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Anglican Eucharistic Prayers

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1 Anglican Eucharistic Prayers
1549 Prayer Book 1552 Prayer Book 1662 Prayer Book 1789 (Episcopal Church USA)

2 The 1549 Prayer Book Sursum Corda
The Lord be with you. Answer And with thy spirit. Priest Lift up your hearts. Answer We lift them up unto the Lord. Priest Let us give thanks to our Lord God. Answer It is meet and right so to do. No title is given (anaphora, canon, etc.) Begins with Sursum Corda Note Western style (“The Lord be with you”)

3 Preface The Priest It is very meet, right, and our bounden duty that we should at all times and in all places give thanks to thee, O Lord, holy Father, almighty, everlasting God. Here shall follow the proper Preface, according to the time, if there be any specially appointed, or else immediately shall follow, Therefore with angels and archangels, and with all the holy company of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious name; evermore praising thee, and saying, Similar to Roman canon: brief line of thanksgiving introduces a variable preface. But here there are only five prefaces: Christmas, Easter, Ascension, Whitsunday (Pentecost), Trinity; so on most occasions the thanksgiving portion is extremely brief.

4 Sanctus Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts: heaven and earth are full of thy glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. Glory to thee, O Lord, in the highest. This the Clerks shall also sing. Note that here the people are not joining in the speaking of the Sanctus. The priest says it, while the clerks sing it. Reflects medieval practice in which the priest spoke choral parts, while they were sung by the choir (sometimes continuing with the canon while the choir sang the musical setting).

5 Intercessions (Prayer for Whole State of Christ’s Church)
When the Clerks have done singing, then shall the Priest or Deacon turn him to the people, and say, Let us pray for the whole state of Christ's Church. Then the priest, turning him to the altar, shall say or sing, plainly and distinctly, this prayer following. “When the clerks have done singing” … i.e. no silent recitation during the singing of Sanctus. “Shall say or sing, plainly and distinctly” … so the people’s hearing and comprehension is key (remember this is in the vernacular for the first time).

6 Intercessions (Prayer for Whole State of Christ’s Church)
Almighty and everliving God, which by thy holy apostle hast taught us to make prayers, and supplications, and to give thanks for all men; We humbly beseech thee most mercifully to receive these our prayers, which we offer unto thy divine Majesty; beseeching thee to inspire continually the universal church with the spirit of truth, unity, and concord: and grant, that all they that do confess thy holy name may agree in the truth of thy holy word, and live in unity and godly love. “By thy holy apostle”: Paul in 1 Tim. 2:1. “I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men.” Note the similarity to the intercessions after the Sanctus in the Roman Canon. Te igitur has a short line of offering before moving into intercession. So does this: but here it is “our prayers” rather than “these gifts, these holy and unblemished sacrifices”. Intercession begins with prayer for church.

7 Intercessions (Prayer for Whole State of Christ’s Church)
Specially we beseech thee to save and defend thy servant Edward our king; that under him we may be godly and quietly governed; and grant unto his whole council, and to all that be put in authority under him, that they may truly and indifferently minister justice, to the punishment of wickedness and vice, and to the maintenance of God's true religion and virtue. Prayers for the state (cf. Liturgy of John Chrysostom)

8 Intercessions (Prayer for Whole State of Christ’s Church)
Give grace, O heavenly Father, to all bishops, pastors and curates that they may both by their life and doctrine set forth thy true and lively word, and rightly and duly administer thy holy sacraments. And to all thy people give thy heavenly grace; that with meek heart and due reverence, they may hear and receive thy holy word; truly serving thee in holiness and righteousness all the days of their life. And we most humbly beseech thee of thy goodness, O Lord, to comfort and succour all them, which in this transitory life be in trouble, sorrow, need, sickness, or any other adversity. And especially we commend unto thy merciful goodness this congregation, which is here assembled in thy name, to celebrate the commemoration of the most glorious death of thy son. Prayers for the church: clergy, people, those who suffer (envisioned as part of the church), this congregation Note interpretation of communion service as commemoration of Christ’s death.

