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Selecting Electric Motors Electric Motors Part 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Selecting Electric Motors Electric Motors Part 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Selecting Electric Motors Electric Motors Part 1

2 What Size Motor to Select How much power is needed How much electrical power is available Do you have enough capacity in service entrance panel (breaker box)

3 Replaceing a Motor Replacing a Small Portable Gas Engine: –rule: 2/3 to 3/4 as much power as engine Replacing an Industrial Engine: –“Maximum Brake” or “Rated Brake” hp, use same rule –“Continuous Brake” or “Kilowatts”, use same hp as engine Replacing Tractor PTO: –same hp as tractor

4 Motor on New Equipment Use equipment manufacturer’s recommendation

5 Installing a Motor on Hand- Powered Equipment Rule of Thumb: 1/3 hp

6 Power Supply Single Phase, 115 or 230 volts –limited to 7 1/2 hp –most farms and homes –many motors will run on 115 or 230 volts

7 Power Supply 3-Phase, 208, 230 or more volts –4 wires in power line –up to 1,000 hp –little or no light flickering –cost less –last longer –pay extra to install 3-phase power lines

8 Service Entrance Capacity SEP must have about 3 times more amperage capacity than the amp rating on the nameplate of the motor –for extra amps for starting the motor –if motor is 20 amps, SEP must be at least 60 amps May need a separate SEP

9 What Motor Speed to Select Determine speed of equipment Speed is in RPM’s Most common: 1750 If different speed is needed, use pulley, gear, or chains to convert

10 Motor Duty Motor Duty = amount of time the motor is operating under full load, and how much time it is stopped Continuous Duty: constant full load for over 60 minutes at a time Intermittent Duty: fully loaded for 5, 15, 30, or 60 minutes

11 Starting Loads Easy Starting Loads: –Shaded Pole Induction –Split Phase –Permanent-Split, Capacitor-Induction –Soft-Start

12 Starting Loads Difficult Starting Loads –Capacitor-Start, Induction-Run –Repulsion-Start, Induction-Run –Capacitor-Start, Capacitor-Run –Three-Phase, General-Purpose –Perkey Concept: use tractor PTO to start –Repulsion-Start, Capacitor-Run

13 Other Factors to Consider Direction of Rotation Cost Maintenance –motors with brushes cause radio interference –repulsion-start interferes at starting –motors with brushes require more maintenance

14 Bearing Types Sleeve Bearings: brass, bronze or tin lined cylinder Ball Bearings: round steel balls surround the shaft in a special cage

15 Lubrication Sleeve Bearings: SAE 20 non-detergent or electric motor oil –avoid over oiling –wipe off excess oil Oil Wick: wick into small oil well under the sleeve bearing –refill well at least twice / year

16 Lubrication: Sleeve Bearings Yarn Packed: add few drops of oil every few months to yarn Ring Oiled: ring spins freely in oil reservoir –keep oil level up to fill plug

17 Lubrication: Ball Bearings Prelubricated and Sealed: no maintenance required Hand Packed: disassemble bearing and hand pack with grease every 2-5 years Special Fittings: filler and drain plug –remove bottom plug before greasing

18 Mounting Position Sleeve Bearings: parallel to floor –may need to rotate end shield to prevent oil from running out of reservoir Ball Bearing: any position

19 Enclosures Motors produce heat Cooling: fan on shaft, openings in end Must protect from dust, water etc

20 Enclosures Dripproof: (open-type) –must provide clean air & keep water away Totally-Enclosed: no openings for circulation of outside air through motor –may use external fan –higher operating temperature Explosion Proof: hazardous locations

21 Mounting Base Rigid (fixed to frame) Rigid (adjustable screws) Sliding Rails

22 Overload Protection Excessive Current will flow to the motor if: Load is too heavy Voltage is too low

23 Types of Overload Protection Built-In Overload Protection in Motor –Manual-Reset Type –Automatic-Reset Manual Starting Switch with Overload Protection (breaker in switch) Magnetic Starting Switch with Overload Protection (power tools) Time-Delay Fuse in Motor Disconnect Switch Current-Limiting Starters

24 Three-Phase Protection Each power line needs protection (3)

25 Motor Drives Direct: connect motor to equipment Flexible-Hose Coupling Flange Coupling: flange attaches to motor, another to equipment, flanges attach to flexible disk Cushion-Flange Coupling: tire shaped cushion between flanges Flexible Shaft: direction of rotation is important

26 Speed-Conversion Drives Gear Drive Chain-and-Sprocket Drive Pulley-and-Belt Drive: pulleys connected by continuous belt loop V-Belt Webbed Multi-V-Belt Flat-Belt V-Flat

27 What Size of Drive to Select Shaft Size (Bore) Some pulleys come with several bushings to fit several sizes of shafts

28 Sizing Drives When operating speeds are changed, horsepower changes in same proportion –if equipment speed doubles, horsepower requirement doubles Fans, Blowers, Centrifugal Pumps: –speed increases, horesepower requirement increases by cube of increment of increase 3 hp motor, double speed: (3hp x 2 x 2 x 2) = 24 hp

29 Pulley Types Standard V-Pulley V-Step Pulley Adjustable V-Pulley

30 Sizing Pulleys Pulley Selection Chart (p.49) Size of pulley on motor –under 1/2 hp, keep pulley under 2” diameter –over 1/2 hp, pulley 3” or larger Move across chart to desired equipment speed Move up to find equipment pulley size

31 Sizing Pulleys RPM of motor pulley X Dia. of motor pulley = RPM of equip. pulley X Dia. equip. pulley Example: Motor = 1725 rpm’s with 3” pulley Desired rpm of equipment = 2100 What size pulley is needed on equipment? 1725 X 3 = 2100 X pulley 5175 = 2100 x pulley 5175 / 2100 = 2.46 or 2 1/2: pulley

32 Sizing Pulleys (Jack Pulley) p rpm X 2” pulley = rpm X 12” pulley rpm’s on Jack pulley rpm X 2” pulley = 70 rpm X Pulley 8” pulley on equipment

33 Belt Types FP = Fractional Power (3L): 2 1/2” pulley or smaller, less slippage A-Section: (4L): heavier, larger pulleys to prevent slippage (3” or larger) B, C, D, E: larger belts, larger pulleys Belt should have same width of groove as pulley Top of belt should sit flush with top of pulley

34 Factors Affecting Belt Life keep pulleys aligned adjust belt tension regularly & properly keep belts clean use proper belts never stretch belts or sheaves

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