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Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves. The cranial nerves CN I CN II CN III CN IV CN V CN VI CN VII CN VIII CN IX CN X CN XI CN XII Olfactory Optic.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves. The cranial nerves CN I CN II CN III CN IV CN V CN VI CN VII CN VIII CN IX CN X CN XI CN XII Olfactory Optic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves

2 The cranial nerves CN I CN II CN III CN IV CN V CN VI CN VII CN VIII CN IX CN X CN XI CN XII Olfactory Optic Occulomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducens Facial Accoustic Glossopharyngeal Vagus Spinal Accessory Hypoglossal On Old Olympian Towering Tops A Finn And German Viewed Some Hopps

3 A Quick brain overview

4 fig cerebral hemispheres neural cortex (gray matter) gyri-ridges sulci-depressions fissures cerebrum

5 Brain landmarks cerebrum conscious thoughts sensations intellect memory complex movements

6 fig cerebellar hemispheres coordinates complex muscle actions cerebellum

7 fig thalamus relay, process sensory info hypothalamus emotions, autonomics, hormones pituitary gland midbrain - process visual hearing info pons fiber tract medulla oblongata autonomics, etc.

8 embryology brain: tube wall cavity

9 embryology five brain vesicles: telencephalon diencephalon mesencephalon metencephalon myelencephalon cerebrum thalamus mid- cerebellum/pons medulla ob.

10 embryology five brain vesicles: all hollow fluid-filled spaces ventricles with CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)

11 brain ventricles: telencephalon diencephalon mesencephalon metencephalon myelencephalon lateral v third v cerebral aqueduct fourth v

12 fig third fourth cerebral aqueduct

13 ventricles (and central canal of the spinal cord) are all connected to each other all filled with CSF

14 2.meninges brain is surrounded by: dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater 1.bones of cranium 3.CSF inside and around outside

15 CSF cushion brain/spinal cord supports brain transport nutrients/wastes produced by lining of cavities circultates in and around brain

16 blood supply to brain neural tissue does not have reserves of glucose, O 2 etc., has a very good blood supply internal carotid arteries vertebral arteries

17 blood supply to brain CVA (stroke) blood supply to part of the brain is cut off tissue begins to die infarction

18 blood supply to brain blood-brain barrier restrict access to neural tissue of most molecules capillary endothelial cells tight junctions astrocyte foot processes

19 fig astrocytes

20 A&P Jeopardy The cellular organelle containing the DNA What is a nucleus ? A collection of NCB in the CNS What is a nucleus ? A collection of NCB in the PNS What is a ganglion ? (nerve cell bodies)

21 review cranial nervesname and number brain5 vesicles and fates CSFin and around CNS good blood supply to brain blood / brain barrier nucleus vs. ganglion

22 The Brain medulla oblongata autonomic reflexes cranial nerve nuclei relay stations

23 medulla oblongata all info brainspinal cord passes through

24 medulla oblongata autonomic reflexes heart rate heart contraction strength peripheral blood flow respiration rate

25 medulla oblongata motor nuclei for cranial nerves: CN IX, X, XI, XII muscles of pharynx, neck, back viscera

26 medulla oblongata sensory nuclei for cranial nerves: CN VIIIfrom inner ear

27 medulla oblongata relay stations: nucleus gracilis nucleus cuneatus solitary nucleus olivary nucleus somatic sensory visceral sensory somatic motor

28 pons links cerebellum with… …everything else lots of tracts passing through

29 pons cranial nerve nuclei CN V, VI, VIImotor: jaw and some face muscles sensory:CNVIII vestibular cochlear nuclei

30 cerebellum adjust postural muscles of body fine-tune motor movements

31 fig. 14-7

32 Purkinje cells in cortex each one can receive input from up to 200,000 synapses proprioception visual tactile balance auditory input from:

33 fig. 14-7

34 ataxia (lack of order) a disturbance in muscular coordination physical damage stroke drugs (EtOH)

35 mesencephalon corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi inferior colliculi

36 mesencephalon corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi visual relay for reflex center for eyes, head, neck response to bright light

37 mesencephalon corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi inferior colliculi visual auditory relay for reflex center for head, neck, trunk response to loud noise

38 tegmentum mesencephalon red nucleus substantia nigra control arm position and background muscle tone regulates basal nuclei

39 headquarters of RAS mesencephalon

40 epithalamus pineal glandmelatonind/n thalamus relay info to basal nuclei and cerebrum hypothalamus control and integration hormones, emotions diencephalon

41 thalamus R & Lseparated by third v. 5 groups of nuclei anterior medial ventral posterior lateral diencephalon

42 thalamus anterior diencephalon part of limbic system (later, emotions/motivation)

43 thalamus medial diencephalon connect emotional centers of hypothalamus with frontal lobes of cerebrum

44 thalamus ventral diencephalon info from basal nuclei to motor areas of cerebrum relay senses to cerebrum

45 thalamus posterior diencephalon integrate, relay sensory information to cerebrum LGNvisual MGNauditory

