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DESIGN FOR QUALITY MPD 575 DESIGN FOR QUALITY Developed By: Sam Abihana Ion Furtuna Adithya Rajagopal.

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Presentation on theme: "DESIGN FOR QUALITY MPD 575 DESIGN FOR QUALITY Developed By: Sam Abihana Ion Furtuna Adithya Rajagopal."— Presentation transcript:

1 DESIGN FOR QUALITY MPD 575 DESIGN FOR QUALITY Developed By: Sam Abihana Ion Furtuna Adithya Rajagopal

2 INTRODUCTION Definition of Quality Definition of Quality Definition What is DFQ What is DFQDFQ How DFQ fits into the Ford PD process How DFQ fits into the Ford PD processPD processPD process DFQ Process Flow DFQ Process FlowProcess Example of DFQ Applied to the Seat System Example of DFQ Applied to the Seat System Example

3 DEFINITION OF QUALITY The Customer defines Quality Our customers want products and services that throughout their lives meet their needs and expectations at a cost that represents value – Ford Quality Policy The Customer defines Quality Our customers want products and services that throughout their lives meet their needs and expectations at a cost that represents value – Ford Quality Policy Fitness for use (Fitness is defined by the customer) – J.M. Juran Fitness for use (Fitness is defined by the customer) – J.M. Juran The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs – ISO 8402 The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs – ISO 8402 The loss a product imposes on society after it is shipped – Taguchi The loss a product imposes on society after it is shipped – Taguchi A subjective term for which each person has his or her own definition – American Society for Quality A subjective term for which each person has his or her own definition – American Society for Quality

4 DESIGN FOR QUALITY (DFQ) Quality is intrinsic to a design and is dependent on: Quality is intrinsic to a design and is dependent on: Choice of system architecture Choice of system architecture Robustness of execution during the PD process Robustness of execution during the PD process Quality is primarily associated with two aspects i.e. functional performance and customer perception Quality is primarily associated with two aspects i.e. functional performance and customer perception DFQ is the disciplined application of engineering tools and concepts with the goal of achieving robust design development and definition in the PD process DFQ is the disciplined application of engineering tools and concepts with the goal of achieving robust design development and definition in the PD process The DFQ process allows the engineer to: identify, plan-for and manage factors that impact system robustness and reliability upfront in the design process The DFQ process allows the engineer to: identify, plan-for and manage factors that impact system robustness and reliability upfront in the design process

5 DESIGN FOR QUALITY (DFQ) Common product design tools associated with DFQ, and discussed in this presentation, are: Common product design tools associated with DFQ, and discussed in this presentation, are: Boundary Diagrams Boundary Diagrams Interface Matrix Interface Matrix Parameter Diagram (P-Diagram) Parameter Diagram (P-Diagram) Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) Reliability Checklist (RCL) Reliability Checklist (RCL) Reliability Demonstration Matrix (RDM) Reliability Demonstration Matrix (RDM) Design Verification Plan (DVP) Design Verification Plan (DVP) The engineering concepts associated with the tools identified above are based on proven methods which can be applied across a variety of industries The engineering concepts associated with the tools identified above are based on proven methods which can be applied across a variety of industries

