Heart Attack Blood supply to heart is reduced or stopped Coronary artery is blocked by obstruction or spasm
Heart Attack: What to Look For Possible S&S: Uncomfortable pain, pressure, fullness or squeezing the chest Pain spreading to shoulders, neck or arms Chest discomfort with lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea or SOB
Heart Attack: What to Look For Warning signs may be difficult to detect. If suspect, do not delay SMA Medical care crucial to survival
Heart Attack: What to Do Call EMS Monitor ABCs Keep sitting up Loosen tight clothing Be calm and reassuring
Heart Attack: What to Do Nitroglycerin? Dilates coronary vessels, increasing blood flow to heart, decreases B/P May repeat up to 3 doses in 10 minutes
Angina Chest pain Brought on by physical exertion, stress, Rarely lasts longer than 10 minutes Relieved by nitroglycerin
Stroke CVA Blood vessels that deliver O2 to the brain rupture or become obstructed Nerve (brain) cells die Effects often are permanent
Stroke:TIA Transient Ischemic Attack Symptoms similar to CVA but last only 5 minutes to several hours “ Mini Strokes ” Warning sign of possible stroke
Stroke: What to Look For Weakness,numbness, paralysis of face, arm, leg or one side of body Blurred or decreased vision Dizziness or loss of balance Sudden, severe, unexplained HA No PEARL
Stroke: What to Do Check ABCs Call EMS Conscious: Lay down with head and shoulders elevated Unconscious: Recoveryposition
Asthma Coughing Cyanosis Unable to speak w/o pausing for breath Wheezing
Asthma: What to Do Check ABCs Keep upright Medication? SMA as needed
Hyperventilation Fast, deep breathing May be due to stress
Hyperventilation May have: Dizziness Tingling of hands and feet SOB Breathing rate faster than 40/min
Hyperventilation What to do: Calm & reassure Inhale thru nose, exhale thru lips Don ’ t use paper bag X
Fainting Associated with decreased blood flow to brain. May be due to: Low blood sugarFright AnxietyDrugs FatigueArrhythmia DehydrationHeat exhaustion AnemiaBleeding
Fainting May also be due to: Sitting or standing in one place for long period of time.
Fainting:What to Look For Dizziness Weakness Seeing spots or floaters Blurred vision Ringing in the ears Nausea Pale skin Sweating
Fainting:What to Do Prevent from falling Lay down and elevate legs Loosen tight clothing Provide fresh air and cool wash cloth for face Provide a cool, sweet drink when able to swallow Do Not: Splash water on face Slap face Use smelling salts
Fainting Usually not serious SMA only if: Over 40 y/o Repeated attacks Does not waken in 4-5 minutes LOC while sitting or lying down
Seizures Abnormal stimulation of brain cells Causes: EpilepsyHeat stroke PoisoningElectric shock HypoglycemiaHigh fever Brain injury, stroke Drug w/drawal, abuse or overdose
Seizures: What to Do Cushion and protect head Loosen tight clothing Look for medical alert tag Turn to side when seizure ends Do NOT: Hold down Put anything in the mouth
Seizures: What to Do SMA only if: No hx of seizures Lasts more than 5 minutes Difficulty breathing after Pregnant Signs of injury
Diabetic Emergency Insulin is lacking or ineffective Insulin: Hormone producedby pancreas Helps body use energy in food Regulates sugar in blood stream
Diabetes: 2 Types Type I: Juvenile onset or insulin dependent: Requires insulin injection Type II: Adult onset or non-insulin dependent. Overweight. Diet controlled.
Low Blood Sugar Hypoglycemia Too much insulin Too little food 45
Low Blood Sugar: S&S Sudden onset Staggering, Trembling Anger, bad temper Pale color Confusion Hunger Eventual LOC
Low Blood Sugar: What to Do Give sugar such as candy or fruit juice SMA if no improvement in 15 minutes
High Blood Sugar Hyperglycemia Too much sugar in blood Not enough insulin 245
High Blood Sugar: S&S Gradual onset Drowsiness Thirst Frequent urination Flushed skin Vomiting Fruity breath odor Eventual LOC
High Blood Sugar: What to Do If not sure if high or low blood sugar: Give sugar such as candy or fruit juice SMA if no improvement in 15 minutes
Learning Activities 12 1. Heart attack victims experience least amount of pain when laying down. No Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 2. Sit or lay down to take nitroglycerin tablets. Yes Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 3. Elevate head for stroke. Yes Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 4. Most asthma victims have inhaler. Yes Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 4. Hyperventilation: encourage to breath slow, hold inhaled air for several seconds, exhale slow. Yes Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 6. Splash water on person who has fainted. No Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 7. Fainting: use ammonia or smelling salts. No Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 8. Place stick in mouth of seizure victim. No Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 9. S eizure victim always requires medical attention. No Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 10. If in doubt about high or low blood sugar, give sugar. Yes Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 11. Diabetic emergency with no improvement in 15 minutes: SMA. Yes Sudden Illness
Learning Activities 12 Scenerio: C/O chest pain. Started 1 hour ago. Feels silly complaining. Nauseated. Pressure in chest. What to do? Call EMS Monitor ABCs Sit up Nitroglycerin if available
Learning Activities 12 Check ABCs Call EMS Lay down with head elevated Scenario: Coworker suddenly collapses. Confused, numbness, paralysis on one side. C/O severe HA earlier. What to do?
Learning Activities 12 Elevate legs 8-12 inches Loosen tight clothing Wet, cold cloth to head SMA only if does not regain consciousness Scenario: Watching bloody video. Falls to floor. Breathing, has pulse, unresponsive. No other injuries from fall. What to do?
Learning Activities 12 No object btw teeth!! Cushion head Loosen tight clothing. Turn to side after SMA only if: No hx of seizures, Lasts more than 5 minutes Difficulty breathing after, Pregnant Scenario: See co-worker holding down another employee on floor. Trying to force pencil btw teeth. Victim unresponsive with muscle jerks.. What to do?
Learning Activities 12 Give something sweet ot eat. SMA if no improvement in 15 minutes Scenario : Car pool driver driving fast and erratically, stops to let rider out, confused, slumps over steering wheel. Skin cold and sweaty. You know she is diabetic. What to do?
First Aid Kits ItemQuantity Piece of candy1 Something easy to eat (not hard candy and not chocolate because it will melt)