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better together... we deliver SASOL CHEMICALS BASE CHEMICALS (EXPLOSIVES) MOSH - "Day of Learning" 2014
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential 2 Topic: Energy partitioning / sequential firing and the use thereof – ‘back to basics’
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential Eliminating falls of ground 3 Define the requirements Define the problem and determine what is to be achieved? Identify how it is to be achieved and keep it simple Improve blasting results, safely
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential Eliminating falls of ground 4 Define the hazard – common reasons for ‘falls of ground’ Natural Geological discontinuities Rock bursts Planning Mining method Mine discipline Support or roof bolting not effective Training Knowledge of workers Barring or scaling Blasting Incorrect use of equipment
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential Plant Loading & hauling Priming, Charging & Blasting Eliminating falls of ground 5 Define the hazard – interaction of everybody to address ‘falls of ground’ Plan for improvements in ‘falls of ground’ & accurately execute blast design Drilling Excavation preparation SurveyPlanningGeology Plan: blast design Do: departmental performance Measure: each department in value chain Review & Improve Are you prepared to change?
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential Eliminating falls of ground 6 Define the requirements – ‘falls of ground’ are influenced by Energy / Energy / Energy Energy Distribution Location of hole - marking Hole diameter Burden and spacing Careful implementation of drill pattern Directionality of drilling Available Energy Correct amount and type of explosives for required for specific conditions Manage site sensitivity - geology Evaluate energy for special conditions – poor floor, large toe burdens, geology Release of Energy Control & ensure the ‘path of least resistance’ Correct use stemming – containment of energy Blast holes loaded according to geology Match timing to existing field conditions – wet, fractured Accurate delays
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential Product selection 7 Plan – Do – Measure - Review Initiation control Explosive energy Output of rockPhysical effort Detonation and Energy Release starter initiation devices explosives wasted energy cast damage fragmentation BLASTING PROCESS RESULTPREPARATION loading / cleaning / hauling Charging-up and Stemming Geology, Standards and Support preparation marking drilling
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential Blast optimisation 8 Quality ultimately equals quantity The objectives of any blast is: Maximum advance per blast Minimise surrounding rock damage Minimise the effort Reduce overall costs (explosives & accessories, time, drilling) Maximise the yield Effective relief = maximum advance with minimal perimeter damage (‘falls of ground’ reduction) 36.0cm (advance) = 1.0cm (relief required) ADVANCE IS NOT DETERMINED BY THE SIZE OF THE EXCAVATION!
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential Blast optimisation 9 Relief + accuracy + correct level of energy = competent perimeter results 1.2m x 1.2m tunnel 5.2m advance 4.2m x 4.2m tunnel 8.54m advance
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential Blast optimisation 10 Reliability + Accuracy = Safety a = 171 / x 6 = 228
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential 11 Hole distribution & charge efficiency ensures success The cut & easers are marked as an equilateralCharge mass = 0.25 to 0.65kg / m triangle (base / 1.155) = height charge mass for 3.2m 0.45) = 1.17kg 0.65) = 1.70kg 342/ = 296 Blast optimisation
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential 12 Sequential firing / powder factor & creating the relief Blast optimisation GRADE LINE General guide Cut = 0.4 to 0.6 kg/m Easers = 0.6 to 0.8 kg/m Production = 1.40 kg/m Lifter = 1.40 kg/m Perimeter = 0.2 to 0.4 kg/m General guide Cut = ANFO, emulsion, watergel Easers = ANFO, emulsion, watergel Production = ANFO, emulsion, watergel Lifter = ANFO, emulsion, watergel Perimeter = ANFO, emulsion, watergel
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential 13 Blast optimisation Sequential firing / powder factor & creating the relief General guide Cut = 0.6 to 0.8 kg/m Easers = 0.6 to 0.8 kg/m Production = 0.6 to 0.8 kg/m General guide Cut = ANFO, emulsion, watergel Easers = ANFO, emulsion, watergel Production = ANFO, emulsion, watergel
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential 14 Standard deviation & safety Accuracy the key to success & sequential firing Cushion disc Shock tube Bushing Isolation cup Pyrotechnic delay train Lead azide primary charge PETN Base charge Flatland crimp Seal crimp Ø 7.5mm Aluminum cap shell Cushion Disc DIB Lead Wire Earth Spike Micro Chip Moulded grommet Capacitor Fuse head Lead azide primary charge PETN Base charge Cushion Disc PC board
better together... we deliver Copyright ©, 2014, Sasol Confidential Strategic Partner Value-Added Supplier Product Vendor 15 Mine need a “One Solution” Value – Added supplier and strategic partner Risk/Reward Supplier’s value-add Relationships Information Sharing Increase Number of Suppliers Features Price “Total cost” of selling/buying Decrease Current Supply Position Current relationships are transactional – benefits will only be realised at strategic partner stage. Mitigation of diamond damage
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