2 START Prof – THE PIPE FLEXIBILITY AND STRESS ANALYSIS World’s first pipe stress analysis software First introduced in 1969 The Russian code pipe stress analysis de facto standard YearMachine/operating system 1969Minsk 2 computer 1972Minsk 32 computer 1976ES-1040 computer 1992PC: MS DOS 2000PC: Windows PC: Windows 8
3 CodeDetail STO District heating networks RD Power piping SA Process piping SNIP & SP Gas & oil transmission and distribution piping systems STO Fiberglass district heating pipelines (based on ISO 14692) START implements Russian codes
4 Rus Russia Kazakhstan Ukraine Belarus START is used by more than 1400 companies, more than 8300 licenses Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Serbia, Finland, Germany, United Kingdom
5 Some completed design projects from one of our 1400 users: OAO "Mosinjproject", Moscow, Russia. Buried district heating network with polyurethane foam insulation built in Moscow. Depth 1.4 m, soil: sand, diameter 1420 mm, wall thickness 14 mm, Pressure 1.6 MPa, Temperature 130°C, product: hot water.
6 OAO "Mosinjproject", Moscow, Russia. Above ground district heating network with polyurethane foam insulation built in Moscow. Diameter 1420 mm, wall thickness 14 mm, Pressure 1.6 MPa, Temperature 150°C, product: hot water
7 OAO "Mosinjproject", Moscow, Russia. Buried district heating network with polyurethane foam insulation at Moscow. Depth 2 m, soil: sand, diameter 820 mm, wall thickness 9 mm, Pressure 1.6 MPa, Temperature 130°C, product: hot water
8 START buried pipeline modeling The pipe-soil interaction model is based on the experiment results by VNIIST Co., Moscow Interaction between pipeline and soil in buried pipelines, taking into account nonlinear soil flexibility, polyurethane insulation layer and expansion cushions.
10 Buried pipeline – soil interaction model Vertical soil P- ∆ diagram Horizontal soil P- ∆ diagram Longitudinal soil P- ∆ diagram (friction) Vertical soil flexibility Longitudinal soil flexibility Horizontal soil flexibility The pipe-soil interaction model is based on the experimental results at VNIIST, Moscow Friction
11 START automatically calculates the soil spring properties according to the soil type, depth at each point, slope angle of pipe and ground, insulation properties The spring properties is based on horizontal pipe experiment data. START use the special algorithm to recalculate the nonlinear spring properties for pipes for a different slope angle 0 to 90 degree.
12 START also consider the buoyancy of water and changing of the soil properties located in water (soil liquefaction) Ground water level
13 START also checks the buried pipe crossection for Bending and membrane stresses in pipe due to external soil pressure and internal product pressure Ring buckling of pipe cross section The stresses in polyurethane foam insulation It’s possible due to the internal nonlinear FEM model of buried pipe crosssection with polyurethane. This model consider: Nonlinear soil springs around the pipe ring Pressure swell effect (prevents ovality) Detachment of soil at upper side of pipe (soil should work only for compression)
14 Buried pipe with polyurethane insulation depth selection problem The maximum depth is limited by the polyurethane foam insulation strength analysis and ring buckling of the pipe The minimum depth is limited by longitudinal stability (stability increases as the depth increases)
15 Code strength conditions comparison for buried heating networks Load caseASME B Restrained ASME B Unrestrained STO & GOST adopted to ASME designations 1 Pressure load 2 Sustained Excluding Thermal Loads (T1) 3 Sustained Including Thermal Loads (T2) 4 Expansion load (T1-T2) 5 Occasional Short-Term Loads For carbon steel: * - Calculates automatically due to design of pipeline. For example ν=0.3 for fully restrained pipe, 0.5 for fully unrestrained and 0.3…0.5 for other intermediate design
16 Weight + pressure + Temperature case is checked only for straight pipes to avoid the yield of pipe material. For bends, tees and reducers this condition is ignored “Fatigue fracture” check case =
17 START consider the remaining friction forces at the cold condition of the pipeline. No analog in other software. It is important for pre-stretched buried pipelines Operation condition of above ground pipeline Cold condition of above ground pipeline (after cool down). There’s a big anchor force due to remaining friction Operation condition of buried pipeline Cold condition of buried pipeline (after cool down). There’s a big anchor force due to remaining friction
18 START consider pressure thrust forces Bourdon effect in bends with initial ellipticity (ovality) Pipe contraction (shortening) due to internal pressure
19 Since 2014 START perform stress analysis for fiberglass piping with polyurethane foam insulation according to standard STO (copy of ISO 14692) for district heating pipelines. START have the database with fiberglass pipe and fitting material properties at different temperatures. Therefore START provides fiberglass analysis as easy as for the steel pipelines.
21 Buried pipeline model with restrained zone Virtual anchor length (sliding friction zone) Restrained Zone (zero displacement) Axial forces diagram Bending moment diagram Lateral bearing length
22 START consider nonlinear effects Friction in sliding supports Returning force due to hanger rod rotation One-way restraints Gaps Nonlinear soil properties for buried pipes Spring and constant force hanger selection
23 Equipment and vessel nozzle flexibility modeling: START-Nozzle option Nozzle-FEM program
24 START offers Input data error checking and reports. The error checker analyzes the user input and checks for consistency from both engineering and geometrical point of view Automatic on-the-fly pressure design checking of all pipes and fittings Regular training by our specialists that can be provided at your site or in one of our training centers Technical support from START developers Exports input data and analysis results to Microsoft Word
25 Pricing Options OptionDetail START-SoilAnalysis of buried pipelines and polyurethane insulation stress START-Projected lifeProjected life analysis of designed process pipelines considering fatigue strength and corrosion per SA START-NozzleEquipment and vessel nozzle flexibility calculation per WRC-297 and BS-5500 СТАРТ-PCFImports pipeline models from PCF format files (provided by CEA Plant4D, Bentley AutoPlant, PlantSpace, Autodesk Plant3D, Coade CADWorx, Intergraph SmartPlant and other systems) START–Neutral fileImport from the neutral format file, export of input data and analysis results to the neutral file. Neutral file is a text file for data exchange with other software
26 Sliding support span calculation (strength condition and limited sagging condition) Wall thickness calculation of pipes, bends, tees, redusers, caps Draft L-, Z-, U-shaped loop analysis One-time compensator span length calculation Restrained buried straight and curved pipe longitudinal stability analysis Pipe ring buckling due to external pressure analysis Pipe ring buckling and stress analysis due to soil weight Polyurethane insulation stress analysis due to soil and vehicle weight e.t.c.