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NERVOUS SYSTEM. NERVOUS SYSTEMS RECEIVE SENSORY INPUT, INTEPRET IT, AND SENT OUT APPROPRIATE COMMANDS – NERVOUS SYSTEMS MOST INTRICATELY ORGANIZED DATA.

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Presentation on theme: "NERVOUS SYSTEM. NERVOUS SYSTEMS RECEIVE SENSORY INPUT, INTEPRET IT, AND SENT OUT APPROPRIATE COMMANDS – NERVOUS SYSTEMS MOST INTRICATELY ORGANIZED DATA."— Presentation transcript:

1 NERVOUS SYSTEM

2 NERVOUS SYSTEMS RECEIVE SENSORY INPUT, INTEPRET IT, AND SENT OUT APPROPRIATE COMMANDS – NERVOUS SYSTEMS MOST INTRICATELY ORGANIZED DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM ON EARTH – NEURON FUNCTIONAL UNIT; SPECIALIZED NERVE CELL FOR CARRYING SIGNALS FROM ONE LOCATION IN THE BODY TO ANOTHER

3 NERVOUS SYSTEM NERVOUS SYSTEMS RECEIVE SENSORY INPUT, INTEPRET IT, AND SENT OUT APPROPRIATE COMMANDS – NERVOUS SYSTEM HAS 3 INTERCONNECTED FUNCTIONS

4 NERVOUS SYSTEM NERVOUS SYSTEMS RECEIVE SENSORY INPUT, INTEPRET IT, AND SENT OUT APPROPRIATE COMMANDS – NERVOUS SYSTEM HAS 3 INTERCONNECTED FUNCTIONS SENSORY INPUT  CONDUCTION OF SIGNALS FROM SENSORY RECEPTORS TO INTEGRATION CENTERS INTEGRATION  INTERPRETATION OF THE SENSORY SIGNALS AND THE FORMULATION OF RESPONSES MOTOR OUTPUT  THE CONDUCCTION OF SIGNALS FROM THE INTEGRATION CENTERS TO EFFECTORS – MUSCLES OR GLANDS THAT PERFORM BODY FUNCTIONS

5 NERVOUS SYSTEM NERVOUS SYSTEMS HAVE TWO MAIN DIVISIONS – CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) WHERE MOST INTEGRATION OCCURS; CONSISTS OF THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD (IN VERTEBRATES) – PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) MADE UP OF COMMUNICATION LINES CALLED NERVES THAT CARRY SIGNALS IN AND OUT OF THE CNS NERVE – A CABLE-LIKE BUNDLE OF NEURON EXTENSIONS TIGHTLY WRAPPED IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE GANGLIA – CLUSTERS OF NEURON CELL BODIES IN THE NERVES

6 NERVOUS SYSTEM THREE FUNCTIONAL TYPES OF NEURONS

7 NERVOUS SYSTEM THREE FUNCTIONAL TYPES OF NEURONS – SENSORY NEURONS – INTERNEURONS – MOTOR NEURONS

8 NERVOUS SYSTEM NEURONS ARE THE FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF NERVOUS SYSTEMS – STRUCTURE OF A NEURON

9 NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE OF A NEURON – CELL BODY  HOUSES THE NUCLEUS AND OTHER ORGANELLES DENDRITES  SHORT, MANY BRANCHES; RECEIVE INCOMING MESSAGES AND DIRECT THEM TOWARD CELL BODY AXON  USUALLY A SINGLE FIBER; CONDUCTS SIGNAL TOWARDS ANOTHER NEURON OR EFFECTOR

10 NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE OF A NEURON – SUPPORTING CELLS  PROTECT, INSULATE, AND REINFORCE THE NEURONS SHCHWANN CELLS – MYELIN SHEATH – NODES OF RANVIER » INCREASE SPEED AT WHICH SIGNAL TRAVELS

11 NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE OF A NEURON – SYNAPTIC KNOB (TERMINAL BRANCH) ENDS THE NEURON; RELAYS SIGNALS TO ANOTHER NEURON OR EFFECTOR – SYNAPSE SYNAPSE THE JUNCTION, OR RELAY POINT, BETWEEN TWO NEURONS OR BETWEEN A NEURON AND AN EFFECTOR CELL

