OSHA Standard This training course will cover the OSHA 1910.178 Powered Industrial Truck standard
Employer Responsibilities The employer is responsible for providing employees who will be operating powered industrial trucks as function of their job the knowledge and skills to use the equipment in a safe and productive manner. The employer must: Communicate hazards to employees Comply with North Carolina and Federal Safety Rules and Regulations
Operator Responsibilities As an operator of a powered industrial truck, you have several responsibilities: Perform a daily inspection of the machine and document the condition of the equipment Safely operate the piece of equipment that you have been assigned to use Report any items that are in need of repair to your supervisor and do not operate the machine until the items have been corrected
Powered Industrial Truck A mobile power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack, or tier materials. Powered industrial trucks are classified by manufacturers according to their individual characteristics.
PIT Types The most common powered industrial truck is the sit down rider type, but there are many different pieces of equipment that are classified as powered industrial trucks and are subject to the powered industrial truck standard. This may range from a motorized hand truck (class III) to a Bobcat type machine with a fork attachment.
Center of Gravity The point at which the load of the powered industrial truck is concentrated. If the center of gravity remains inside the triangle, the truck will not tip over. Support points A, B & C form stability triangle
Load Capacity Each powered industrial truck should have a name plate secured to it. The name plate will give the load capacity of the truck Do not exceed the rated load capacity Exceeding the load capacity may cause the truck to tip causing harm to you and bystanders
Attachments Powered industrial trucks serve a variety of purposes and there are many different attachments that may be added on and used safely. Each attachment requires training specific to that piece of equipment Attachments may require specific operating conditions and/or PPE Only use attachments that are designed for that specific powered industrial truck
Authorized Operator To become an authorized operator you must successfully complete a two section training program consisting of: Classroom – this course Practical – demonstration of a working knowledge of powered industrial trucks through safe operating practices and evaluation. After successful completion of both courses EHS will issue you an Authorized Operator License
Authorized Operator, con’t. As an authorized operator, you may only operate the Powered Industrial Truck(s) that you have been trained on and authorized to use. While many powered industrial trucks look similar and have similar controls, it is important to know the specifics of each piece of equipment.
Seven Classes of Powered Industrial Truck Class I - Electric motor rider trucks Class II - Electric motor narrow aisle trucks Class III - Electric motor hand trucks or hand/rider trucks Class IV - Internal combustion engine trucks (solid/cushion tires) Class V - Internal combustion engine trucks (pneumatic tires) Class VI - Electric and internal combustion engine tractors Class VII - Rough terrain forklift trucks
Class One Class I - Electric Powered Sit Down Rider
Class Two Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Isle Truck
Class Three Class III - Electric Motor Hand Trucks or Hand/Rider Trucks
Class Four Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (solid/cushion tires)
Class Five Class V – Internal Combustion Trucks (pneumatic tires)
Class Six Class VI - Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Tractors
Class Seven Class VII - Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks
Controls and Instruments Fuel Gauge Identifies how much fuel is currently on board the piece of equipment. The fuel gauge reading must be taken during the daily checks Engine Temperature Gauge Identifies the running temperature of the engine on the piece of equipment. The C on the gauge refers to the engine being cold and the H refers to the engine being hot Ampere Gauge Identifies the battery strength of the piece of equipment
Controls and Instruments, con’t. Oil Pressure Gauge Identifies the engine oil pressure Engine Hour Meter This meter records the total amount of hours that the engine has been used. This reading must be recorded on the daily inspection forms because it is used to schedule maintenance on the piece of equipment Rear View Mirror The mirror attached to the powered industrial truck that gives a visual representation of the area behind the driver
Safety Features Seat Belt keeps you secured to the truck in the event of an accident. At UNC you are required to wear your seatbelt Overhead Guard prevents the powered industrial truck from crushing you in the event of a tip-over, but this guard is only effective with the combined used of a seatbelt
Safety Features, con’t. The flashing strobe light and horn should be used to notify others when: driving around a corner visual obstruction is present poor lighting conditions lowering your load
Safety Features, con’t. Auxiliary Seat Brake: acts as an emergency brake engage prior to stepping off the truck may be located in the front next to the steering column or in another position depending on piece of equipment
Differences Between Powered Industrial Trucks and Automobiles There are several differences between driving a powered industrial truck and driving an automobile.
Differences Between Powered Industrial Trucks and Automobiles Powered industrial trucks can weigh several times more than an automobile. The steering of the vehicle is usually from the back wheels as opposed to an automobile turning from the front. This gives the powered industrial truck a tighter turning radius than an automobile from the front, but a wider turning radius from the rear. Powered industrial trucks also have a three point suspension system as opposed to the four point suspension of an automobile. This factor makes the powered industrial truck easier to tip over than an automobile.
