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BlazeSports Institute for Applied Science CDSS Level I & II Curriculum 1.

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Presentation on theme: "BlazeSports Institute for Applied Science CDSS Level I & II Curriculum 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 BlazeSports Institute for Applied Science CDSS Level I & II Curriculum 1

2 Manual Sport Chairs: Sizing, Fitting, Transfers, Maintenance and Repair 2

3 We would like to thank Brock Beasley, ATP, RRTS, CDSS of Alliance Seating and Mobility for his contributions to the content of this presentation. 3

4 WHAT WE’LL COVER  Common types of manual sports chairs  Components of sports chairs  Proper fit = PERFORMANCE  Routine maintenance  Tools needed  Transfer safety 4

5 COMMON TYPES OF MANUAL SPORTS CHAIRS  Court Chairs  Basketball  Softball  Football  Tennis  Rugby  Dance  Racing Chairs  Racing Wheelchair  Handcycle  Fourcross  Field Chairs 5

6 COMMON TYPES OF MANUAL SPORTS CHAIRS Rigid, Custom Fit –Designed to fit your body and your specifications –Dimensions and accessories per your specifications –Advanced materials –Purchased after at least one year of trial and error with a adjustable chair Adjustable –Perfect for program chairs –Allows for changes in dump, backrest height and center of gravity –Once chair can fit many different athletes/sports –NOT infinitely adjustable, still need to have a “typical” athlete in mind if ordering for a program 6





11 RUGBY 11


13 COURT CHAIR BASICS 1.Backrest 2. Rear Axle 3. Rear Wheels 4. Hand rims 5. Seat 6. Frame 7. Traverse Bar 8 Front Rigging 9.Footrests 10.Front Casters 11. Anti-Tip Casters 13

14 BACKRESTS Program chairs should have an adjustable height and angle backrest –Height should be set to allow for support while maximizing functional ability More function = lower backrest –Angle should be set for player comfort Less function = Angle > 90 degrees Upholstery should be adjustable to allow for tension adjustments 14

15 CUSHIONS The Sport Cushion gives wheelchair users pressure relief, reduces shearing and increases ventilation that allows for true heat and moisture control. There are cushion height limitations in wheelchair basketball. Program chairs need to have cushions cleaned and maintained on a regular basis. 15

16 REAR WHEELS Four Basic Sizes for Court Chairs –Wheel size determined by frame size –24” = 23 or 25 x 540 Tube/Tire –25” = 23 or 25 x 559 Tube/Tire –26” = 23 or 25 x 590 Tube/Tire –700C = 23 x 622 Tube/Tire 16

17 REAR WHEELS Parts of a Wheel 1.Rim 2.Spokes 3.Bearings 4.Hub Check spoke tension daily –Tighten as needed to keep wheel true 17

18 HAND RIMS Options –Coated or Bare Metal Vinyl or Foam Coated –Aluminum or Titanium –12-Tab or 6-Tab –Standard or Short Tab 18

19 QUICK RELEASE AXLES Sizes –4.5” to 5.5” by 0.25” Increments Length determined by hub size Adjustment –Nut –Spacers/Washers 19

20 INNER TUBES Sizes –24” x 1 = 23 or 25 x 540 Tube/Tire –25” x 1 = 23 or 25 x 559 Tube/Tire –26” x 1 = 23 or 25 x 590 Tube/Tire –700C x 1 = 23 x 622 Tube/Tire Valves –Schrader –Presta Adapter for standard pumps Rim Tape –Protects tube 20

21 INNER TUBES Pressure –100 to 110 psi In a Bind….. –You can use larger tubes on smaller tires by folding the tube over itself –You can typically use one size smaller tube (24” tube on a 25” wheel) Recycle Used tubes make great straps for rugby!! 21

22 TIRES Tires are NOT All Equal!! –Kenda is manufacturer of choice Kontender Koncept Kaliente –Know the cheappies! 22

23 TIRES Invest –Spend a little more now for fewer problems later More puncture resistant More durable tread Better traction –In a Bind… Flip the tire (remove from rim and put inside on outside of rim) when one side is work out, similar to rotating the tires on your car 23