12 NERVOUS SYSTEM A NEURON MAINTAINS A MEMBRANE POTENTIAL ACROSS ITS MEMBRANE – RESTING POTENTIAL THE VOLTAGE ACROSS THE PLASMA OF A RESTING NEURON – SODIUM-POTASSIUM (NA+ / K+) PUMPS ACTIVELY TRANSPORT NA+ OUT OF THE CELL AND K+ IN

13 NERVOUS SYSTEM A NERVE SIGNAL BEGINS AS A CHANGE IN THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL

14 NERVOUS SYSTEM A NERVE SIGNAL BEGINS AS A CHANGE IN THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL – STIMULUS ANY FACTOR THAT CAUSES A NERVE SIGNAL TO BE GENERATED – ACTION POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL THE TECHNICAL NAME FOR THE NERVE SIGNAL – THRESHOLD POTENTIAL THE MINIMUM CHANGE THAT MUST OCCUR TO GENERATE AN ACTION POTENTIAL – **CYCLIC PROCESS**

15 NERVOUS SYSTEM THE ACTION POTENTIAL PROPAGATES ITSELF ALONG THE NEURON – ALL-OR-NONE EVENTS – DIFFERENT INTENSITIES RESULT FROM FREQUENCY OF POTENTIALS

16 NERVOUS SYSTEM NEURONS COMMUNICATE AT SYNAPSES – SYNAPSE SYNAPSE THE JUNCTION, OR RELAY POINT, BETWEEN TWO NEURONS OR BETWEEN A NEURON AND AN EFFECTOR CELL – SYNAPSES CAN BE EITHER ELECTRICAL OR CHEMICAL ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES TRANSFER SIGNALS FASTER

17 NERVOUS SYSTEM NEURONS COMMUNICATE AT SYNAPSES – SYNAPSE SYNAPSE THE JUNCTION, OR RELAY POINT, BETWEEN TWO NEURONS OR BETWEEN A NEURON AND AN EFFECTOR CELL – SYNAPSES CAN BE EITHER ELECTRICAL OR CHEMICAL CHEMICAL SYNAPSES HAVE A NARROW GAP CALLED A SYNAPTIC CLEFT

18 NERVOUS SYSTEM NEURONS COMMUNICATE AT SYNAPSES – SYNAPSE SYNAPSE THE JUNCTION, OR RELAY POINT, BETWEEN TWO NEURONS OR BETWEEN A NEURON AND AN EFFECTOR CELL – SYNAPSES CAN BE EITHER ELECTRICAL OR CHEMICAL SYNAPTIC CLEFT – SEPARATES SYNAPTIC KNOBS FROM RECEIVING NEURON

19 NERVOUS SYSTEM CHEMICAL SYNAPSES MAKE COMPLEX INFORMATION PROCESSING POSSIBLE – MULTIPLE SIGNALS CAN BE SENT TO THE SAME RECEIVING NEURON – NEUROTRANSMITTER CHEMICAL SIGNAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EQUIVALENT TO A HORMONE

20 NERVOUS SYSTEM A VARIETY OF SMALL MOLECULES FUNCTION AS NEUROTRANSMITTERS – ACETYLCHOLINE IMPORTANT IN THE BRAIN; MAY BE EXCITATORY OR INHIBITORY – BIOGENIC AMINES NITROGEN CONTAINING NEUROTRANSMITTERS DERIVED FROM AMINO ACIDS EXAMPLES INCLUDE EPINEPHRINE, NOREPINEPHRINE, SEROTONIC, DOPAMINE – ENDORPHINS ARE PEPTIDES THAT DECREASE PAIN PERCEPTION – DISSOLEVD GASES LIKE NO (NITROUS OXIDE) ACT AS NEUROTRANSMITTERS

