The chemical process of joining monomers to form polymers. At the end of each monomer is a (H) hydrogen atom and a (-OH) group. Every time a monomer is added a molecule of water is given off.
The chemical breakdown of polymers into monomers through the addition of water; essentially the opposite of dehydration synthesis
Carbohydrates are energy- rich compounds made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Cells use carbohydrates to get and store energy. Carbohydrates are also called sugars or starches. Structure- ring-shaped molecule
FUNCTIONQuick and short term energy FOUND INBreads, Pastas, Potatoes, Corn STUCTUREContain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CHO) Unique because they always have two hydrogen for every one oxygen (hydrate-like water H 2 0) MONOSACCHARIDE EXAMPLESGlucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) DISACCHARIDE EXAMPLES Lactose (milk sugar) Maltose (malt sugar-in grain), Sucrose (made of fructose & maltose combined-in sugar cane)-fruit (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) POLYSACCHARIDE EXAMPLES 100 to 1000 monosaccharides joined Starch-how carbohydrates are stored in plants Glycogen-how carbohydrates are stored in animals Cellulose-found in plant cell walls; animals cannot digest (Fiber)
Lipids are made by cells to store energy for long periods of time. Lipids include fats, oils, and waxes. Can you think of examples of lipids in plants or animals?
FUNCTIONLong term energy storage Insulate against heat loss Protective cushion around organs FOUND INFatty foods, butter, margarine, cooking oils STUCTUREContain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (on occasion other elements) Glycerol (backbone 3 Carbons with - OH groups) and fatty acid tail/s Don’t dissolve in water FATS and OILS (Triglycerides)One glycerol with 3 fatty acid tail PHOSPHOLIPIDS Make up cell membranes contain C,H, O and phosphorus (2 fatty acid tails) WAXES Only 1 fatty acid tail with alcohol attached; protective coating on fruits etc. STEROIDSIncludes cholesterol, female and male sex hormone
Proteins are very large molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. Protein molecules are made of smaller molecules called amino acids.
FUNCTIONBuilding blocks of living materials; compose structural parts such as keratin in hair and nails, antibodies, cartilage, bones, ligaments and enzymes (compounds that speed up reactions) FOUND INMeat, Eggs and Cheese STUCTUREMuch larger, more complex than carbohydrates and lipids. Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen. BUILDING BLOCKSAmino Acids (There are 20 different amino acids) PEPTIDE BONDS Hold amino acids together (dipeptides, tripeptides, polypeptides) DENATURATION When proteins are exposed to extreme changes in pH, temperature etc. they lose their shape and can no longer function.
Nucleic acids are compounds made of long, repeating chains called nucleotides. DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the information cells need to make all of their proteins.
FUNCTIONImportant for growth & reproduction of cells, contains the genetic code (what genes are made from) FOUND INGenes – 2 types DNA and RNA STUCTURESugar (deoxyribose or ribose), phosphate, nitrogen bases BUILDING BLOCKSNucleotides ATP A nucleic acid that is made in the cell’s mitochondria. Glucose is converted into ATP. SHAPE DNA is known for its twisted ladder shape
FRONT SIDE OF TABS: Tab A Label the tab PROTEIN in RED Write the name of its monomer and draw and color one. TAB B Label the tab CARBOHYDRATE in BLUE Write the name of its monomer and draw and color one TAB C Label the tab LIPID in GREEN Write the name of its monomer and draw and color one TAB D Label the tab NUCLEIC ACID – a color not already used Write the name of its monomer and draw and color one BACK SIDE OF TABS: TAB A Give 4 FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS List 2 EXAMPLES OF PROTEINS TAB B Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATES List 4 EXAMPLES OF CARBOHYDRATES TAB C Give 3 FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS List 4 EXAMPLES OF LIPIDS TAB D Give 2 FUNCTIONS FOR NUCLEIC ACIDS List 2 EXAMPLES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS ON THE INSIDE CENTER SECTION, center and write the word MACROMOLECULE ON THE BACK OF THE FOLDABLE, write your NAME and PERIOD. Make a pocket for this to slide into in your notebook using paper. MACROMOLECULE FOLDABLE Fold and cut a piece of paper as shown below to make 4 tabs.
95% of all compounds are organic Example: Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6
Plant cells store energy as starch. Rice, potatoes, and wheat are plant starches.