9 Intercessions (Prayer for Whole State of Christ’s Church)
And here we do give unto thee most high praise, and hearty thanks, for the wonderful grace and virtue declared in thy saints, from the beginning of the world; and chiefly in the glorious and most blessed Virgin Mary, mother of thy Son Jesu Christ our Lord and God; and in the holy patriarchs, prophets, apostles and martyrs, whose examples, O Lord, and stedfastness in thy faith, and keeping thy holy commandments, grant us to follow. Thanksgiving for the saints

10 Intercessions (Prayer for Whole State of Christ’s Church)
We commend unto thy mercy, O Lord, all other thy servants, which are departed hence from us with the sign of faith, and now do rest in the sleep of peace: grant unto them, we beseech thee, thy mercy, and everlasting peace; and that, at the day of the general resurrection, we and all they which be of the mystical body of thy Son, may altogether be set on his right hand, and hear that his most joyful voice, Come unto me, O ye that be blessed of my Father, and possess the kingdom, which is prepared for you from the beginning of the world. Grant this, O Father, for Jesus Christ's sake, our only Mediator and Advocate. Prayer for Whole State of Christ’s Church comes to end with prayers for the dead (!). Jasper and Cuming note this is quite remarkable for a Reformed prayer. No Amen, but a certain “stopping point” for this portion of the prayer; paragraph division in original.

11 Prayer over the Gifts/Epiclesis
O God, heavenly Father, which of thy tender mercy didst give thine only Son Jesu Christ to suffer death upon the cross for our redemption; who made there, by his one oblation once offered, a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world; and did institute, and in his holy gospel command us to celebrate a perpetual memory of that his precious death, until his coming again: hear us, O merciful Father, we beseech thee; and with thy Holy Spirit and word vouchsafe to ble✚ss and sanc✚tify these thy gifts and creatures of bread and wine, that they may be unto us the body and blood of thy most dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ, Remember that Roman Canon has a prayer over the gifts at this point too (Quam oblationem). Asks God to “make this offering wholly reasonable and acceptable.” Cranmer instead uses offering/oblation language about Jesus’ death on the cross, driving home the point that it is a one-time sacrifice. (Later in the prayer Cranmer will use restrained sacrifice-language about our “sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving.” Cf. Cranmer’s writing about two kinds of sacrifice from last week’s reading.) Note that unlike the Roman Canon, this prayer makes mention of the Holy Spirit and can be said to be an epiclesis. But it has an interesting form: “with thy Holy Spirit and word.” (Could be reference to Logos; could be reference to words of institution; likely reflects medieval interpretation dating to 9th-cent. theologian Radbertus.) “Be unto us” might seem intentionally receptionist, but actually uses same language as Roman canon.

12 Institution Narrative
who in the same night that he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had blessed, and given thanks, he brake it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, Take, eat; this is my body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of me. Likewise after supper he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of this; for this is my blood of the new Testament, which is shed for you and for many for remission of sins. Do this, as oft as you shall drink it, in remembrance of me. As in Roman Canon, institution narrative follows prayer over the gifts. Note the rubrics: priest is to hold the bread and cup at the appropriate moments, but elevation is prohibited. Institution narrative still holds a central place in the prayer, but adoration of the consecrated elements is removed. (Good example of how liturgy is about more than text—ritual elements matter!)

13 Anamnesis and Offering
Wherefore, O Lord and heavenly Father, according to the institution of thy dearly beloved Son our Saviour Jesu Christ, we thy humble servants do celebrate and make here before thy divine Majesty, with these thy holy gifts, the memorial which thy Son hath willed us to make; having in remembrance his blessed passion, mighty resurrection, and glorious ascension; rendering unto thee most hearty thanks for the innumerable benefits procured unto us by the same; entirely desiring thy fatherly goodness mercifully to accept this our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving; most humbly beseeching thee to grant, that by the merits and death of thy Son Jesus Christ and through faith in his blood, we and all thy whole church may obtain remission of our sins, and all other benefits of his passion. Again the structure of the Roman Canon is followed closely, with changes in content. The logic of “remembering, we offer” is still here. Instead of offering “a pure victim, a holy victim, an unspotted victim,” we offer a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving. The “holy gifts” are associated with memorial, not with offering.

