weather (snow)… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XzIcGr4S2Q&play next=1&list=PL61BBA0BBFD412110&index=10http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XzIcGr4S2Q&play next=1&list=PL61BBA0BBFD412110&index=10 Let the vehicle warm up Remove all snow and ice from the car (including the roof). Always make sure the vehicle has windshield wiper fluid. In New Jersey, motorists are liable if ice flies from a vehicle and causes death, injury, or property damage. Use studded snow tires for better traction from Nov 15 th – April 1 st.
Fog When your headlights shine into fog, light is reflected back by water particles. Always use low-beams. Fog can reduce ability to judge distance. Cars may be closer than you think. Thick fog can be very dangerous, you may want to pull over and park on the side of the road.
When driving in fog… Slow down in patches of fog Turn on your low beam headlights or fog lights… why? Turn on your defroster and windshield wipers Be alert for surrounding traffic In heavy fog, roll all your windows down (one can hear cars before you see them)
Weather Driving Tips Look and listen for traffic reports. Keep you windows clear. Respect lower speeds. Keep a safe following distance. Try to keep moving in snow. Clear off snow from the hood, roof, and trunk.
Night Driving 90% of driving decisions are made based on observations…..At night vision is reduced Slow down Be sure you can stop within the distance you can see ahead Drive within the range of headlights –500 feet-- high beams –350 feet-- low beams
Headlights Use high-beam lights to see further down the road. Only use high-beams when the vehicle in front of you is more than ½ mile ahead. Switch to low-beams the instant you see headlights of oncoming traffic. Switch to low-beams if a vehicle passes you. Use low-beam headlights in bad weather, high-beams will reflect the light back at you.
Meeting Other Vehicles If a driver fails to use low- beams: Briefly flick your headlights to remind the driver to switch to low-beams. Slow, and look to the right edge of the road and follow the white line. Look ahead with quick glances to check for traffic. Do not stare directly into high-beams.
Traffic Complexity Driving in heavy, fast moving, city traffic is very challenging. Traffic is more dense Move cars, buses, and pedestrians per mile. Traffic hazards are closer to you and can quickly block you path.
Following Others Look beyond the vehicle ahead of you. Look over, through, or around vehicles ahead of you. Be aware for brake lights. Always try to anticipate what the driver ahead is likely to do. Be alert in areas where sudden stops can occur. Intersections Lanes next to parked cars. Business driveways with high volume traffic.
Looking Ahead While Staying Back By looking far ahead, you will be able to spot problems in time to adjust your speed and position. By maintaining a safe following distance you will e able to view the road ahead.
Carpool Lanes To help move rush hour traffic many cities now have special lanes like buses and carpool lanes. People who ride together save time, fuel, reduce parking problems, and reduce air pollution.
One-Way Streets One-way streets can move a greater volume of traffic with less conflict. One-way signs are posted on most one-way streets. All moving traffic and parked cars point in the same direction. Broken white lines are used to separate lanes of traffic.
Leaving One-Way Street Left turn – stay to the far left of the street. Right turn – stay to the far right. Straight – stay to the middle of the street. Watch for signs that may warn that a one- way street will turn into a two-way street.
City Driving Motorists should Drive slowly Look 12 seconds ahead Yield to pedestrians To avoid accidents Look, Listen, and Think
Country Driving On open country roads motorist should use high beam lights Few or no street lights Windy/poorly maintained roads Deer/animals run towards oncoming cars
How does one drive defensively? Make sure everyone in the car is secured (wear seatbelts). Do not drive under the influence. Drive at the speed limit. Be aware of what other drivers on the road are doing, so you can react to them easily.
How to drive defensively… Follow the laws that control the roads –do not tailgate –abide by and anticipate the changing of the traffic lights –read and follow road signs. Make sure your car is safe and all parts are maintained.
Why should one drive defensively? 41,000 people die each year from motor vehicle accidents. Over two million people receive disabling injuries from motor vehicle accidents each year. It is the driver’s responsibility to protect yourself and others on the road by driving defensively.
Dangers… People Drinking and Driving Reckless Driving Inexperience Elderly (poor eyesight)
Stats Traffic death rates are 3X as high at night than during the day 50 yr. old drivers need twice as much light to see as well as a 30 yr. old driver When smoking, the nicotine and carbon monoxide hamper night vision On average, 45% of all car accidents with fatalities were the result of drunk driving
Sources Images: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sovietuk/5861614/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/ottoman42/24385675/in/set-569819/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/pbo31/143596412/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/fish_at_taipei/198024832/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/miika/216440150/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/pbo31/183862233/ http://www.trucks.about.com/.../l/bl_ramsrt10_8.htm http://www.uniqueshoppes.com/rafflecorvette http://www.autobarthobraat.nl/productssimple1.html http://images.google.com/ http://www.whatisnext.co.uk/files/night_driving_1280x1024.jpg http://www.mpi.mb.ca/Images/WFPColumn/NightDriving.gif http://www.keacher.com/photos/images/small/1079591066.jpg Information: New Jersey. Motor Vehicle Commission. New Jersey Driver Manual. New Jersey, 2006. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/research/Aggressionwisc/chapter_1.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermittent_explosive_disorder http://www.state.nj.us/lps/p80418a.htm http://www.state.nj.us/mvc/pdf/Licenses/Driver%20Manual/Chapter_5.pdf http://nydmv.state.ny.us/dmanual/chapter06-manual.htm http://www.drivingschool.ca/drivereducation/page6.html “Driving in Bad Weather.” Bergen County Office of Emergency Management. 2005. 16 November 2006. http://www.bcoemorg/driving.htm “Safe Communities of Wright County.” Concentrate on Driving. 2006. 16 November 2006. http://www.safecomm.org/inclement_weather.htm http://www.nsc.org/library/facts/nightdr.htm http://www.roadandtravel.com/safetyandsecurity/nightperils.html