6 DFQ IN THE FORD PD PROCESS (GPDS) UP V1 UP V1 (VG-T-24) (VG-T-24) UP V0 UP V0 (VG-T-80) (VG-T-80) UP V2 UP V2 (VG- T-04) (VG- T-04) VP Dwg. VP Dwg. (VG- E-65) (VG- E-65) UP V1 UP V1 (VG-T-24) (VG-T-24) UP V0 UP V0 (VG-T-80) (VG-T-80) UP V2 UP V2 (VG- T-04) (VG- T-04) VP Dwg. VP Dwg. (VG- E-65) (VG- E-65) UP V1 UP V1 (VG-T-24) (VG-T-24) UP V0 UP V0 (VG-T-80) (VG-T-80) UP V2 UP V2 (VG- T-04) (VG- T-04) VP Dwg. VP Dwg. (VG- E-65) (VG- E-65) UP V1 UP V1 (VG-T-24) (VG-T-24) UP V0 UP V0 (VG-T-80) (VG-T-80) UP V2 UP V2 (VG- T-04) (VG- T-04) VP Dwg. VP Dwg. (VG- E-65) (VG- E-65) UP V1 UP V1 (VG-T-24) (VG-T-24) UP V0 UP V0 (VG-T-80) (VG-T-80) UP V2 UP V2 (VG- T-04) (VG- T-04) VP Dwg. VP Dwg. (VG- E-65) (VG- E-65) UN V0 UN V1 UN V2 M1DJ PHASES IN UNDERBODY DEVELOPMENT UP V0 UP V1 UP V2 FDJ PHASES IN UPPERBODY DEVELOPMENT UN V0/UP V0: Boundary Diagram/Interface Analysis/P-Diagram/DFMEA/RDM/RCL initiated. Quality History review and documentation completed UN V0/UP V0: Boundary Diagram/Interface Analysis/P-Diagram/DFMEA/RDM/RCL initiated. Quality History review and documentation completed UN V1/UP V1: Boundary Diagram/Interface Analysis/P-Diagram/DFMEA/RDM/RCL updated UN V1/UP V1: Boundary Diagram/Interface Analysis/P-Diagram/DFMEA/RDM/RCL updated UN V2/UP V2: Disciplines completed, DFMEA updated with recommend actions UN V2/UP V2: Disciplines completed, DFMEA updated with recommend actions M1DJ: Under Body Engineering Freeze/Signoff M1DJ: Under Body Engineering Freeze/Signoff FDJ: Upper Body Engineering Freeze/Signoff FDJ: Upper Body Engineering Freeze/Signoff

7 DFQ PROCESS FLOW PFMEACONTROL PLAN PROCESS DESIGN BOUNDARY DIAGRAM INTERFACE MATRIX P-DIAGRAM DFMEA RELIABILITY CHECKLIST ROBUSTNESS DEMONSTRATION MATRIX DVP PRODUCT DESIGN

8 BOUNDARY DIAGRAM What? Defines the scope of the system being studied Defines the scope of the system being studied Identifies components that are internal to the system Identifies components that are internal to the system Identifies system-system, system-human and system- environment interfaces (External Components) Identifies system-system, system-human and system- environment interfaces (External Components) Defines the scope of the DFMEA i.e. elements within the boundary Defines the scope of the DFMEA i.e. elements within the boundary Indicates the nature of all interface relationships Indicates the nature of all interface relationships Represents all of the above in a clear graphical manner Represents all of the above in a clear graphical manner

9 BOUNDARY DIAGRAM Why? Provide a disciplined approach to ensuring all system interfaces are considered at design initiation Provide a disciplined approach to ensuring all system interfaces are considered at design initiation Understand the nature of interface relationships i.e. Understand the nature of interface relationships i.e.  Physically touching (P)  Energy transfer (E)  Information transfer (I)  Material exchange (M) Communication tool which facilitates team understanding and collaboration Communication tool which facilitates team understanding and collaboration

10 BOUNDARY DIAGRAM How? Identify components within the system as blocks Identify components within the system as blocks Establish relationships between the various blocks Establish relationships between the various blocks Establish relationships between system components and other systems, including customer input Establish relationships between system components and other systems, including customer input Construct a boundary line around what is best included within the analysis of the system Construct a boundary line around what is best included within the analysis of the system Boundary diagram analysis should follow system hierarchy down to the desired sub-system, component level Boundary diagram analysis should follow system hierarchy down to the desired sub-system, component level

11

12 P.8+E P.2.1+E OCCUPANT Wiring Harness (Vehicle) Head Restraint Assembly Recliners Seat Buckle Asy Track Asy Seat Cushion Asy Door Trim Panel P.2.2+E Floor Pan P.2.1+E P.4+E Seat Back Cushion Asy P.6+E Cushion Pan Asy Back Frame Asy Lumbar Asy P.4+E P.8 P.5+E P.4+E P.5+E SEAT SYSTEM BOUNDARY DIAGRAM P.2.1+E P.8+E

13 Relative MotionSub Assembly ClearanceBoundary of Analysis No MotionInternal Component Occupant Interaction Directed or External Component PPhysically touchingP.3SewingP.8Interfacing not joined P.1AdhesiveP.4RotationalEEnergy Transfer P.2.1Fastener - BoltP.5Snap FitIInformation exchange P.2.2Fastener - ScrewP.6WeldMMaterial exchange P.2.3Fastener - RivetP.7Crimp (Hog ring, …) BOUNDARY DIAGRAM LEGEND