14 Offering, continued/Prayer over People
And here we offer and present unto thee, O Lord, our self, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy, and lively sacrifice unto thee; humbly beseeching thee, that whosoever shall be partakers of this holy communion may worthily receive the most precious body and blood of thy Son Jesus Christ, and be fulfilled with thy grace and heavenly benediction, and made one body with thy Son Jesu Christ, that he may dwell in them, and they in him. Offering continues with offering of our selves (cf. New Testament language, Rom. 12:1: “I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service.”) Next is prayer over the people (cf. again Roman canon. Not an epiclesis, no invocation of Holy Spirit. Prayer for worthy reception.)

15 Prayer over People, cont’d.
And although we be unworthy, through our manifold sins, to offer unto thee any sacrifice, yet we beseech thee to accept this our bounden duty and service, and command these our prayers and supplications, by the ministry of thy holy angels, to be brought up into thy holy tabernacle, before the sight of thy divine Majesty; not weighing our merits, but pardoning our offences, through Christ our Lord;

16 Doxology By whom, and with whom, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, all honour and glory be unto thee, O Father almighty, world without end. Amen. Trinitarian burst of praise in language taken from Roman Canon.

17 Structure of Eucharistic Prayers
Roman Canon 1549 BCP Sursum corda Variable preface Sanctus Intercessions Prayer over gifts Institution narrative Anamnesis and Offering Prayer over people Doxology Sursum corda Short preface with 5 longer variables Sanctus Intercessions Prayer over gifts/epiclesis Institution narrative Anamnesis and Offering Prayer over people Doxology Structure of Eucharistic Prayers

18 1549: Eucharistic Presence
That bread and wine “may be unto us the body and blood of … Jesus Christ” “That whoever shall be partakers … may worthily receive the most precious body and blood … be fulfilled with thy grace and heavenly benediction … made one body … that he may dwell in them, and they in him” Open to variety of interpretations Gardiner (Catholic-minded bishop of Winchester) claimed it was open to teaching of transubstantiation; would be changed in 1552

19 1549: Sacrifice Jesus’s death is “one oblation once offered, a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world” Church offers “sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving” Church offers “our self, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy, and lively sacrifice unto thee”

20 1549: Creation/Salvation History
No mention of creation Seasonal salvation history mentioned in variable prefaces (incarnation, resurrection, ascension, Pentecost) Communion is primarily a memory of the death of Jesus (reiterated several times); anamnesis also mentions resurrection and ascension No eschatological expectation

21 1549: Assembly/Church/Humankind
Vernacular and emphasis on audibility imply that this is a communal celebration (people and priest) Thanksgiving for saints and intercession for departed We are unworthy to offer any sacrifice, but ask God to accept our sacrifice of praise, thanks, and our whole selves through Jesus Christ

22 The 1552 Prayer Book Sursum Corda
Lift up your hearts. Answer: We lift them up unto the Lord. Priest: Let us give thanks unto our Lord God. Answer: It is meet and right so to do. Omits “The Lord be with you”

23 Preface The Priest It is very meet, right, and our bounden duty that we should at all times and in all places give thanks to thee, O Lord, holy Father, almighty, everlasting God. Here shall follow the proper Preface, according to the time, (if there be any especially appointed), or else immediately shall follow, Therefore with angels and archangels, and with all the holy company of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious name; evermore praising thee, and saying, Identical to Only change is that use of 4 of the 5 variable prefaces (Christmas, Easter, Ascension, Whitsunday) is extended for a week after the feast itself.

24 Prayer of Humble Access
Sanctus Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full of thy glory. Glory be to thee, O Lord most high. Prayer of Humble Access Then shall the Priest, kneeling down at God’s board, say in the name of all them that shall receive the Communion, this prayer following. "We do not presume and he in us. Amen." No rubric for clerks to sing. Benedictus is omitted (its language of “Blessed is he that cometh” could be taken as a reference to real presence, Jesus coming to be present in the celebration or perhaps in the elements). Not an option again until the 1940 hymnal. In 1549 the Prayer for Whole State of Christ’s Church came after the Sanctus. Here in 1552 it has been moved to earlier in the service, after the alms-collection (with references to saints and departed removed). In 1549 the Prayer of Humble Access came after the consecration (and other prayers), immediately before communion. Here it has been moved to what we would consider the eucharistic prayer. But remember that in the Middle Ages the preface and Sanctus were not considered part of the canon.