25 FRONT CASTERS Material –Solid Polyurethane Size –3” & 4” Hardware –Wheelchair Caster Bolt Nut (5/16-24)Wheelchair Caster Bolt Nut (5/16-24) –Wheelchair Caster Bolt (5/16-24 x 2.5)Wheelchair Caster Bolt (5/16-24 x 2.5) –Spacer for Wheelchair Front Axle – CasterSpacer for Wheelchair Front Axle – Caster –5/16" Sealed Wheelchair Caster Bearings5/16" Sealed Wheelchair Caster Bearings 25

26 ANTI-TIP BARS Single & Double Configuration –Choice depends on sport and position –Adjust height as needed –Standard on most court chairs 26

27 STRAPPING Click Straps Size Large = Hips Medium = Thighs Small = Feet Velcro Straps Size Standard and Custom Use anywhere 27

28 SIZING AND FITTING A SPORTS CHAIR Standard Sports Chair Seat Dimensions –Width, Depth, Dump Back Dimensions –Height, Angle Camber of Wheels –Sport –Stability of chair –Controlling movement 28

29 SIZING AND FITTING A SPORTS CHAIR Seat Depth Measure from the most posterior point of the body to the inside of the knee, minus at least two inches. Seat Width Determined by the widest point of the body from knee to hip. Should be measured with clothing similar to what will be worn during activity. Back Height Measured from the seat base to the top of the chair back. Depends on how much upper back support is needed, and also affects freedom for the upper body to rotate. This is often very different for a sports chair compared to an everyday chair. Athletes with less trunk function may also want the backrest angled. 29

30 SIZING AND FITTING A SPORTS CHAIR Rear Seat to Floor Measurement from the ground to the rear seat edge. Relative to the front seat-to-floor dimension, this determines the rearward slope ("dump" or "squeeze") of the seat. Front Seat to Floor Measure the leg from the back of the knee to the sole of the foot. Then subtract the thickness of the cushion when it is compressed. Next, add a minimum of two inches for footrest clearance. This will set the maximum chair height, not to exceed 21” or 53 cm. 30

31 SIZING AND FITTING A SPORTS CHAIR Wheel Camber Angle of the wheel relative to the vertical. More camber improves stability and agility, but also limits ability to pass through narrow spaces. A typical daily chair uses three degrees of camber. Sport Chair Camber Options –12, 15, 16, 18, 20 Degrees Tennis = 18-20 degrees 31




35 RACING CHAIRS A complete training manual for track and field is available online and free of charge from BlazeSports.BlazeSports 35

36 PARTS OF A RACING CHAIR Cage: The seating area of a racing chair. It is built according to an athlete’s body dimensions. Main Tube: The base of the racing chair that bridges the front wheel with the rear wheels. Axle Tube: The tube running perpendicular to the main tube into which the rear wheels attach. Headset: Attaches the steering and front wheel to the main tube. Handle Bars: Attached to the headset and allows the athlete to maneuver the front wheel. Fork: Attached to the headset and serves to hold the front wheel. Hand Ring: A ring mounted onto the rear wheels used for propulsion. Hub: Axle housing and center of wheel. Fenders: Side guards that provide protection for the torso and arms from road debris and the rear wheels. 36


38 FITTING A RACING CHAIR Extension of the athlete's body –Oversized chair wastes energy Fit snug to athlete’s chest and hips –Should not create constant rubbing or restricted blood flow Manufacturer’s Order Forms –Typically easy to understand but ALWAYS ask, do not assume –Use manufacturer’s rep when possible 38


40 THE RIGHT POSITION No two athletes are the same Primary position determinants –Body Dimensions –Functional Ability Two seating Options –Tucked, kneeling –Extended Goals –Optimal sitting stability Angle of back seat posts and upholstery should conform to curvature of lower back –Maximum coverage of hand ring 40

