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Nonavian Diapsid Amniotes.  Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Chordata  Subphylum: Craniata  Infraphylum: Vertebrata  Class: Reptilia.

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Presentation on theme: "Nonavian Diapsid Amniotes.  Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Chordata  Subphylum: Craniata  Infraphylum: Vertebrata  Class: Reptilia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nonavian Diapsid Amniotes

2  Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Chordata  Subphylum: Craniata  Infraphylum: Vertebrata  Class: Reptilia

3  Evolved ~ 350 mya  Able to live on land….thanks to the amniotic egg Amniotic Egg Extraembryonic membranes to… Protect the embryo from desiccation (drying out) Cushion the embryo Promote gas transfer Store waste materials Leathery or hard shells for protection Albumen for cushion, moisture, & nutrients Yolk supplies the food

4  Amniotic Egg  Impervious skin  Horny nails- used for digging & locomotion  Water-conserving kidneys  Enlarged lungs  Loss of lateral-line system

5  Thick, dry, & keratinzed skin (covered in scales)  May secrete pheromones through their skin for sex recognition & defense  Shed their skin (ecdysis)  Due to low blood flow to the outer layer of skin  Skin may be colored for sex recognition, mimicry, and for cryptic purposes

6  Skeleton:  Longer skull- development for breathing and better smell  More cervical vertebrae for head movement  Ribs modified  Fused to create the shell in turtles  Muscular connections for movement in snakes  Tail vertebrae may possess a fracture plane  Can break their tail off when threatened

7  Nutrition & Diet  Carnivores  Except turtles (may be carnivores, herbivores, or omnivores)  May have sticky tongues for catching prey  May extend the length of their body  Skull and jaw bones may spread apart to allow room for bigger prey

8  Circulation, Gas Exchange, & Temperature Regulation  3 chambered heart  2 atria & 1 ventricle  Ventricle is partially divided (completely divided in crocodiles)  Breathe with lungs  Thermoregulate with external heat sources (ectothermic)  Tend to bask in sunlight for warmth

9  Nervous System  Developed brain  Vision is the dominant sense  Upper & lower eyelids and nictitating membrane  May detect light with a median (parietal) eye  Jacobson’s (vomeronasal) organs- olfactory organs  Connected to the forked tongues in snakes

10  Reproduction & Development  Dioecious  Internal fertilization  Sex organs contained inside of the cloaca  Courtship behavior is species specific  Mother abandons eggs after she lays them  Alligator nest temperature determines gender of young  <31.5  C= females  32.5-33  C= males  32  C= males & females

11  Turtles  Characteristics:  Bony shell  Limbs articulating internally to the ribs  Keratinized beak rather than teeth  Shell  Dorsal=carapace  Ventral=plastron Carapace Plastron

12  North American box turtle  Shell has hinges to allow the anterior & posterior regions to raise up or down  The shell closes when the turtle pulls in it’s head & tail

13  Long life spans  Large tortoises live >100 years  Reach sexual maturity between 7 & 8 years  Oviparous- lay eggs  Females dig out nests in the soil  Cover the 5-100 eggs with soil  Eggs take 4 weeks to 1 year to develop  Young are independent from parents (no parental care)

14  Turtles vs. Tortoises  Turtles- aquatic & have webbed feet  Tortoises- terrestrial & do not have webbed feet  Conservation  Turtles are vulnerable due to…  Slow growth rates  Long juvenile periods  Nearing extinction thanks to young turtle predators & turtle hunters

15  Alligators, crocodiles, gavials, & caimans  Derived from archosaurs (ancient reptiles)  Triangular eye orbits  Laterally compressed teeth  Mildly evolving over the past 170 my  Nostrils are at the tip of the snout (can breathe while mostly submerged)  Muscular & elongated tail  Swimming, offense, defense, & attacking prey  Swallow food whole  Oviparous & take care of their young

16  Lizards  2 pairs of legs  Upper & lower jaws unite anteriorly  Geckos- nocturnal & can vocalize with clicking sounds  Iguanas- can glide from a tree for at least 30 m  Chameleons- arboreal & consume insects  Change color in response to illumination, temperature, & behavioral state  Gila monster- venomous lizard  Southwest U.S.  Venom released when they chew (not fatal to humans)

17  Snakes  2,900 species (300 are venomous…not poisonous!!!)  Scale patterns can determine whether the snake is venomous or not  30,000 people die a year from snake bites (mostly in SE Asia)  Only 9-15 die from snake bites each year in the U.S.  Long & lack limbs  May contain more than 200 vertebrae  May swallow large prey whole (movable jaw)

18  Worm Lizards  Live in the soils of Africa, South America, the Caribbean, & the Mideast  Legless  Single median tooth in the upper jaw  Ringlike folds in the skin (annuli)  Easily move forwards or backwards


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