25 Prayer over the Gifts Then the Priest, standing up, shall say as followeth: Almighty God, our heavenly Father, which of thy tender mercy didst give thine only Son Jesu Christ to suffer death upon the cross for our redemption; who made there, by his one oblation of himself once offered, a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world; and did institute, and in his holy gospel command us to celebrate a perpetual memory of that his precious death, until his coming again: hear us, O merciful Father, we beseech thee; and grant that we, receiving these thy creatures of bread and wine, according to thy Son our Savior Jesus Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may be partakers of his most blessed body and blood; Prayer over the Gifts is different from 1549 version: no mention of the Holy Spirit and no mention of “bles + sing and sanc + tifying gifts.” Much more receptionist language. What we receive is “creatures of bread and wine,” and in doing so we are “partakers of his … body and blood.”

26 Institution Narrative
Who, in the same night that he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, Take, eat; this is my body which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me. Likewise after supper he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of this; for this is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for you and for many for remission of sins; do this, as oft as you shall drink it in remembrance of me. Institution narrative follows; similar to 1549 but no rubrics. No Amen here. Communion follows immediately; the sense is that the prayer continues as the meal.

27 Communion Then shall the Minister first receive the communion in both kinds himself, and next deliver it to other Ministers, if any be there present, that they may help the chief Minister, and after to the people in their hands kneeling. And when he delivereth the bread he shall say, Take and eat this, in remembrance that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart by faith with thanksgiving. And the Minister that delivereth the cup, shall say, Drink this in remembrance that Christ's blood was shed for thee, and be thankful. Then shall the Priest say the Lord's Prayer, the people repeating after him every petition. Communion follows immediately upon the institution narrative. Cf. Reformed practice on the Continent (Zwingli, Calvin).

28 Prayer After Communion (Offering)
After shall be said as followeth: O Lord and heavenly Father, we thy humble servants entirely desire thy fatherly goodness mercifully to accept this our sacrifice of praise and thanks- giving; most humbly beseeching thee to grant, that by the merits and death of thy Son Jesus Christ, and through faith in his blood, we and all thy whole church may obtain remission of our sins, and all other benefits of his passion. And here we offer and present unto thee, O Lord, our selves, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy, and lively sacrifice unto thee; humbly beseeching thee, that all we which be partakers of this holy communion, may be fulfilled with thy grace and heavenly benediction. No anamnesis, but uses language of the 1549 prayer. It’s after communion that the people make this offering of themselves. Note slight change in language about partakers was “that whosoever shall be partakers of this holy communion.” 1549 allowed very limited reservation for the sick (same day) does not: only “we” who are here now are partakers.

29 Alternate Postcommunion Prayer (Thanksgiving)
Or this. Almighty and everliving God, we most heartily thank thee, for that thou dost vouchsafe to feed us, which have duly received these holy mysteries, with the spiritual food of the most precious body and blood of thy son our saviour Jesus Christ, We now most humbly beseech thee, O heavenly father, so to assist us with thy grace, that we may continue in that holy fellowship, and do all such good works, as thou hast prepared for us to walk in: through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with thee and the holy ghost, be all honour and glory, world without end. Amen. Jasper and Cuming think this “mars” the structure of the prayer.

30 Structure of Eucharistic Prayers
1549 BCP 1552 BCP Sursum corda Short preface with 5 variables Sanctus Intercessions Prayer over gifts/epiclesis Institution narrative Anamnesis and Offering Prayer over people Doxology Communion Shortened Sursum corda Short preface with 5 variables Sanctus Prayer of Humble Access Prayer over gifts Institution narrative Communion Lord’s Prayer Prayer of oblation or thanksgiving Structure of Eucharistic Prayers

31 1552: Eucharistic Presence
No epiclesis; more receptionist language (body and blood not associated directly with bread and wine) Words of administration are changed: 1549: “The body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life.” 1552: “Take and eat this, in remembrance that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart by faith with thanksgiving.” Priest can take home leftover consecrated bread/wine “to his own use”

32 1552: Sacrifice Jesus’s death is “one oblation once offered, a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world” Church offers “sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving” Church offers “our self, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy, and lively sacrifice unto thee” Identical language as in Placement of the church’s prayer of oblation after communion emphasizes that God’s action/Christ’s sacrifice is primary.

