2Revise Lecture 22 Objectives of working capital? Cash operating cycle? Overtrading?
3Objectives of WC Management The two main objectives of working capital management are:To increase the profits of a businessTo provide sufficient liquidity to meet short term obligations as they fall due
4Cash Operating CycleThe cash operating cycle also known as the working capital cycle is the period of the time between the outflow of cash to pay for raw material and the inflow of cash from customers.The cash operating cycle can be used to determine the amount of cash needed at any sales level and to identify the possibility of a cash short fall if sales rise too rapidly using the sales / net working capital ratio
5OvertradingIf a business fails to plan how to supply its forecast level of cash flow need, it will be in danger of overtrading.Overtrading is where a business has inadequate cash to support its level of sales.
7The Management of CashAs business grows, its working capital funding needs to also grow. A key question for a treasury department is how to fund this working capital growth.This is complicated by the fact that some current assets are permanent e.g. a certain amount of stock and debtors are always present and some are fluctuating due to seasonal fluctuation in business
8The Management of Cash Reasons for holding cash Business need to keep a certain amount readily available. The reasons include;Transaction motiveFinance motivePrecautionary motiveInvestment motive
9The Management of Cash Transaction Motive Cash required to cover day-to-day expenses, e.g. payroll, payment of suppliers etcFinance MotiveCash required to cover major items such as the repayment of loans and the purchase of non-current assets
10The Management of Cash Precautionary motive Cash held to give a cushion against unplanned expenditure (the cash equivalent of buffer stock)Speculative motiveCash kept available to take advantage of market investment opportunities
11The Management of Cash Running out Cash The cost of running out of cash can have serious operational repercussions;Settlement discounts for early payment are unavailableTrade suppliers refuse to offer credit, charge higher prices or downgrade the priority with which orders are processedIf wages are not paid on time, industrial action may well result, damaging production in the short-term and relationships.
12The Management of CashCash Forecasts and Cash Budgets Cash Forecasts A cash forecasts is an estimate of cash receipt and payments for a future period under existing conditions Cash Budgets A cash budget is commitment to a plan for cash receipts and payments for a future period.
13Cash Management Models Cash management models are aimed at minimizing the total costs associated with movements between;A current account (very liquid but not earning interest)Short-term investments (less liquid but earning interest)
14Cash Management Models Mathematical ModelsThe models are devised to answer the questions;At what point should funds be moved?How much should be moved in one go?
15Cash Management Models There are two mathematical models that you need to be aware of:Baumol’s modelMiller-Orr’s model
16Cash Management Models Baumol Model (The Baumol cash management model) Baumol noted that cash balances are very similar to inventory levels and developmed a model based on the economic order quantity (EOQ) The model suggests that when interest rates are high, the cash balance held in non-interest bearing current accounts should be low.
17Cash Management Models The Baumol model is an adaptation of the EOQ model to manage cash. It assumes that cash is used at a steady rate during the year, which will often not be the case.The Economic Order Quantity of Cash =2*annual cash required*cost of ordering cash/Net interest cost of holding cash
18Cash Management Models The formula calculates the amount of funds to inject into the current account or to transfer into short-term investments at one time.Cash management model indicate or idea that optimum amount of cash or optimum cash balances that a company should hold and suggests optimum amount to be transferred regularly from investments to current account
19Cash Management Models Example:A division requires Rs1.5m per year, cash use is constant throughout the year.Required:What is the optimal economic quantity of cash transfer into this division’s sub account if ordering costs are Rs150 per transaction and the interest lost on the funds transferred is 4.5% pa?
21Cash Management Models AssumptionsCash use is steady and predictableCash inflows are known and regularDay-today cash needs are funded from current accountBuffer cash is held in short-term investments
22Miller-Orr-model – Cash management Another cash management model is the Miller-Orr-model which recognize that cash inflows and outflows vary considerably on a day to day basis (unlike the Baumol model).This is clearly more realistic.The Miller-Orr model controls irregular movements of cash by the setting of upper and lower limits on cash balances.
23Miller-Orr-model – Cash management Formulas Miller-Orr modelSpreadUpper limitReturn Point
25Miller-Orr model - Example The minimum cash balance of Rs20,000 is required at Miller-Orr company and transferring money to or from the bank costs Rs50 per transaction. Inspection of daily cash flows over the past year suggests that the standard deviation is Rs3000 per day and hence the variance (SD squared) is Rs9million. The interest rate is 0.03% per day.
26Miller-Orr model - Example Required:The spread between the upper & lower limitsThe upper limitThe return point