14 INTERFACE MATRIX What? Provides a supplemental analysis of the boundary diagram Provides a supplemental analysis of the boundary diagram Quantifies the strength of system interactions Quantifies the strength of system interactions Provides input to the Potential Effects of Failure and Severity column of the DFMEA Provides input to the Potential Effects of Failure and Severity column of the DFMEA Robustness linkage to the P-Diagram Robustness linkage to the P-Diagram Positive interactions may be captured on the P-Diagram as input signals or output functions Positive interactions may be captured on the P-Diagram as input signals or output functions Negative interactions may be captured on the P-Diagram as input noise or error states Negative interactions may be captured on the P-Diagram as input noise or error statesWhy? Cross-check boundary diagram interfaces Cross-check boundary diagram interfaces Verify positive interactions Verify positive interactions Manage negative interactions for robustness Manage negative interactions for robustness

15 INTERFACE MATRIX How? List all elements within the boundary diagram and all elements that interface across the boundary in the left most column of the Interface Matrix sheet List all elements within the boundary diagram and all elements that interface across the boundary in the left most column of the Interface Matrix sheet Fill the 4 quadrants (Q1-Q4) representing the interface relationship (P, E, M, I) between the elements of the Boundary Diagram with a rating from -2 to +2 Fill the 4 quadrants (Q1-Q4) representing the interface relationship (P, E, M, I) between the elements of the Boundary Diagram with a rating from -2 to +2 2= Necessary for function 2= Necessary for function 1= Beneficial but not absolutely necessary for function 1= Beneficial but not absolutely necessary for function 0= Does not affect functionality 0= Does not affect functionality -1= Causes negative effects but does not affect functionality -2= Must be prevented to achieve functionality

16 PE IM

17 P-DIAGRAM What? A graphical tool to identify the operating environment in robustness focused analysis A graphical tool to identify the operating environment in robustness focused analysis Provides a structured method to identify: Provides a structured method to identify: Intended Inputs (Signals) Intended Inputs (Signals) Intended Outputs (Ideal Function) Intended Outputs (Ideal Function) Unintended Inputs (Noise Factors) Unintended Inputs (Noise Factors) Unintended Outputs (Error States) Unintended Outputs (Error States) Design Controllable Factors Design Controllable Factors

18 P-DIAGRAM What? Noise factors are classified as: Demand related noise which are external to the design Demand related noise which are external to the design Piece-to-Piece Variation (N1) Piece-to-Piece Variation (N1) Changes Over Time (N2) Changes Over Time (N2) Capacity related noises which are internal to the design Capacity related noises which are internal to the design Customer Usage (N3) Customer Usage (N3) External Environment (N4) External Environment (N4) System Interactions (N5) System Interactions (N5)

19 P-DIAGRAM Why? Brainstorming tool that supports downstream noise factor management strategies (RCL) and verification methods (RDM/DV) Brainstorming tool that supports downstream noise factor management strategies (RCL) and verification methods (RDM/DV) Links to the Function, Potential Failure Mode and Potential Effect of Failure columns of the DFMEA Links to the Function, Potential Failure Mode and Potential Effect of Failure columns of the DFMEA

20 P-DIAGRAM How? P-Diagrams should support the scope of the system defined in the Boundary Diagram P-Diagrams should support the scope of the system defined in the Boundary Diagram Input & Output Signals: Identified in terms of physics as positive interactions in the Interface Matrix Input & Output Signals: Identified in terms of physics as positive interactions in the Interface Matrix Noise Factors (N1-N5) & Error States: Identified in terms of physics as negative interactions in the Interface Matrix. Brainstorming should be applied to supplement identification of Noise Factors Noise Factors (N1-N5) & Error States: Identified in terms of physics as negative interactions in the Interface Matrix. Brainstorming should be applied to supplement identification of Noise Factors Error States: Undesired function. Quality History should be used to supplement identification of error states Error States: Undesired function. Quality History should be used to supplement identification of error states Control Factors: List of design factors that can be controlled in design i.e. materials, dimensions, location etc. Control Factors: List of design factors that can be controlled in design i.e. materials, dimensions, location etc.

