Presentation on theme: "Malaysian Psychology Conference The MORI Technique: Projecting two different visual stimuli without being noticed by viewers A breakthrough for a variety."— Presentation transcript:
Malaysian Psychology Conference The MORI Technique: Projecting two different visual stimuli without being noticed by viewers A breakthrough for a variety of psychological research Kazuo Mori Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
My collaborators Maryanne Garry, Victoria Univ. of Wellington, NZ. Lauren Hewitt (Lauren French), Curtin University, AU Hideko Mori, Nagano Bunkagakuen College, JP Akitoshi Uchida, Togakushi Junior High School, JP Miho Arai, Kanto Gakuen University, JP
The 1st Generation: Slides First polarizerSecond polarizer
Simple replacement by video projectors did NOT work X
An LCD polarizes the light Liquid crystal Polarizer Voltage ON Polarized light OFF The already-polarized image would be blocked by one of the first polarizers.
The 2nd Generation ( Mori, 2003) : LCD projectors with sideways framing First built-in polarizer
Early Applications of the MORI technique (Mori, 2003) 兼松・守・守（ 1996 ）. 異なる事態を目撃した２人の目撃 者の話し合いによる記憶の変容『認知科学』第３巻 117- 122. Kanematsu, et al. (2003). Memory distortion in eyewitness pairs whoobserved nonconformingevents and discussed them, Journal of Faculty of Education, Shinshu University, 109, 75-84. 松野・守・廣川・浮田（ 2005 ）. 話し合う 2 人の目撃者の 性別が記憶の再生率に及ぼす影響『認知心理学研究』第 ３巻 83-94. Hirokawa, K., Matsuno, E., Mori, K., & Ukita, J. (2006). Relationship between masculinity-femininity and concession in an experimental collaborative eyewitness testimony. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 9, 132-139.
MORI Technique did not work with new projectors! Projector makers changed the LCD alignments for an undisclosed reason. An LCD projector of any make cannot be used for the MORI Technique!
Projector makers changed the LCD alignments Three LCD panels aligned ↑ ↑ ↑ –A single polarizer can block the total image. The G panel crossed to R&B ↑ → ↑ –A single polarizer can block either the green or magenta fraction. An LCD projector of any make cannot be used for the MORI Technique any longer! –What a short life of the new invention!
DLP Projectors saved the MORI technique A DLP uses tiny mirrors housed on a special kind of microchip called a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD ). The light projected from a DLP projector is NOT polarized.
A DMD works like a card stunt performance at a stadium. Reflecting directions of tiny mirrors on a DMD chip are digitally controlled to create an image. The light projected from a DLP projector is NOT polarized.
The 3rd Generation (Mori, 2007a) : DLP Version Computers DLP Projectors Screen Polarizing Sunglasses First Polarizers
Applications to Witness Research French, L., Garry, M., & Mori, K. (2008). You say tomato? Collaborative remembering leads to more false memories for intimate couples than for strangers. Memory, 16, 262- 273. French, L., Garry, M., & Mori, K. (2011). Relative―not absolute―judgments of credibility affect susceptibility to misinformation conveyed during discussion. Acta Psychologica, 136, 119-128. Garry, M., French, L., Kinzett, T., & Mori, K. (2008). Eyewitness memory following discussion: Using the MORI technique with a Western sample. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 431-439. Also, by other groups in New Zealand, as well as in the UK, Canada, and the USA, the research are in progress.
Three types of the MORI Technique ： Summary 1. Slide projectors: Unpublished 2. LCD video projectors: Mori (2003) BRMIC 3. DLP video projectors: Mori (2007a) BRM
Now. It’s so small and handy. Video sources are provided from a USB memory key inserted at the back. The total set costs less than US$1,500.
An example application: #1 Co-witness conformity effects of pre-schoolers Mori & Takahashi (submitted)Mori & Takahashi (submitted)
The 4th ： The fMORI Technique Since the Green and the other two (Red and Blue) LCD panels are placed perpendicularly in the projector, either the Green or the Magenta fragments can be separately blocked by polarizing filters. (See Mori, 2007b, for details.) LCD projector (EPSON LP-700) The G fragment and the R&B fragments are projected together onto the same screen. Two pairs of polarizing sunglasses can separate the G fragment and the R&B fragments. T S
A single LCD projector can present two different images STIPUD (Easy task) The correct answer is STUPID. PSITDU (Difficult task)
Applications of fMORI Social comparison research (Mori & Mori, 2011) –Creating winners and losers Self-efficacy research (Mori & Uchida, 2009) –Contrived success for those with low self- efficacy Conformity research (Mori & Arai, 2010) –Reproduction of the Asch experiments without using confederates Application to the DRM paradigm A new test for the Theory of Mind Face memory experiments.
Anagram Tasks Different difficulty levels with the same answer
Arithmetic Problems Different difficulty levels with the same answer
Projector Participant OD (difficult task observer) Participant OE (easy task observer) Participant PD (difficult task performer) Participant PE (easy task performer) Mori & Mori (2011): Replication of Alicke et al. (1997) without confederates > =
Only four students in each class wore the sunglasses which allowed the viewers to see the easy tasks. LCD projector Mori & Uchida (2009)? STUPID
Collaborators If you’d like to try the MORI technique, Simply e-mail me at: email@example.com It costs $2 million to conduct fMRI research. But, you need only $2,000 to launch fMORI research. The equipment can be prepared by Kaz Mori from a MEXT grant.
References for the MORI Technique For the MORI Technique, with which colored movies can be presented using two video projectors, see: –Mori, K. (2003) Surreptitiously projecting different movies to two subsets of viewers. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 35, 599-604. –Mori, K. (2007a). A revised method for projecting two different movies to two groups of viewers without their noticing the duality. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 574-578. –French, L., Gerrie, M.P., Garry, M., & Mori, K. (2009). Evidence for the efficacy of the MORI technique: Viewers do not notice or implicitly remember details from the alternate movie version. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1224-1232.
Reference for the fMORI Technique For the fMORI Technique, that can present monochrome still photos or written words using just one LCD projector, see: –Mori, K. (2007b). Projecting two words with one machine: Presenting two different visual stimuli using just one projector without viewers’ noticing the duality. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 811-815.
References for applications French, L., Garry, M., & Mori, K. (2011). Relative―not absolute―judgments of credibility affect susceptibility to misinformation conveyed during discussion. Acta Psychologica, 136, 119-128. Mori, K. & Arai, M. (2010). No need to fake it: Reproduction of the Asch experiment without using confederates. International Journal of Psychology, 45, 390-397. Mori, K. & Mori, H. (2011). No confederates needed: Social comparison without collaboration. Social Behavior & Personality, 39, 543-552. Mori, K. & Uchida, A. (2009). Can contrived success affect self-efficacy among junior high school pupils? Research in Education, 82, 60-68.
Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology （ MEXT) (Grant Nos. 16330139 and 16653054). I express thanks to my collaborators, Lauren French and Maryanne Garry, and my students, Hideko, Akitoshi, Miho, and others, who contributed to the improvement of the technique and conducted experiments using it. I am much indebted to Rebecca Ann Marck for her kind help in preparation of the presentation slides.