Before and After Each Use Before and after each use you are responsible for checking: The overhead guard for any broken welds, missing bolts, or damaged areas Hydraulic cylinders and lines. Make sure they are free from leaks and lines are in good condition showing no signs of cracking The mast assembly for broken welds, cracks, or bends All lift chains and rollers for excessive wear, damage, kinks, rusting, need for lubrication, squeaks and bends
Before and After, con’t. Before and after each use you are responsible for checking: Forks and carriage. Make sure that there are no cracks or bends in the metal. Make sure attachments being used are securely fastened Steering mechanism for excessive motion Brakes for proper function. If the pedal goes all the way to the floor when you apply the brake, that is an indication that the breaking system is not functioning properly. Make sure the emergency brake works. There should be no movement of the powered industrial truck when the emergency brake is engaged Lights and horn to make sure they are functioning properly The battery to make sure all caps are in place and that cables are free damage
If Any Problems Are Found After completing the visual inspection, if any problems are found: Tag the equipment identifying that it is not to be used Report the problem to your supervisor
Diesel or Gasoline Refueling To properly refuel a powered industrial truck the following steps should be taken: All internal combustion engines must be turned off before refueling. Refueling should be in the open or in specifically designated areas, where adequate ventilation is provided Smoking is prohibited when refueling or operating a powered industrial truck and signs must be posted to that effect Proper PPE must be worn
Propane Refueling Safely refueling a propane cylinder requires the following steps: Turn the gas valve to the off position and let the engine run until it stalls Turn off the ignition and the lights and set the emergency brake Check the connections for damage Remove empty tank and store it or secure the tank in a vehicle and bring it to the service station to be filled Install the new or filled tank securely Check the connection for leaks and damage Proper PPE must be worn
Recharging Battery-charging installations must be located in areas designated for that purpose. They must be capable of flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte. The charging apparatus needs to be protected from damage by trucks, adequate ventilation for dispersal of gases or vapors from gassing batteries. An overhead hoist, or equivalent equipment, must be used for handling batteries. Reinstalled batteries must be properly positioned and secured in the truck.
Recharging, con’t. A carboy tilter or siphon must be used for handling electrolyte. Acid must always be poured into water. Water must NOT be poured into acid (it overheats and splatters) During charging operations, vent caps must be removed to avoid electrolyte spray. Make sure that vent caps are functioning. Battery or compartment cover or covers must be open to dissipate heat Precautions must be taken to prevent open flames, sparks, or electric arc in battery-charging areas and tools and other metallic objects must be kept away from the tops of uncovered batteries Employees charging and changing batteries shall be authorized to do the work, trained in the proper handling, and required to wear protective clothing, including face shields, long sleeves, rubber boots, aprons, and gloves Smoking is prohibited in the charging area. "No Smoking" signs must be posted
Transporting and Maneuvering When maneuvering and transporting: Give pedestrians the right of way Activate strobe lights and utilize the horn when going around corners Always pay attention to the path of travel Never lift loads when the powered industrial truck is moving Approach any potential obstacle slowly and with caution
Transporting and Maneuvering When maneuvering and transporting: Ensure that the loads are neatly stacked, stable, evenly distributed and secure Space the forks under the load as far as possible. This will ensure that the load is evenly distributed Approach the load with caution with the mast in a vertical position Lift the forks only as high as needed to move the load. (2 to 6 inches) Tilt the forks back for added stability
Transporting and Maneuvering If the powered industrial truck is not loaded, drive in reverse up the incline. Drive forward down the incline If the powered industrial truck is carrying a load Drive forward up the incline. Drive in reverse down the incline
Crossing Railway Tracks There are areas where employees may need to cross railway tracks. This poses a unique hazard and caution must be exercised. Always cross railway tracks on a diagonal Park forklift at least 8 feet away from railway tracks Obey any warning signs or alert systems
Refresher Training In General, refresher training is required every three (3) years. However, refresher training will be required more frequently if: An authorized operator is involved in an accident or near-miss incident An operator is using the powered industrial truck in an un-safe manner The written and/or practical evaluation is not completed successfully If workplace conditions change Different equipment will be used
Review The following are key points to remember as an authorized operator: Operate only the equipment that you are authorized to use Familiarize yourself with the piece of equipment that you are going to use and follow all of its operating procedures Inspect equipment thoroughly prior to use Know your travel routes and overhead clearance levels Do not allow any passengers Stay within the safety cage of the powered industrial truck at all times No matter how short or long the distance always fasten your seat belt
Post Test In order to successfully complete the classroom section of the powered industrial truck training you must pass the post test. After passing you must contact your supervisor to arrange for the practical section of this training.