33 1552: Creation/Salvation History
No mention of creation Seasonal salvation history mentioned in variable prefaces (incarnation, resurrection, ascension, Pentecost) Communion is primarily a memory of the death of Jesus (reiterated several times); anamnesis also mentions resurrection and ascension No eschatological expectation Very similar to 1549

34 1552: Assembly/Church/Humankind
Vernacular and emphasis on audibility imply that this is a communal celebration (people and priest) Thanksgiving for saints and intercession for departed We are unworthy to offer any sacrifice, but ask God to accept our sacrifice of praise, thanks, and our whole selves through Jesus Christ

35 Now we zoom forward 110 years! … Edward, Mary, Elizabeth, James, Charles … Charles is executed … Civil War, Cromwell, then Charles II … and now it’s time for a new Prayer Book. The 1559 Prayer Book was very similar to 1552, though with a few rubrics changed (Black Rubric about kneeling for communion not implying veneration, etc.). That was the Prayer Book during Elizabethan Settlement, Hooker … Shakespeare, Tallis, Byrd, King James Bible … formation of distinctive Anglican identity. The conflict over Puritanism vs. episcopacy was violent. Political situation after 1660 called for a revision of the Prayer Book; episcopacy was ascendant.

36 The 1662 Prayer Book Sursum Corda
Lift up your hearts. Answer: We lift them up unto the Lord. Priest: Let us give thanks unto our Lord God. Answer: It is meet and right so to do. Identical to 1552.

37 Preface The Priest It is very meet, right, and our bounden duty that we should at all times, and in all places, give thanks to thee, O Lord, holy Father, almighty, everlasting God. Here shall follow the proper Preface, according to the time, (if there be any especially appointed), or else immediately shall follow, Therefore with angels and archangels, and with all the holy company of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious name; evermore praising thee, and saying, Identical to 1552.

38 Prayer of Humble Access
Sanctus Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full of thy glory: Glory be to thee, O Lord most high. Amen. Prayer of Humble Access Then shall the Priest, kneeling down at the Lord’s Table, say in the name of all them that shall receive the Communion this prayer following. "We do not presume and he in us. Amen." Identical to 1552 (except Amen at end of Sanctus)

39 Prayer over the Gifts When the Priest, standing before the Table, hath so ordered the Bread and Wine, that he may with the more readiness and decency break the Bread before the people, and take the Cup into his hands, he shall say the Prayer of Consecration, as followeth: Almighty God, our heavenly Father, who of thy tender mercy didst give thine only Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the Cross for our redemption; who made there (by his one oblation of himself once offered) a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world; and did institute, and in his holy gospel command us to celebrate a perpetual memory of that his precious death, until his coming again; Hear us, O merciful Father, we most humbly beseech thee; and grant that we, receiving these thy creatures of bread and wine, according to thy Son our Savior Jesus Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may be partakers of his most blessed Body and Blood; Prayer is identical to The rubric makes it clear that manual acts will be used, however. Note also that the rubric for the first time explicitly titles this the “Prayer of Consecration.” (Preface, Sanctus still not seen as part of the core eucharistic prayer.) Terminology of consecration may imply that some kind of change is taking place, perhaps more of a theology of real presence.