21 NERVOUS SYSTEM MANY DRUGS ACT AT CHEMICAL SYNAPSES – EFFECT US BY ACTING AT SYNAPSES OR CHANGING THE NEUROTRANSMITTER

22 NERVOUS SYSTEM NERVOUS SYSTEM ORGANIZATION USUALLY CORRELATES WITH BODY SYMMETRY

23 NERVOUS SYSTEM NERVOUS SYSTEM ORGANIZATION USUALLY CORRELATES WITH BODY SYMMETRY – NERVE NET WEB-LIKE SYSTEM OF NEURONS EXTENDING THROUGHOUT THE BODY – CEPHALIZATION CONCENTRATION OF NERVOUS SYSTEM AT HEAD END – CENTRALIZATION THE PRESENCE OF A CNS DISTINCT FROM A PNS

24 NERVOUS SYSTEM VERTEBRATE NERVOUS SYSTEMS ARE HIGHLY CENTRALIZED AND CEPHALIZED

25 NERVOUS SYSTEM VERTEBRATE NERVOUS SYSTEMS ARE HIGHLY CENTRALIZED AND CEPHALIZED – CNS IS MADE UP OF THE SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN SPINAL CORD – LIES INSIDE THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN, OR SPINE, RECEIVES SENSORY INFORMATION FROM THE SKIN AND MUSCLES AND INTEGRATES SIMPLE RESPONSES TO CERTAIN KINDS OF STIMULI

26 NERVOUS SYSTEM VERTEBRATE NERVOUS SYSTEMS ARE HIGHLY CENTRALIZED AND CEPHALIZED – CNS IS MADE UP OF THE SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN BRAIN – MASTER CONTROL CENTER; INCLUDES HOMEOSTATIC CENTERS THAT KEEP THE BODY FUNCTIONING SMOOTHLY; SENSORY CENTERS THAT INTEGRATE DATA FROM THE SENSE ORGANS; IN HUMANS, CENTERS OF EMOTIONS AND INTELLIGENCE; ALSO SEND OUT MOTOR COMMANDS TO MUSCLES

27 NERVOUS SYSTEM VERTEBRATE NERVOUS SYSTEMS ARE HIGHLY CENTRALIZED AND CEPHALIZED – CNS IS MADE UP OF THE SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER – MAINTAINS A STABLE CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE BRAIN; ONLY ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS AND OXYGEN PASS FREELY INTO THE BRAIN

28 NERVOUS SYSTEM VERTEBRATE NERVOUS SYSTEMS ARE HIGHLY CENTRALIZED AND CEPHALIZED – CNS IS MADE UP OF THE SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN VENTRICLES AND CENTRAL CANAL – FLUID-FILLED SPACES IN BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD, RESPECTIVELY – CEREBROSPINAL FLUID » FLUID THAT CUSHIONS THE CNS AND HELPS SUPPLY IT WITH NUTRIENTS, HORMONES, AND WHITE BLOOD CELLS – MENINGES » LAYERS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE, ALSO SUPPLY CUSHION

29 NERVOUS SYSTEM VERTEBRATE NERVOUS SYSTEMS ARE HIGHLY CENTRALIZED AND CEPHALIZED – CNS HAS 2 DISTINCT AREAS

30 NERVOUS SYSTEM VERTEBRATE NERVOUS SYSTEMS ARE HIGHLY CENTRALIZED AND CEPHALIZED – CNS HAS 2 DISTINCT AREAS WHITE MATTER – MAINLY AXONS – WITH WHITISH MYELIN SHEATH GRAY MATTER – MAINLY NERVE BODIES AND DENDRITES; IN MAMMALS IT IS THE AREA OF HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTION

31 NERVOUS SYSTEM VERTEBRATE NERVOUS SYSTEMS ARE HIGHLY CENTRALIZED AND CEPHALIZED – PNS HAS CRANIAL NERVES – CARRY SIGNALS TO OR FROM THE BRAIN SPINAL NERVES – CARRY SIGNALS TO OR FROM THE SPINAL CORD

32 NERVOUS SYSTEM THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF VERTEBRATES IS A FUNCTIONAL HIERARCHY

33 NERVOUS SYSTEM OPPOSING ACTIONS OF SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC NEURONS REGULATE THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT – AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM HAS 2 DIVISIONS

