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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART C 7 The Nervous System

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protection of the Central Nervous System  Scalp and skin

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protection of the Central Nervous System Figure 7.17a

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Meninges  Dura mater  Double-layered external covering  Periosteum—  Meningeal Layer-  Folds inward in several areas

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Meninges  Arachnoid layer  Pia mater

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Meninges Figure 7.17b

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)  Similar to blood plasma composition  Formed by the choroid plexus  Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain  Circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.18a–b Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Figure 7.18c

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hydrocephalus in a Newborn  Hydrocephalus Figure 7.19

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood-Brain Barrier  Includes the least permeable capillaries of the body  Excludes many potentially harmful substances  Useless as a barrier against some substances

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Traumatic Brain Injuries  Concussion  Contusion  Cerebral edema

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)  Commonly called a stroke  The result of a ruptured blood vessel supplying a region of the brain  Brain tissue supplied with oxygen from that blood source dies

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Alzheimer’s Disease  Progressive degenerative brain disease  Mostly seen in the elderly, but may begin in middle age  Structural changes in the brain include abnormal protein deposits and twisted fibers within neurons

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord  Extends from the foramen magnum of the skull to the first or second lumbar vertebra

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Anatomy Figure 7.20 (1 of 2)

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Anatomy Figure 7.20 (2 of 2)

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Anatomy  Internal gray matter is mostly cell bodies  Dorsal (posterior) horns  Anterior (ventral) horns  Gray matter surrounds the central canal  Exterior white mater—conduction tracts

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Anatomy Figure 7.21

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Anatomy  Meninges cover the spinal cord  Spinal nerves leave at the level of each vertebrae  Dorsal root  Ventral root

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pathways Between Brain and Spinal Cord Figure 7.22

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Nerves and ganglia outside the central nervous system  Nerve

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Structure of a Nerve  Endoneurium surrounds each fiber  Groups of fibers are bound into fascicles by perineurium  Fascicles

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Structure of a Nerve Figure 7.23

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Classification of Nerves  Mixed nerves  Sensory (afferent) nerves  Motor (efferent) nerves

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Cranial Nerves  12 pairs of nerves that mostly serve the head and neck  Only the pair of vagus nerves extend to thoracic and abdominal cavities

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Cranial Nerves  I Olfactory  II Optic  III Oculomotor nerve  IV Trochlear

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Cranial Nerves  V Trigeminal  VI Abducens  VII Facial  VIII Vestibulocochlear

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Cranial Nerves  IX Glossopharyngeal nerve—  X Vagus nerves—  XI Accessory nerve—  XII Hypoglossal

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: The Cranial Nerves Table 7.1 (1 of 4)

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: The Cranial Nerves Table 7.1 (2 of 4)

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: The Cranial Nerves Table 7.1 (3 of 4)

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: The Cranial Nerves Table 7.1 (4 of 4)

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Distribution of Cranial Nerves Figure 7.24


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