40 Institution Narrative
who in the same night that he was betrayed, took Bread;a and, when he had given thanks, he brake it,b and gave it to his disciples, saying, Take, eat; this is my Bodyc which is given for you: Do this in remembrance of me. Likewise after supper he took the Cup;d and, when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of this; for thise is my Blood of the New Testament, which is shed for you and for many for the remission of sins: Do this, as oft as ye shall drink it, in remembrance of me. Amen. a) Here the Priest is to take the paten into his hands: b) And here to break the Bread: c) And here to lay his hand upon all the Bread. d) Here he is to take the Cup into his hands: e) And here to lay his hand upon every vessel (be it Chalice or Flagon) in which there is any Wine to be consecrated. Wording is identical to 1552, but now manual acts are specified. An Amen is added at the end, heightening the sense that this is a consecratory prayer.

41 Communion Then shall the Minister first receive the Communion in both kinds himself, and then proceed to deliver the same to the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, in like manner {if any be present), and after that to the people also in order, into their hands, all meekly kneeling. [Words of Administration for Bread (Cup is similar)] The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life: Take and eat this in remembrance that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart by faith with thanksgiving. Note combination of the two administration formulae from 1549 and 1552! This combination had actually happened in 1559 (one of the slight differences from 1552).

42 Communion, cont’d. If the consecrated Bread or Wine be all spent before all have communicated, the Priest is to consecrate more, according to the Form before prescribed: beginning at (Our Savior Christ in the same night, etc.) for the blessing of the Bread; and at (Likewise after supper, etc.) for the blessing of the Cup. When all have communicated, the Minister shall return to the Lord's Table, and reverently place upon it what remaineth of the consecrated Elements, covering the same with a fair linen cloth. [The elements are consumed after the service.] This BCP introduces a formula for additional consecration, using just the Institution Narrative (implication that it is consecratory). This BCP also removes the permission for the priest to take the consecrated elements home for his own use. They are to be reverently consumed.

43 Structure of Eucharistic Prayers
1552 BCP 1662 BCP Shortened Sursum corda Short preface with 5 variables Sanctus Prayer of Humble Access Prayer over gifts Institution narrative Communion Lord’s Prayer Prayer of oblation or thanksgiving Shortened Sursum corda Short preface with 5 variables Sanctus Prayer of Humble Access Prayer over gifts Institution narrative Communion Lord’s Prayer Prayer of oblation or thanksgiving Structure of Eucharistic Prayers

44 1662: Eucharistic Presence
Language almost identical to 1552 throughout Words of administration are combined: “The body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life: Take and eat this in remembrance that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart by faith with thanksgiving.” Supplemental consecration Elements must be reverently consumed after service Slight implications that there may be a tighter connection between the elements and the Body and Blood of Christ.

45 Sacrifice, Creation/Salvation History, Assembly/Church/Humankind
Basically identical to 1552.

46 Zooming forward again (127 years). Colonies have declared independence
Zooming forward again (127 years). Colonies have declared independence. Independent US church developing a new prayer book. Seeking bishops, first from England, then Scotland. Later England acquiesces. Scotland has major impact on structure of US prayer book.

47 The 1789 American Prayer Book
Sursum Corda Lift up your hearts. Answer: We lift them up unto the Lord. Priest: Let us give thanks unto our Lord God. Answer: It is meet and right so to do. Identical to 1552 and 1662.

48 Preface The Priest It is very meet, right, and our bounden duty that we should at all times, and in all places, give thanks to thee, O Lord, Holy Father, Almighty, Everlasting God. Here shall follow the proper Preface, according to the time, if there be any specially appointed: or else immediately shall be said or sung by the Priest and People, Therefore with angels and archangels, and with all the company of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious name; evermore praising thee, and saying, Identical to 1552 and 1662 (except note that priest and people say/sing Sanctus, and apparently also the line preceding the Sanctus).

49 Prayer of Humble Access
Sanctus Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full of thy glory: Glory be to thee, O Lord most high. Amen. Prayer of Humble Access Then shall the Priest, kneeling down at the Lord’s Table, say, in the name of all those who shall receive the Communion, this Prayer following. "We do not presume and he in us. Amen."

