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Community Ecology primary communities wetland and peatland communities swamp and upland communities.

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Presentation on theme: "Community Ecology primary communities wetland and peatland communities swamp and upland communities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Community Ecology primary communities wetland and peatland communities swamp and upland communities

2 PRIMARY COMMUNITIES rock type slope and aspect size and shape

3 2149A 65N_, 100 m2m2 amygdaloidal basalt breccia C 20% overhanging mixed forest 50NW, 150 m2m2 amygdaloidal basalt breccia C 50% shrubs on talus and overhanging mixed forest 2149B

4 WETLANDS and PEATLANDS water chemistry hydrology shade

5 alkalinity and pH, base cations (Ca, Mg,...), water flow, groundwater influence nutrient availability (N, P), productivity, decomposition water-level fluctuations oligotrophic mesotrophic eutrophic bog extreme rich fen tidal marsh swamp poor fen int. rich fen transitional fen saline marsh fresh- water marsh or shallow open water wooded wooded Sphagnum bryophytes

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9 pH = 6.5 pH = 3.8

10 BOG water table FEN peat till bedrock Surface-flow Hypothesis Groundwater Hypothesis

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13 SWAMP and UPLAND COMMUNITIES substrate-types availability utilization growth-form differentiation

14 1 st step: line-intercept data to obtain substrate availability 2 nd step: ocular cover per substrate is estimated 3 rd step: point-intercept data on bryophyte species is used to calculate growth-form differentiation

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21 Aquatic Terrestrial Semi- terrestrial Epiphytic BryoPie Construction: substrate types

22 aquatic rheophytic mineral

23 terrestrial mineral rock

24 semi-terrestrial peatlands, peat forming

25 epiphytic corticolous vertical

26 small cushion large cushion short turf tall turf carpet dendroid turf thalloid mat smooth mat rough mat weft cushions turfs mats BryoPie Construction: growth forms

27 Cushions Domes, shoots radiating from central point of origin, branches similar, growing in same direction as main shoots. Branching especially from near the apex of the shoots, thus adding to the size of the cushion Cs Small cushion: short shoots, a few cm at most Cl Large cushion: shoots often 1 to several dm tall

28 large cushion

29 Turfs Upright shoots, plants with parallel shoots, direction of growth vertical Ts Short turf: turfs up to a few cm tall, of erect shoots with some, usually subapical branching Tt Tall turf: turfs of upright shoots up to several dm tall with some, mostly subapical branching Tc Carpet: tall turfs with divergent branches, stems erect with many clusters of branches Td Dendroid: shoots sympodial, first creeping or stoloniferous, then erect, unbranched below with scale leaves, normal leaves and/or branches clustered above, forming a canopy

30 carpet

31 Mats Horizontal stems, plants forming dense and interwoven mats, extending horizontally over the substrate Mt Thalloid mat: consisting of usually branched thalli growing closely appressed to the substrate Ms Smooth mat: shoots and branches growing appressed to the substrate, often attached to it by rhizoids Mw Weft: loose intertwining and straggling shoots and branches, laterals often ascending and arching Mr Rough mat: main shoots adhering to the substrate, but branches growing in oblique or vertical directions

32 rough mat

33 weft

34 1 st substrate availability: color pie sectors BryoPie Construction: diagram 2 nd utilization: shade sectors 3 rd growth forms: hatch sub-sectors

35 BryoPie Construction: examples FDn: bedrock-conifer woodland MHn: mesic mixed hardwood forest WF: black-ash swamp CPn: black-spruce swamp


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