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187. Relevant Facts ►Jesus of Nazareth ►Jewish prophet ►Claimed to be the Christ prophesied in Jewish Scriptures 188.

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Presentation on theme: "187. Relevant Facts ►Jesus of Nazareth ►Jewish prophet ►Claimed to be the Christ prophesied in Jewish Scriptures 188."— Presentation transcript:

1 187

2 Relevant Facts ►Jesus of Nazareth ►Jewish prophet ►Claimed to be the Christ prophesied in Jewish Scriptures 188

3 Relevant Facts ►He was crucified ►3 days after his burial, the women found the body gone 189

4 Relevant Facts ►Disciples claimed God raised Him from the dead and He appeared to them several times before ascending to heaven 190

5 The Resurrection is a time-space dimension event in history 191

6 Events in History ►Jesus was physically alive, then dead ►Was placed in a definite geological location – a tomb 192

7 Events in History ►Guards were placed at the tomb ►500 people saw Him alive after His death 193

8 Testimony of History and Law 194

9 George Eldon Ladd “The only rational explanation for these historical facts is that God raised Jesus in bodily form.” 195

10 Thomas Arnol d Author: 3-volume History of Rome “I have been used for many years to study the histories of other times and to examine and weigh the evidence of those who have written about them… 196

11 Thomas Arnold Author: 3-volume History of Rome …I know of no one fact in the history of mankind, which is proved by better and fuller evidence of every sort to the understanding of a fair inquirer… 197

12 …than the great sign which God hath given us that Christ died and rose again from the dead.” Thomas Arnold Author: 3-volume History of Rome 198

13 “Taking all the evidence together, it is not too much to say that there is no historical incident better or more variously supported than the resurrection of Christ… Brooke Foss Westcott English Scholar/Literary Giant 199

14 …Nothing but the anteceded assumption that it must be false could have suggested the idea of deficiency in the proof of it.” Brooke Foss Westcott English Scholar/Literary Giant 200

15 “If all the evidence is weighed carefully and fairly, it is indeed justifiable according to the canons of historical research to conclude that the tomb… Dr. Paul Maie r Western Michigan University 201

16 …in which Jesus was buried was actually empty on the morning of the first Easter.” Dr. Paul Maier Western Michigan University 202

17 Dr. Frank Morriso n Journalist He was trained in examining the evidence to report the truth about stories. He thought the life of Christ was the most beautiful lifestyle, but… 203

18 …regarding the resurrection thought somebody tacked a myth onto the beautiful life of Christ. Dr. Frank Morrison Journalist 204

19 …He decided to write a book to refute the myth of the resurrection. While doing research in Palestine, he became a believer. Dr. Frank Morrison Journalist 205

20 Wrote Who Moved the Stone? Chapter 1: “The Book That Refused to Be Written.” Dr. Frank Morrison Journalist 206

21 Dr. Simon Greenleaf Harvard University Law Not a believer, he used to put down the Christians in his law classes. 207

22 …One year, Christian students challenged him to take his three volumes on the Laws of Legal Evidence and apply the principles to evidence for the resurrection of Christ… Dr. Simon Greenleaf Harvard University Law 208

23 …In the process, he became a believer and concluded “the resurrection is one of the best established facts of history.” Dr. Simon Greenleaf Harvard University Law 209

24 It is impossible that the apostles “could have persisted in affirming the truths they had narrated… Dr. Simon Greenleaf Harvard University Law 210

25 …had not Jesus actually risen from the dead, and had they not known this fact as certainly as they knew any other fact.” Dr. Simon Greenleaf Harvard University Law 211

26 Greenleaf concludes that the resurrection of Christ is one of the best-supported events in history according to the laws of legal evidence administered in courts of justice. Dr. Simon Greenleaf Harvard University Law 212

27 “In its favor as a living truth there exists such overwhelming evidence, positive and negative, factual and circumstantial… Lord Darling Former Chief Justice Great Britain 213

28 …that no intelligent jury in the world could fail to bring in a verdict that the resurrection story is true.” Lord Darling Former Chief Justice Great Britain 214

29 “The historical, documentary, archaeological, and other evidence that has been presented to the jury is sufficient… Pamela Binnings Ewen Partner-International Law Firm 215