41 CAMBER Camber –7-13 Degrees, 11 to 13 most popular 41

42 WHEELS Wheels –Rear = 700C –Front = 20” –Younger/Smaller Athletes Rear = 26” (590) Front = 18” –Spokes Younger/Lighter = 24-28 spokes Older/Heavier = 28-36 spokes 42

43 WHEELS Wheels –Elite Carbon Fiber –Tri-spoke –Quad-spoke –Disc 43

44 HAND RINGS Size –10 to 16” Most Common –14” Females –14.5” Males –Carbon Fiber –Benefits Smaller = High Top Speed Larger = Quicker Acceleration 44

45 HAND RINGS Stand Offs –1/16 to 1.5” –Contact Inside of ring use shorter stand off Outside of ring use longer stand off 45

46 TIRES 2 Types –Clincher Separate tube and tire casing –Sew-Up Tube and tire casing single unit –Similarities Performance Profile (18mm) Weight (165gm) High Pressure (130 psi) 46

47 TIRES Differences –Clincher Less maintenance Install similar to court chair tire Repairable for < $10 –Sew-Up Glue on Choice of elite racers for ease of tire change NOT repairable, new tire > $60 47

48 HANDCYCLES & FOURCROSS Types –Function Recreational Touring Racing Off-Road Downhill –Seating Upright, Recumbent, Kneeler 48

49 HANDCYCLES & FOURCROSS Types –Steering Fork Lean –Seating Upright Recumbent Kneeler 49


51 HANDCYCLE FITTING Typical Dimensions 1.Seat Width 2.Wheel Base 3.Crank Height 4.Crank to Front Axle 5.Crank to Backrest 6.Back Height 7.Camber 0, 3 or 6 degrees 51

52 HANDCYCLE FITTING Typical Dimensions 8.Crank Length 9.Crank Width 10.Footrest Width 52

53 TOOL BAG Tool Bag Inventory for One Athlete –Tire/Tube Changing Tools Tire Levers x 3 Bead Jack Rim Tape Presta Valve Adapter x 3 Pump –Electric, Manual or CO 2 53

54 Tool Bag Inventory for One Athlete –Phillips Screwdriver –Flathead Screwdriver –Spoke Wrench –Vice Grips –Crescent Wrench (at least 10”) –Standard Allen Keys –Metric Allen Keys –Thread Seal Tape –Tape Measure –Super Glue TOOL BAG 54

55 TOOL BAG Tool Bag Inventory for One Athlete –Rear Wheel Axle –Flat File –Rear wheel spacers – x 5 –3/8 Lock Nut x 4 –3/8” Wrench –7/16” Wrench –3/4” Wrench –Packing Tape –Athletic Tape –Hockey Tape –Cable Ties – 14” x 100 55

56 TOOL BAG Tool Bag Inventory for One Athlete –Racing Supplies Allen Head Bolts – Steering Handles and Steering Collar x 2 each Glove Rubber Hand Ring Rubber Tire Glue Klister Sandpaper Headset SpacersAllen Head Bolts – Front Wheel x 2 Allen Head Bolts – Hand Ring Tab x 8 Allen Head Bolt Spacers – Hand Ring Tab x 16 3/4 Compensator Nut or 5/8 Compensator Nut x 2 Presta Valve Extender x 2 56

57 MAINTENANCE Maintenance is the key to many years of use –Very importance for personal chairs and program chairs Priority #1 – Keep Your Chair Clean!! –Stay healthy –Easier to detect problems Suggested maintenance tasks that every wheelchair owner/program should follow: 57

58 MAINTENANCE Daily/Each Use –Clean upholstery –Check frame for cracks –Check tire pressure Inflation guidelines are on the outside of the tire (usually 100 psi). A quick check method is to pinch the outer walls of the tire – it should be firm. –Check nuts and bolts and tighten as needed Only replace bolts with those of the same grade or strength rating. –Check casters and rear wheels for obstructions to bearings 58