21 SEAT SYSTEM P-DIAGRAM

22 DFMEA What? A tool which supports activities that recognize and evaluate potential failure modes of a product and its effects A tool which supports activities that recognize and evaluate potential failure modes of a product and its effects Identifies actions which could reduce or eliminate the chances of the failure occurring Identifies actions which could reduce or eliminate the chances of the failure occurring Documents the analysis process Documents the analysis process

23 DFMEA Why? Improve the quality of product evaluation by applying a standardized method Improve the quality of product evaluation by applying a standardized method Determine how failure modes will be avoided in design Determine how failure modes will be avoided in design Allows the engineer to recognize high priority/high impact failure modes and prevent them from occurring Allows the engineer to recognize high priority/high impact failure modes and prevent them from occurring Improve the robustness of the DVP and process control plans Improve the robustness of the DVP and process control plans

24 P-Diagram Linkage Linkage BoundaryDiagramLinkage InterfaceMatrixLinkage DFMEA: ROBUSTNESS LINKAGES

25 DFMEA: HOW?

26 7 5 4

27 SEAT CUSHION Support 200K jounce cycles (90cpm) of 50th percentile male butt form loaded to 200lbs with seat sag <25mm Seat sag >25mmPoor appearance Customer discomfort 5 Inadequate foam density and ILD 3 D: DV Jounce Testing 230 SEAT SYSTEM: DFMEA

28 ROBUSTNESS CHECKLIST (RCL) What? Captures noise factors and error states identified in the P-Diagram Captures noise factors and error states identified in the P-Diagram Identifies areas that require design based noise factor management strategies Identifies areas that require design based noise factor management strategies Indicates verification methods which provide the ability to test for the error states associated with the noise factors Indicates verification methods which provide the ability to test for the error states associated with the noise factors

29 ROBUSTNESS CHECKLIST (RCL) Why? Initiate team discussion regarding noise factor management strategy (NFMS) and robust verification Initiate team discussion regarding noise factor management strategy (NFMS) and robust verification Focus on noise factors which have the highest impact on system robustness Focus on noise factors which have the highest impact on system robustness Understand the correlation between the error states and associated noise factors Understand the correlation between the error states and associated noise factors Assist robust verification by identifying noise factors which are currently not captured by existing DVM’s Assist robust verification by identifying noise factors which are currently not captured by existing DVM’s

30 ROBUSTNESS CHECKLIST (RCL)

31 RCL: HOW? Step 1: Choose ideal functions Step 2: Choose focused error states Step 3: List associated noise factors Step 4: Define metric and metric and range for each noise factor Step 5: Assess strength of correlation between error state and noise factor Step 6: Define NFMS Step 7: List applicableDVM’s Step 8: Use an X to show error states identified by DVM. Identify High Impact DVM’s Step 9: Use an X to show noise factors included in the DVM

32 SEAT SYSTEM: RCL

33 RDM/DVP What? Planning tool that documents: Planning tool that documents: Design Verification Methods (DVM) Design Verification Methods (DVM) Level Tested Level Tested Acceptance Criteria Acceptance Criteria Test Timing Test Timing RDM is a subset of the DVP that additionally documents: RDM is a subset of the DVP that additionally documents: Failure Mode (Hard or Soft) Failure Mode (Hard or Soft) DVM for select tests specified by the RCL DVM for select tests specified by the RCL Noise Factors being tested Noise Factors being tested Robustness targets in relation to customer expected function. Targets of R/C (R90/C90) are not acceptable Robustness targets in relation to customer expected function. Targets of R/C (R90/C90) are not acceptable

34 RDM/DVP Why? Demonstrates that components/systems fulfill reliability requirements identified in the RCL Demonstrates that components/systems fulfill reliability requirements identified in the RCL Provides a forum to review the high impact error states and noise factors that affect the system along with the identified DVM to prove out their system Provides a forum to review the high impact error states and noise factors that affect the system along with the identified DVM to prove out their system Structured documentation of verification test plans and timing Structured documentation of verification test plans and timing Provides single point summary of test plans Provides single point summary of test plans

35 RDM: HOW? FROM RCL

36 DVP: HOW?


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