Presentation on theme: "1 Question How do we demonstrate our gratitude for the salvation that Christ has bestowed upon us? Which is easier, to live for Christ or to die for Christ?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Question How do we demonstrate our gratitude for the salvation that Christ has bestowed upon us? Which is easier, to live for Christ or to die for Christ?
2 This Week i. Examine the word “expiation” as it relates to the idea of forgiveness ii. Take note of how that word is used in both the Old Testament and the New Testament iii. Think through the implications of how the work of Christ has completely paid our sin debt and praise God for His unspeakable grace toward us. Lesson Plan
3 I. Expiation a. There are over a dozen closely related terms used by Christian theologians in attempts to define and explain the meaning of Christ's death on the cross as it relates to God and as it relates to believers. b. While different translations of the Bible may emphasize one word over another, the important point is that believers are reconciled to God through Christ's death on the cross. 2 Cor 5:18 And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation; KJV
4 I. Expiation c. In our last lesson we looked at propitiation, which emphasizes the appeasement or averting of God's wrath and justice, and this week we will look at the word expiation, which emphasizes the removal of guilt through a payment of the penalty.
5 Christ’s Death God Expiation- Payment Believer Reconciliation Propitiation-Wrath Averting Reconciliation
6 I. Expiation d. In Greek literature expiation (hilasmos) refers to soothing the anger of the gods. In the Septuagint, the earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament, hilasmos appears in many places: 1. Leviticus 25:9 in the expression, “day of atonement”; 2. Psalms 130:4 to confess that there is “forgiveness” with God; 3. Numbers 5:8 in the expression the “ram of the atonement”; 4. Ezekiel 44:27 as a “sin-offering.” 5. Daniel 9:9 uses the plural form to speak of “forgivenesses” which are a character trait of God.
7 I. Expiation e. Some scholars interpret these Old Testament references to mean that God has acted as the subject to cover and forgive sins. He has removed the uncleanness or defilement of sin. f. From the New Testament perspective, this would mean that on the cross Jesus dealt with the evil nature of human sin and covered it so that God forgives it
8 I. Expiation g. Other scholars see God as the object receiving the offering for sin which then in some sense pacifies His anger and meets His holy need for justice. h. This would mean that Jesus satisfied God's holy anger and justice so that forgiven sinners could freely enter the presence of the holy God. i. The most satisfactory treatment is to recognize both ideas present in the word hilasmos, so that God in grace initiated the sacrifice of Jesus to provide covering and forgiveness for human sin but that He also received the sacrifice which satisfied His anger and justice.
9 II. Old Testament a. The Old Testament sacrificial system was designed to provide a picture of that which would be revealed in the New Testament. Heb 9:8-9 The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing: Which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience; KJV
10 II. Old Testament b. Under this system there were various offerings which may provide us some insight into the meaning of Christ’s sacrificial death on our behalf. For example: 1. The burnt offering, which points to the idea of substitution. Leviticus 1:3 2. The peace offering, which points to the need for reconciliation between God and man. Leviticus 3:1
11 II. Old Testament 3. The sin offering, which points out God’s abhorrence of evil. Leviticus 4:1, 5:13. 4. The guilt offering, which points to man’s personal participation and therefore requires his payment. Leviticus 5:15. 5. None of these dealt with “defiant sins” Numbers 15:20, only with “sin through ignorance” Leviticus 4:2.
12 II. Old Testament c. The high point of the sacrificial system was the annual Day of Atonement when the sins of the people were laid on a scapegoat by the high priest and the sin-laden animal was then driven into the wilderness to perish. Leviticus 16:1. d. In the Old Testament, the note of grace is clearly present. God did not simply wait for His people to bring before Him the appropriate sacrifices. He took the initiative in specifying which sacrifices would be needed. Gen 22:2 And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. KJV
13 II. Old Testament e. Over time Jews forgot the basis of the system in God's grace and in His commands which established the system. They then viewed sacrifice as a mechanical or external way to forgiveness, which God condemned. Isa 1:11 To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the Lord: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats. KJV
14 III. New Testament a. The New Testament shows how Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament system of sacrifices and thus replaced it with His own work on the cross. The Old Testament system could not purify the consciences of those who offered them Heb 8:7-8 For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah: KJV
15 III. New Testament b. In their stead, God provided a perfect Sacrifice, that of His own Son. This sacrifice is eternal, not provisional; it is sufficient to cover or expiate all human sin, not just specific sins. Heb 9:24-26 For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us: Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others; For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. KJV
16 III. New Testament c. Reconciliation was made available to all people in all times who approached God on the basis of the finished work of Christ. Such reconciliation involves a change both in God's attitude toward us and in our attitude toward God. 2 Cor 5:18 And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation; KJV d. The cross of Calvary was God's eternal plan to deal with human sin so that John could describe Jesus as the “Lamb slain from the foundation of the world” Rev 13:8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. KJV.
17 III. New Testament e. To understand the need for propitiation and for expiation, we have to remind ourselves that the God of the Bible is both holy and loving. f. His holiness means that He cannot condone sin. His love signifies that the sinner may be accepted if the claims of divine holiness are recognized and Christ is embraced. Rom 5:10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. KJV
18 III. New Testament g. Therefore the atoning sacrifice of Christ both satisfies the demands of His holy law and demonstrates His boundless love, the love that goes beyond the law and provides our substitute. Rom 5:8 But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. KJV h. God was not waiting to be appeased (as in the pagan, Greek conception). Rather, God condescended to meet us on our level to remedy the situation even while we had no capacity to secure His forgiveness.
19 III. New Testament i. All ritual requirements for sacrifice in the Old Testament are replaced by the sacrifice of the cross, which wipes away the record of our debts. Col 2:13-14 And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses; Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross; KJV
20 III. New Testament j. Yet it is God who in the person of His Son performs the sacrifice of expiation. It is God who in the person of His Son swallows up evil within Himself through vicarious identification with the sin of His people. 2 Cor 5:19 To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. KJV k. A sacrifice was necessary to satisfy the demands of His law, but God Himself provided the Sacrifice out of His incomparable love. What human ritual offerings could not do, God has done once for all by giving up His Son for the sins of the whole human race.
21 III. New Testament l. In conclusion, the doctrine of the atonement includes both the dimensions of propitiation—averting the wrath of God—and expiation—taking away or covering over human guilt. Guilt is expiated and the wrath of God is turned away and the holiness of God is satisfied.
a. The only sacrifices now required of the Christian are those of praise and thanksgiving, which take the form of worship in spirit and in truth and the obedience of discipleship. In view of God’s provision, create a prayer of praise and thanksgiving. b. God calls us to demonstrate our gratefulness for His self- sacrifice by leading lives of holiness, lives that give the world a sign and witness of God's great love for us shown in Jesus Christ. How are you doing at demonstrating your gratefulness? 22 IV. Application