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CHAPTER 11 Packaging and Materials Handling © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Learning Objectives To know how product features affect packaging and materials handling To familiarize you with packaging fundamentals such as packaging functions and labeling To appreciate select issues that affect packaging such as environmental protection and packaging inefficiencies © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-2
Learning Objectives To learn about unit loads and the unit load platform To identify materials handling principles and materials handling equipment © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-3
Protective Packaging and Materials Handling Key Terms Packaging Pallet (skid) Part-to-picker systems Picker-to-part systems Shrink-wrap Slip sheet Unit load (Unitization) Weighing out © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-4
Product Characteristics Physical Characteristics – Substance form (solid, liquid, and gas) – Density of bulk materials – Ability to withstand exposure to elements – Respiration Chemical Characteristics – Incompatible products – Products requiring chemicals Characteristics must be made known to consumers © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-5
Figure 11-1: Portion of Fabric Care Label for Levi’s Jeans Sold in Japan © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-6
Packaging Fundamentals Building-blocks concept – Smallest unit is consumer package – Each unit is stocked within the next larger one to protect the product Packaging – refers to materials used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery, and presentation of goods – Serves three general functions To promote To protect To identify (label) the relevant product © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-7
Promotional and Protective Functions of Packaging Protective functions of packaging – Enclose materials – Restrain materials from undesired movement – Separate contents to prevent undesired contact – Cushion contents from outside vibrations and shocks – Support the weight of identical containers stacked above – Position the contents to provide maximum protection – Provide for uniform weight distribution – Provide exterior surface for labeling – Be tamperproof – Be safe for consumers or others © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-8
Package Testing and Monitoring A package system requires 3 types of information to design – Severity of the distribution environment – Fragility of the product – Performance characteristics of various cushion materials © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-9
Package Testing and Monitoring Package testing – Vibrations – Dropping – Horizontal impacts – Compression – Overexposure to extreme temperatures or moisture – Rough handling © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-10
Figure 11-4: Kaiser Aluminum’s Moisture-Alert Label © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-11
Labeling – Retroflective labels – Batch numbers – Weight – Specific contents – Instructions for use – Information to allow passage through customs – Compliance labeling – One- or two-dimensional bar codes – Smart labels or RFID labels © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-12
Figure 11-5: Examples of Shipping Labels © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-13
Labeling Hazardous Materials – Governmental regulations address labeling of hazardous materials Requirements involve – Labeling – Packaging and repackaging – Placing warnings on shipping documents – Notifying transportation carriers in advance Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) is a global system to classify and label hazardous materials. © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-14
Issues in Packaging Environmental Protection – Reduce packing materials used – Use packaging materials that are more environmentally friendly with recycled content – Use reusable containers (closed-loop system) – Retain or support services that collect used packaging and recycle it (closed-loop system) © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-15
Issues in Packaging Metric System – U.S., Liberia, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) are the only 3 countries in the world that do not use the metric system of measurement – Increasing pressure on U.S. exporters to market their products overseas in metric units © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-16
Identifying Packaging Inefficiencies Building-blocks concept is useful for analyzing packaging inefficiencies. Packaging inefficiencies can have a number of undesirable logistics consequences including: – Increased loss – Increase damage – Slower materials handling – Higher storage costs – Higher transportation costs © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-17
Table 11-1: A Hypothetical Example of Packaging Inefficiency © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-18
Packaging’s Influence on Transportation Considerations Carrier’s tariffs and classifications influence the type of packaging and packing methods that must be used. Carriers established classifications for two main reasons: – Packaging specifications determined by product density lead to the best use of the equipment’s weight and volume capabilities – Carrier specifications for protective packaging reduce likelihood of damage to products thus reducing the loss and damage claims filed against the carrier © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-19
Figure 11-6: Boxmaker’s Guarantee © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-20
Unit Loads in Materials Handling A unit load (unitization) refers to consolidation of several units (cartons or cases) into larger units to improve efficiency in handling and to reduce shipping costs. Source: Handling efficiency can be facilitated by mechanical devices (pallet jack or forklift) as well as by using a pallet or skid © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Unit Loads in Materials Handling Advantages – Additional protection – Pilferage is discouraged – More fragile items can be stacked inside the load – Mechanical devices can be substituted for hand labor Disadvantages – Provides large quantity that sometimes is of limited value to resellers dealing in smaller quantities – Must use mechanical or automated device to move © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-22
Figure 11-7: Automated Guided Vehicle © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Unit Loads in Materials Handling Basic unit is a pallet or skid – Can be constructed from wood, wood composites, plastic, paper, and metal – Each pallet material has advantages and disadvantages – Should be less than 50 pounds Pallet or skid alternatives – Slip sheet – Shrink-wrap © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-24
Unit Loads in Material Handling Beyond the unit load – Use of load-planning software – Bracing – Inflatable dunnage bags – Load is subjected various forces including Vibration Roll Pitch – Weighing out © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-25
Materials Handling Materials handling refers to the “short-distance movement that usually takes place tihin the confines of a building such as a plant or DC and between a build and a transportation service provider.” Source: John J. Coyle, C. John Langley, Jr., Brian J. Gibson, Robert A. Novack, and Edward J. Bardi, Supply Chain Management: A Logistics Perspective, 8 th ed. (Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2009), Appendix 11-A. How the products are handled depends on whether they are packaged or in bulk Handling may change the characteristics of the product © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-26
Materials Handling Principles © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Material Handling Principles Include: 1.Planning 2.Standardization 3.Work 4.Ergonomic 5.Unit load 6.Space utilization 7.System 8.Automation 9.Environmental 10.Life cycle cost Source: “The Ten Principles of Material Handling,”
Materials Handling Equipment Two categories of handling equipment – Storage Shelves Racks Bins – Handling Conveyor systems Lift trucks Carts Cranes © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-28
Materials Handling Equipment The choice of handling equipment can influence the type of storage equipment. The choice of storage equipment can influence the type of handling equipment. © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-29
Materials Handling Equipment Material handling equipment can also be categorized as: – Labor intensive – Mechanized – Automated Sufficient volume is needed to justify high cost of automated equipment © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-30
Materials Handling Equipment An organization’s order picking and assembly system can also influence the type of handling equipment. – Picker-to-part systems – Part-to-picker systems © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-31
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