46 thalamus lateral diencephalon feeback loops with limbic s emotions integration of senses

47 fig. 14-9

48 hypothalamus diencephalon below thalamus optic chiasm mamillary bodies infundibulum

49 fig

50 hypothalamus diencephalon subconscious control of skeletal muscle (facial expression with emotions)

51 hypothalamus diencephalon control autonomic centers of medulla and pons heart rate, bp, resp, digest

52 hypothalamus diencephalon coordinate nervous and endocrine systems

53 hypothalamus diencephalon produce two hormones ADH Oxytocin antidiuretic hormone smooth muscle contraction

54 hypothalamus diencephalon produce emotions/drives hunger, thirst

55 hypothalamus diencephalon Coordinate Voluntary and Autonomic functions Take out a sheet of paper for a surprise 300 point quiz… increased heart rate, breathing, etc.

56 hypothalamus diencephalon regulate body temperature by controlling blood flow to the skin

57 hypothalamus diencephalon controls circadian rhythms

58 Early April Poster session (Centrum) Also other Biology seminars

59 nuclei and tract along border of cerebrum and diencephalon The limbic system functions: establish emotional states link conscious with unconscious facilitate memory storage/recall a “motivational system”

60 limbic lobe of cerebrum (1) The limbic system cingulate gyrus dentate gyrus parahippocampal gyrus gyri conceal hippocampus (2) learning long-term memory

61 fig

62

63 amygdaloid body (3) The limbic system interface between limbic- cerebrum sensory systems regulate heart rate (sym) link emotions/memories

64 fornix The limbic system fiber tract between hippocampus and hypothalamus

65 table 14-7

66 largest region of brain The cerebrum conscious thoughts intellectual functions processing of sensory and motor info surface is gray matter cerebral cortex

67 hemispheres (R and L) The cerebrum separated by longitudinal fissure divided into lobes

68 fig

69 hemispheres (R and L) The cerebrum receive/send info to opposite side of body have different functions

70 white matterfibers The cerebrum association interconnect - same side commissural interconnect R and L projection fibers to other structures

71 label corpus callosum fig

72 basal nuclei The cerebrum several nuclei caudate nucleus lentiform nucleus globus pallidus putamen

73 fig

74 basal nuclei The cerebrum subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone coordination of learned movements

75 basal nuclei The cerebrum inhibited by dopamine from the substantia nigra if s.n. is destroyed or dopamine levels decline… basal nuclei are overactive… increase in muscle tone…

76 basal nuclei The cerebrum …Parkinson’s disease difficulty starting muscle movements

77 fig

78 table 14-8

79 primary motor cortex primary sensory cortex The cerebrum frontal lobe pyramidal cells (UMN) piano analogy parietal lobe touch, pain, pressure, taste, vibrations, temp. (if thalamus relays it)

80 fig motor sensory mapping

81 other “sense” cortex The cerebrum visual auditory olfactory gustatory occipital temporal frontal

82 fig

83 association areas The cerebrum interpret incoming information

84 fig

85 association areas The cerebrum interpret incoming information e.g., visual association area associate visual symbols with object C A R=

86 association areas The cerebrum interpret incoming information visual association area someone with damage here would “see” the symbols “C A R” but would have no idea that they mean something

87 premotor cortex The cerebrum coordination of learned movements repetition programs in “patterns” of stimulation back to the piano analogy

88 integrative centers The cerebrum receive lots of information direct extremely complex motor activities, analytical functions, … some centers are restricted to one side hemispheric lateralization

89 integrative centers The cerebrum for example: general interpretive center (aka Wernicke’s area; left side) receives input from all sensory areas

90 integrative centers The cerebrum for example: general interpretive center (aka Wernicke’s area; left side) damage affects ability to interpret what is seen and heard sithere

91 fig b

92 integrative centers The cerebrum for example: speech center (aka., Broca’s area; left side) coordinates activity of pharynx, tongue, cheeks, jaw, lips, etc.,

93 integrative centers The cerebrum for example: prefrontal cortex receives and coordinates input from all association areas performs abstract intellectual functions, predicting consequences

94 integrative centers The cerebrum for example: prefrontal cortex generates feelings of frustration, anxiety, tension… severe its’ connections and remove those feelings

95 integrative centers The cerebrum for example: prefrontal cortex prefrontal lobotomy “cure” mental patients

96 hemispheric lateralization The cerebrum each hemisphere has specific functions not done by the other side

97 fig 14-6

98 Monitoring brain activity The cerebrum directly stimulate areas behavioral changes with injury Phineas Gage PET scan, MRI’s

99 Monitoring brain activity The cerebrum electrical activity: EEG (electroencephalogram) (brain waves)

100 Monitoring brain activity The cerebrum electrical activity: different wave patterns alpha beta theta delta

101 normal resting adult concentration, stress children, frustrated adults deep sleep, injury fig 14-17

102 Monitoring brain activity The cerebrum electrical activity: seizure: temporary, drastic changes in electrical activity of cerebrum

103 clinical conditions caused by a seizure epilepsy

104 and cutting corpus callosum split brain


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