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First Aid Chapter 12 Sudden Illness. Heart Attack Blood supply to heart is reduced or stopped Coronary artery is blocked by obstruction or spasm.

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Presentation on theme: "First Aid Chapter 12 Sudden Illness. Heart Attack Blood supply to heart is reduced or stopped Coronary artery is blocked by obstruction or spasm."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Aid Chapter 12 Sudden Illness

2 Heart Attack Blood supply to heart is reduced or stopped Coronary artery is blocked by obstruction or spasm

3 Heart Attack: What to Look For Possible S&S: Uncomfortable pain, pressure, fullness or squeezing the chest Pain spreading to shoulders, neck or arms Chest discomfort with lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea or SOB

4 Heart Attack: What to Look For Warning signs may be difficult to detect. If suspect, do not delay SMA Medical care crucial to survival

5 Heart Attack: What to Do Call EMS Monitor ABCs Keep sitting up Loosen tight clothing Be calm and reassuring

6 Heart Attack: What to Do Nitroglycerin? Dilates coronary vessels, increasing blood flow to heart, decreases B/P May repeat up to 3 doses in 10 minutes

7 Angina Chest pain Brought on by physical exertion, stress, Rarely lasts longer than 10 minutes Relieved by nitroglycerin

8 Stroke CVA Blood vessels that deliver O2 to the brain rupture or become obstructed Nerve (brain) cells die Effects often are permanent

9 Stroke:TIA Transient Ischemic Attack Symptoms similar to CVA but last only 5 minutes to several hours “ Mini Strokes ” Warning sign of possible stroke

10 Stroke: What to Look For Weakness,numbness, paralysis of face, arm, leg or one side of body Blurred or decreased vision Dizziness or loss of balance Sudden, severe, unexplained HA No PEARL

11 Stroke: What to Do Check ABCs Call EMS Conscious: Lay down with head and shoulders elevated Unconscious: Recoveryposition

12 Asthma Coughing Cyanosis Unable to speak w/o pausing for breath Wheezing

13 Asthma: What to Do Check ABCs Keep upright Medication? SMA as needed

14 Hyperventilation Fast, deep breathing May be due to stress

15 Hyperventilation May have: Dizziness Tingling of hands and feet SOB Breathing rate faster than 40/min

16 Hyperventilation What to do: Calm & reassure Inhale thru nose, exhale thru lips Don ’ t use paper bag X

17 Fainting Associated with decreased blood flow to brain. May be due to: Low blood sugarFright AnxietyDrugs FatigueArrhythmia DehydrationHeat exhaustion AnemiaBleeding

18 Fainting May also be due to: Sitting or standing in one place for long period of time.

19 Fainting:What to Look For Dizziness Weakness Seeing spots or floaters Blurred vision Ringing in the ears Nausea Pale skin Sweating

20 Fainting:What to Do Prevent from falling Lay down and elevate legs Loosen tight clothing Provide fresh air and cool wash cloth for face Provide a cool, sweet drink when able to swallow Do Not: Splash water on face Slap face Use smelling salts

21 Fainting Usually not serious SMA only if: Over 40 y/o Repeated attacks Does not waken in 4-5 minutes LOC while sitting or lying down

22 Seizures Abnormal stimulation of brain cells Causes: EpilepsyHeat stroke PoisoningElectric shock HypoglycemiaHigh fever Brain injury, stroke Drug w/drawal, abuse or overdose

23 Seizures: What to Do Cushion and protect head Loosen tight clothing Look for medical alert tag Turn to side when seizure ends Do NOT: Hold down Put anything in the mouth

24 Seizures: What to Do SMA only if: No hx of seizures Lasts more than 5 minutes Difficulty breathing after Pregnant Signs of injury

25 Diabetic Emergency Insulin is lacking or ineffective Insulin: Hormone producedby pancreas Helps body use energy in food Regulates sugar in blood stream

26 Diabetes: 2 Types Type I: Juvenile onset or insulin dependent: Requires insulin injection Type II: Adult onset or non-insulin dependent. Overweight. Diet controlled.

27 Low Blood Sugar Hypoglycemia Too much insulin Too little food 45

28 Low Blood Sugar: S&S Sudden onset Staggering, Trembling Anger, bad temper Pale color Confusion Hunger Eventual LOC

29 Low Blood Sugar: What to Do Give sugar such as candy or fruit juice SMA if no improvement in 15 minutes

30 High Blood Sugar Hyperglycemia Too much sugar in blood Not enough insulin 245

31 High Blood Sugar: S&S Gradual onset Drowsiness Thirst Frequent urination Flushed skin Vomiting Fruity breath odor Eventual LOC

32 High Blood Sugar: What to Do If not sure if high or low blood sugar: Give sugar such as candy or fruit juice SMA if no improvement in 15 minutes

33 Learning Activities Heart attack victims experience least amount of pain when laying down. No Sudden Illness

34 Learning Activities Sit or lay down to take nitroglycerin tablets. Yes Sudden Illness

35 Learning Activities Elevate head for stroke. Yes Sudden Illness

36 Learning Activities Most asthma victims have inhaler. Yes Sudden Illness

37 Learning Activities Hyperventilation: encourage to breath slow, hold inhaled air for several seconds, exhale slow. Yes Sudden Illness

38 Learning Activities Splash water on person who has fainted. No Sudden Illness

39 Learning Activities Fainting: use ammonia or smelling salts. No Sudden Illness

40 Learning Activities Place stick in mouth of seizure victim. No Sudden Illness

41 Learning Activities S eizure victim always requires medical attention. No Sudden Illness

42 Learning Activities If in doubt about high or low blood sugar, give sugar. Yes Sudden Illness

43 Learning Activities Diabetic emergency with no improvement in 15 minutes: SMA. Yes Sudden Illness

44 Learning Activities 12 Scenerio: C/O chest pain. Started 1 hour ago. Feels silly complaining. Nauseated. Pressure in chest. What to do? Call EMS Monitor ABCs Sit up Nitroglycerin if available

45 Learning Activities 12 Check ABCs Call EMS Lay down with head elevated Scenario: Coworker suddenly collapses. Confused, numbness, paralysis on one side. C/O severe HA earlier. What to do?

46 Learning Activities 12 Elevate legs 8-12 inches Loosen tight clothing Wet, cold cloth to head SMA only if does not regain consciousness Scenario: Watching bloody video. Falls to floor. Breathing, has pulse, unresponsive. No other injuries from fall. What to do?

47 Learning Activities 12 No object btw teeth!! Cushion head Loosen tight clothing. Turn to side after SMA only if: No hx of seizures, Lasts more than 5 minutes Difficulty breathing after, Pregnant Scenario: See co-worker holding down another employee on floor. Trying to force pencil btw teeth. Victim unresponsive with muscle jerks.. What to do?

48 Learning Activities 12 Give something sweet ot eat. SMA if no improvement in 15 minutes Scenario : Car pool driver driving fast and erratically, stops to let rider out, confused, slumps over steering wheel. Skin cold and sweaty. You know she is diabetic. What to do?

49 First Aid Kits ItemQuantity Piece of candy1 Something easy to eat (not hard candy and not chocolate because it will melt)


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