34 NERVOUS SYSTEM OPPOSING ACTIONS OF SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC NEURONS REGULATE THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT – AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM HAS 2 DIVISIONS PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION – PRIMES THE BODY FOR DIGESTING FOOD AND RESTING SYMPATHETIC DIVISION – PREPARES THE BODY FOR INTENSE, ENERGY-CONSUMING ACTIVITIES, SUCH AS FIGHTING, FLEEING, OR COMPETING IN A STRENUOUS GAME

35 NERVOUS SYSTEM THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN DEVELOPS FROM THREE ANTERIOR BULGES OF THE NEURAL TUBE

36 NERVOUS SYSTEM THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN DEVELOPS FROM THREE ANTERIOR BULGES OF THE NEURAL TUBE – 3 ANCESTRAL REGIONS FOREBRAIN  LEADS TO CEREBUM (DOMINANT PART OF FOREBRAIN) MIDBRAIN HINDBRAIN

37 NERVOUS SYSTEM THE STRUCTURE OF A LIVING SUPERCOMPUTER: THE HUMAN BRAIN

38 NERVOUS SYSTEM THE STRUCTURE OF A LIVING SUPERCOMPUTER: THE HUMAN BRAIN – MAJOR STRUCTURES CEREBRUM CEREBELLUM MEDULLA OBLONGATA PONS CORPUS COLLOSUM

39 NERVOUS SYSTEM THE CEREBRAL CORTEX IS A MOSAIC OF SPECIALIZED, INTERACTIVE REGIONS – CEREBRAL CORTEX ACCOUNTS FOR 80% OF BRAINS TOTAL MASS; INVOLVED IN REASONING AND MATHEMATICAL ABILITIES, LANGUAGE SKILLS, IMAGINATION, ARTISTIC TALENT, AND PERSONALITY TRAITS

40 NERVOUS SYSTEM THE CEREBRAL CORTEX IS A MOSAIC OF SPECIALIZED, INTERACTIVE REGIONS – LATERALIZATION AREAS IN THE TWO HEMISPHERES BECOME SPECIALIZED FOR DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS

41 NERVOUS SYSTEM INJURIES AND BRAIN OPERATIONS HAVE PROVIDED INSIGHT INTO BRAIN FUNCTION – “BROKEN BRAINS” HAVE GIVEN INSIGHT INTO NORMAL BRAIN FUNCTION – LACK OF NERVES ON THE BRAIN ALLOW NEUROSURGEONS TO OPERATE AND DISCERN SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF BRAIN FUNCTION

42 NERVOUS SYSTEM SEVERAL PARTS OF THE BRAIN REGULATE SLEEP AND AROUSAL – RETICULAR FORMATION SYSTEM OF NEURONS THAT EXTENDS THROUGH THE CORE OF THE BRAINSTEM; RECEIVES DATA FROM SENSORY RECEPTORS, FILTERS AND SENDS USEFUL DATA TO CEREBRAL CORTEX

43 NERVOUS SYSTEM SEVERAL PARTS OF THE BRAIN REGULATE SLEEP AND AROUSAL – ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG) MEASURES BRAIN WAVE ACTIVITY REM SLEEP – RAPID EYE MOVEMENT – UNIQUE BRAIN-WAVE PATTERN DURING DEEP SLEEP; TIME WHEN DREAMS OCCUR

44 NERVOUS SYSTEM THE LIMBIC SYSTEM IS INVOLVED IN EMOTIONS, MEMORY, AND LEARNING – LIMBIC SYSTEM INCLUDES PARTS OF THALMAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS, PORTIONS OF CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA AND HIPPOCAMPUS PLAY KEY ROLES IN MEMORY, LEARNING, AND EMOTION

45 NERVOUS SYSTEM THE LIMBIC SYSTEM IS INVOLVED IN EMOTIONS, MEMORY, AND LEARNING – LIMBIC SYSTEM AMYGDALA – CENTRAL IN RECOGNIZING THE EMOTIONAL CONTENT OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND LAYING DOWN EMOTIONAL MEMORIES HIPPOCAMPUS – INVOLVED IN FORMATION OF MEMORIES AND THEIR RECALL

46 NERVOUS SYSTEM WE NEED TO SPRINKLE IN A FEW MORE PIECES OF INFO ON THE HUMAN BODY – SENSES – MUSCLES


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