30 …by more than a preponderance that the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus as reported in the Gospels actually did occur as a historical fact.” Pamela Binnings Ewen Partner-International Law Firm 216

31 “I have been fortunate to secure a number of successes in jury trials and I say unequivocally the evidence for the resurrection of Jesus Christ… Sir Lionel Luckhoo 217

32 …is so overwhelming that it compels acceptance by proof which leaves absolutely no room for doubt.” Sir Lionel Luckhoo 218

33 “It seems clear – indeed, axiomatic –that if the resurrection of Jesus actually occurred, then it is a fact about the past as it occurred… Stephen Davis Philosopher 219

34 …And if the world of history is understood as the events that occurred in the real past and that historians attempt to discover, then it follows that the resurrection of Jesus was an event in history.” Stephen Davis Philosopher 220

35 “The hypothesis of the resurrection is both verifiable and falsifiable:… Dr. William Lane Craig 221

36 …Verifiable through proving the historicity of the empty tomb, the appearances and the origin of the Christian Way;… Dr. William Lane Craig 222

37 …Falsifiable by either disproving the above or providing naturalistic explanations of them... Dr. William Lane Craig 223

38 …In fact, I should go so far as to say that there is not a single event in the resurrection narratives that is not in principle historically verifiable or falsifiable.” Dr. William Lane Craig 224

39 “When you... [use] the ordinary canons of historical assessment, the best explanation for the facts is that God raised Jesus from the dead.” Dr. William Lane Craig 225

40 “The historicity of Christ is as axiomatic for an unbiased historian as the historicity of Julius Caesar. It is not historians who propagate the ‘Christ-myth’ theories.” F.F. Bruce 226

41 “The Gospels are documents of the requisite age, coming from the proper custody, and free of suspicious appearances… Pamela Binnings Ewen Partner-International Law Firm 227

42 …they meet all of the requirements for authentication under the rules of evidence.” Pamela Binnings Ewen Partner-International Law Firm 228

43 “To understand the shattering impact of it, you would need to know the man (who has certainly never since shown any interest in Christianity… Pamela Binnings Ewen Partner-International Law Firm 229

44 …If he, the cynic of cynics, the toughest of the tough, were not – as I would still have put it – ‘safe,’ where could I turn? Was there no escape?... Pamela Binnings Ewen Partner-International Law Firm 230

45 …brought kicking, struggling, resentful, and darting eyes in every direction for a chance of escape.” Pamela Binnings Ewen Partner-International Law Firm 231

46 C.S. Lewis Author “Early in 1926, the hardest-boiled of all the atheists I ever knew sat in my room on the other side of the fire and remarked that the evidence… 232

47 …for the historicity of the Gospels was really surprisingly good.” C.S. Lewis Author 233

48 Atheist Talking to C.S. Lewis “All that stuff of Frazer’s about the Dying God…It almost looks as if it really happened once.” 234

49 “It seemed very clear. I didn’t see any other explanation in history for what happened.” Anne Rice Novelist 235

50 236

51 237

52 “In order for David Copperfield to accomplish his ‘miracles,’ he presently carried 26,000 pounds of equipment with a staff of 40 people… Andre Kole World-famous Illusionist 238

53 …The point is obvious. In order for Jesus to have been a magician…and to do what He did by magic, you would have to visualize Jesus and the disciples… Andre Kole World-famous Illusionist 239

54 …walking through the dusty streets of Galilee in their long robes and sandals 2,000 year ago… Andre Kole World-famous Illusionist 240

55 …three diesel trucks following behind to carry all the equipment Jesus would have needed to perform His miracles by magic!... Andre Kole World-famous Illusionist 241

56 …Jesus had been crucified and killed because He claimed to be God. His resurrection proved His claims.” Andre Kole World-famous Illusionist 242

57 “…For anyone to suggest that Jesus could have been a magician…is to demonstrate an absolute, complete, total ignorance of the subject of magic.” Andre Kole World-famous Illusionist 243

58 George Eldon Ladd “The only rational explanation for these historical facts is that God raised Jesus in bodily form.” 244

59 Gary Habermas Distinguished professor / chairman of philosophy and theology at Liberty University Debated on the issue “Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?” 245