59 MAINTENANCE Weekly –Check casters and forks Clean, free spinning, wear, damage –Check rear wheels Spokes intact and tight Rims are in good condition Hand rim tabs intact, no gouges Clean axle housing and around the bearing Wipe axles with a clean towel that contains a few drops of oil 59

60 MAINTENANCE Monthly –Wheel alignment Toe in / toe out. If your wheelchair tends to veer to one side while coasting, it could very well be that your wheels are out of alignment or that your spokes have become loose or damaged –Frame If you have not done this daily, inspect the chair frame and all critical components for cracks – these should be reported to dealer as they may require welding or the entire frame may need to be replaced. 60

61 MAINTENANCE As Needed –Upholstery Check your for cracks or tears where the fabric holds or where there are screws in the fabric. Wipe down your seat cushion daily, if the cover is removable wash separately each month. –Tires Replace tires when the tread becomes worn, cracked, loose or when the side walls begin to bulge out when pumped with air. Tires that are only worn on one side but in otherwise good condition can be flipped. 61

62 MAINTENANCE Annually –Lubricate Pivot points - use an all-purpose silicone lube spray Ball bearings –Casters Check your casters for cracks in the spokes that may eventually cause the caster to collapse Check for excessive or uneven wear between front casters 62

63 TRANSFERS When assisting with a transfer: –Ask if the person needs assistance transferring –Ask how they would like to transfer –Talk through the transfer before you start –Ask the person being transferred if they have any medical issues you need to be aware of –Bend your knees while transferring. Move from your hips and legs. Do not move people using your back. –Do not leave your feet in place and twist your body at the waist during a transfer. 63

64 TRANSFERS When assisting with a transfer: –Keep your arms in close to your body rather than stretching them out during a transfer. Place your feet as wide apart as your hips. –Keep your back curved rather than holding it straight. Do not bend your head forward during a transfer. –Never let the person you are moving hold or hug you around your neck while you are moving them. –Stand very close to the person while transferring them. –Plan your path/movements. –Use your body's momentum (force gained by moving) to move the person. 64

65 INDEPENDENT TRANSFERS Unassisted/Independent Transfer: –Spot new participants to ensure they are capable and safe. –Have extra padding available. –Sport chair can be backed up against wall for stability. –Set brakes on everyday chair if applicable. –Show participant where to place hands on sport chair, AND where NOT to place hands –Scoot up in chair to prepare for transfer. –Move feet into position first. –Complete transfer. 65

66 INDEPENDENT TRANSFERS Videos –Chair Transfer Unassisted –Chair Transfer Partial Assist –Chair Transfer, Two-Person –Chair Transfer, Two-Person –Chair Transfer Back –Chair Transfer Back, Two-Person 66

67 INDEPENDENT TRANSFERS Videos –Chair to Racing Chair TransferChair to Racing Chair Transfer –Racer to ChairRacer to Chair –Handcycle Transfers Upright Recumbent I, Recumbent IIRecumbent IRecumbent II –ATVATV 67

68 SUMMARY One court chair can be used for many different sports and activities –While the set up for each activity may be a little different, the same general rules apply to sizing and fitting Racing chairs and handcycles have their own criteria for sizing and fitting –Use the manufacturer’s rep if at all possible There are a number of tools that should be kept in a well stocked tool bag, don’t leave home without being prepared for anything! 68

69 SUMMARY There are many components to a sports chair and they all need to be maintained on a regular basis –Have your athletes be responsible for the upkeep of program chairs Transfers to sport chairs can be a difficult and daunting task for newly injured athletes –Know the proper process(es) to assist with transfers –Know the proper process for an independent transfer Have the athletes verbalize the process –Spot all transfers until you are confident they can be done properly and safely –Have new staff and volunteers pass a skill check before assisting with transfers 69

70 HAVE FUN! Keeping ALL of your equipment: your body, mind and your chair in the best condition possible will make sure you can stay in the game and follow your dreams! 70

71 REFERENCES Morse, M., Hedrick, B., Hedrick, S., Figoni, S., & Little, J. (1995). Wheelchair Track & Field. Colorado Springs, CO: Wheelchair Sports, USA. 71

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