60 A professional debate judge who was asked to evaluate the debate concludes, “The historical evidence, though flawed, is strong enough to lead reasonable minds to conclude… Gary Habermas 246

61 …that Christ did indeed rise from the dead…Habermas does end up providing ‘highly probable evidence’… Gary Habermas 247

62 …for the historicity of the resurrection ‘with no plausible naturalistic evidence against it.’” Gary Habermas 248

63 There is a problem of “proving” anything about a person or event in history. It can be very difficult. 249

64 Two Basic Methods 250

65 1.The Modern Scientific Method 2.The Legal-Historical or The Evidential Method 251

66 “Scientific Proof” Based on showing that something is a fact by repeating the event in the presence of the person questioning the fact. 252

67 253

68 “Knowledge based on the observation and testing of facts.” (The Basic Dictionary of Science) 254

69 “…techniques of controlled observation employed in the search for knowledge.” (Harper Encyclopedia of Science) 255

70 “Scientific Proof” The “testing of the truth of hypotheses by the use of controlled experiments is one of the key techniques of the modern scientific method.” 256

71 Observations Data Drawn Hypothesis empirically verified Scientific Method Based Upon: 257

72 “The collection of data through observation and experiment.” Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary 258

73 “The ‘scientific method,’ however it is defined is related to measurement of phenomena and experimentation or repeated observation.” Encyclopedia Britannica 259

74 “Science…a result of experimentation and observation, and are fruitful of further experimentation and observations.” Dr. James B. Conant Former President- Harvard University 260

75 Dr. James B. Conant “Science is an interconnected series of concepts and conceptual schemes… 261

76 Dr. James B. Conant …that have developed as a result of experimentation and observation, and are fruitful of further experimentation and observations.” 262

77 “Testing the truth of a hypothesis by the use of controlled experiments is one of the key techniques of the modern scientific method.” Josh D. McDowell Author 263

78 It must be related to a measurement of phenomena and experimentation or repeated observation. To be Proven Scientifically: 264

79 We must make observations and draw data repeatedly before a hypothesis is determined true. To be Proven Scientifically: 265

80 The Scientific Method is only useful in proving repeatable events. Science is Limited 266

81 “Scientific proof is based on showing that something is a fact by repeating the event in the presence of the person questioning the fact.” Josh D. McDowell Author 267

82 268

83 You had an exam in your first class this morning. Students: 269

84 Try to prove scientifically you had Christmas dinner with your family and friends last December 25 th. Husband & Wives: 270

85 Try to prove scientifically you were in your office this morning. Businessmen/Women: 271

86 September 11, 2001: Try to prove scientifically that terrorists flew two planes into the World Trade Center in New York City. 272

87 273

88 Used in the courts today A lawyer might use the scientific method in making his case 274

89 If the scientific method was the only method used there would be no law court or judicial proceedings in which to make one’s case. 275

90 Legal “Proof” Based on showing that something is true “beyond a reasonable doubt.” 276

91 “The legal-historical proof is based on showing that something is a fact ‘beyond a reasonable doubt’… Josh D. McDowell Author 277

92 …We reach a verdict on the weight of the evidence and have no rational basis for doubting the decision.” Josh D. McDowell Author 278

93 Legal “Proof” The judge or jury reaches a verdict or a conclusion – on the basis of “the weight of the evidence.” 279

94 Evidence Which The Court Can Consider 280

95 Written Testimony 281

96 Exhibits (Physical Testimony) 282

97 Oral Testimony 283

98 Students: You could prove beyond a reasonable doubt that you had an exam this morning in your first hour class. 284

99 Friends Sat next to Professor Exhibit – cheat notes inside your cuff BUT YOU COULDN’T PROVE IT SCIENTIFICALLY 285

100 Conclusion: The “scientific method” can only be used to “prove” repeatable things, but it is not adequate for a person or event in history. 286

101 Therefore, the scientific method is not appropriate for proving or disproving such questions as: 287

102 1. Did Julius Caesar ever live? 288

103 2. Did William Shakespeare write “Hamlet”? 289

104 3. Did George Washington live? 290

105 4. Who was Jesus of Nazareth? 291

106 5. Was Martin Luther King a civil rights leader? 292

107 8. Was JFK assasinated? 293

108 7. Does Barry Bond hold baseball’s single-season home run record? 294

109 6. Was Jesus Christ raised from the dead? 295

110 Correct Concept: The basis of the Christian faith (Christ’s claims and his resurrection) can be substantiated beyond reasonable doubt according to the Legal- Historical Method. 296

111 297

112 “…perhaps all our convictions and even our period’s whole understanding of truth? We say as one great historian used to say in such instances:… Ethelbert Stauffer The Erlanger historian 298

113 …It is surely possible. And why not? For the critical historian, nothing is impossible.” Ethelbert Stauffer The Erlanger historian 299

114 “What does the critical historian do when his evidence point very strongly to the reality of an event which contradicts his expectations… Ron Sider President-ESA Ministry Leadership 300

115 …and goes against the naturalistic view of reality? I submit that he must follow his critically analyzed sources… Ron Sider President-ESA Ministry Leadership 301

116 …It is unscientific to begin with the philosophical presupposition that miracles cannot occur… Ron Sider President-ESA Ministry Leadership 302

117 …Unless we avoid such one- sided presuppositions, historical interpretation becomes mere propaganda… Ron Sider President-ESA Ministry Leadership 303

118 …We have a right to demand good evidence for an alleged event which we have not experienced… Ron Sider President-ESA Ministry Leadership 304

119 …but we dare not judge reality by our limited experience. And I would suggest that we have good evidence for the resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth.” Ron Sider President-ESA Ministry Leadership 305

120 “The purpose of the historian is not to construct a history from preconceived notions and to adjust to his own liking… Philip Schaff Historian 306

121 …but to reproduce it from the best evidences and to let it speak for itself.” Philip Schaff Historian 307

122 “No historians really believe in the absolute truth of what they are writing, simply in its probable truth… Richard Evans Historian 308

123 …which they have done their utmost to establish by following the usual rules of evidence.” Richard Evans Historian 309

124 310

125 History-“a knowledge of the past based upon testimony.” 311

126 The Resurrection takes the question “Is Christianity valid?” out of the realm of philosophy and makes it a question of history. 312

127 Jesus of Nazareth, a Jewish prophet who claimed to be the Christ prophesied in the Jewish Scriptures, was arrested, judged to be a political criminal, and crucified. 313

128 From this foundation, Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire and has continued to exert great influence throughout the world through all subsequent centuries. 314

129 Testimony of History 315

130 “Another result of comparing New Testament Greek with the language of the papryi [discoveries]… Millar Burrows 316

131 … is an increase of confidence in the accurate transmission of the text of the New Testament itself.” Millar Burrows 317

132 William F. Albright “We can already say emphatically that there is no longer any solid basis for dating any book of the New Testament after about A.D. 80… 318

133 William F. Albright … two full generations before the date between 130 and 150 given by the more radical New Testament critics of today.” 319

134 William F. Albright “In my opinion, every book of the New Testament was written by a baptized Jew between the forties… 320

135 William F. Albright … and the eighties of the first century A.D. (very probably sometime between about A.D. 50 and 75).” 321

136 “Luke is a historian of the first rank…This author should be placed along with the very greatest of historians.” Sir William Ramsay 322

137 “His research led to his conviction that the whole of the New Testament was written before the fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70” John A.T. Robinson Redating the New Testament 323

138 A good pupil was like “a plastered cistern that loses not a drop.” Mishna, Aboth, ii8 324

139 William F. Albright “Only modern scholars who lack both historical method and perspective can spin such a web of speculation as that with which form critics have surrounded the Gospel tradition.” 325

140 “The Bible and its sources remain firmly grounded in history.” Jeffery L. Sheler 326

141 “…idea that the various noncanonical gospels are equally valid witnesses to Christian antiquity is deeply flawed.” Philip Jenkins Hidden Gospels 327

142 While the four Gospels were all written within the first century, all evidence points to these other gospels being composed between A.D. 120 and 250, at least three generations removed from the life of Christ. 328

143 Craig A. Evans “The scholarly track record with respect to the use of these extracononical Gospels is, frankly, embarrassing… 329

144 Craig A. Evans …We have found that these extracanonical Gospels do not offer early, reliable tradition, independent of what we posses in the New Testament Gospels.” 330


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