50 Post-Sanctus When the Priest, standing before the Table, hath so ordered the Bread and Wine, that he may with the more readiness and decency break the Bread before the people, and take the Cup into his hands, he shall say the Prayer of Consecration, as followeth. All glory be to thee, Almighty God, our heavenly Father, for that thou, of thy tender mercy, didst give thine only Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the Cross for our redemption; who made there (by his one oblation of himself once offered) a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world; and did institute, and in his holy gospel command us to celebrate a perpetual memory of that his precious death, until his coming again: The prayer begins with identical wording to earlier BCPs’ Prayer Over the Gifts … except that the first phrase is added, “All glory be to thee …” The rhetorical import is different. In prior prayer books this sentence functions as a lead-in to a (more or less consecratory) prayer over the gifts. Here it is an expression of praise and thanksgiving, à la the West Syrian pattern.

51 Institution Narrative
For in the night in which he was betrayed, ahe took Bread; and, when he had given thanks, bhe brake it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, Take, eat; cThis is my Body, which is given for you; Do this in remembrance of me. Likewise, after supper, dhe took the cup; and, when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of this; for eThis is my Blood of the New Testament, which is shed for you, and for many, for the remission of sins; Do this, as oft as ye shall drink it, in remembrance of me. a) Here the Priest is to take the Paten into his hands. b) And here to break the Bread. c) And here to lay his hand upon all the Bread. d) Here he is to take the Cup into his hands. e) And here he is to lay his hand upon every Vessel in which there is any Wine to be consecrated. Language and manual acts identical to But the prayer does not end here! No Amen.

52 Anamnesis and Offering (of Gifts)
The Oblation. Wherefore, O Lord and heavenly Father, according to the institution of thy dearly beloved Son our Saviour Jesu Christ, we thy humble servants do celebrate and make here before thy divine Majesty, with these thy holy gifts, which we now offer unto thee, the memorial which thy Son hath willed us to make; having in remembrance his blessed Passion and precious death, his mighty resurrection, and glorious ascension; rendering unto thee most hearty thanks for the innumerable benefits procured unto us by the same. This language hasn’t been used since the 1549 book! Note that “which we now offer unto thee” is new text for this 1789 book—it has been inserted into the 1549 language. Makes it extremely explicit that we are “offering” the gifts of bread and wine—something no Anglican prayer ever said until the Scottish nonjurors’ books of the mid-1700’s, which strongly influenced the American compilers. Similarly, this section is explicitly labeled “The Oblation” in the text of the book (another thing that came from Scottish nonjuring liturgies).

53 Epiclesis Over the Gifts
The Invocation. And we most humbly beseech thee, O merciful Father, to hear us; and, of thy almighty goodness, vouchsafe to bless and sanctify, with thy Word and Holy Spirit, these thy gifts and creatures of bread and wine; that we, receiving them according to thy Son our Savior Jesus Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his Death and Passion, may be partakers of his most blessed Body and Blood. This is a return to 1549 language (“thy Word and Holy Spirit”). Although note that it retains the 1552, more receptionist, language of “we may be partakers” rather than “that they may be unto us his Body and Blood.” Title: “The Invocation.” Note that the epiclesis is after the institution narrative, not before—different from 1549, and in fact from all the prayers we’ve seen today except Chrysostom. This is the West Syrian pattern.

54 Prayer Over the People And we earnestly desire thy fatherly goodness mercifully to accept this our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving; most humbly beseeching thee to grant, that by the merits and death of thy Son Jesus Christ, and through faith in his blood, we, and all thy whole Church, may obtain remission of our sins, and all other benefits of his passion.

55 Offering of Selves and Prayer Over People
And here we offer and present unto thee, O Lord, ourselves, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy, and living sacrifice unto thee; humbly beseeching thee, that we, and all others who shall be partakers of this holy Communion, may worthily receive the most precious Body and Blood of thy Son Jesus Christ, be filled with thy grace and heavenly benediction, and made one body with him, that he may dwell in them, and they in him. And although we are unworthy, through our manifold sins, to offer unto thee any sacrifice, yet we beseech thee to accept this our bounden duty and service; not weighing our merits, but pardoning our offences, through Jesus Christ our Lord;

56 Doxology By whom, and with whom, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, all honour and glory be unto thee, O Father almighty, world without end. Amen. Doxology of 1549, resurrected after a long sleep.

57 Communion A hymn is sung, then communion is distributed
1662 words of administration are used (combination of the 1549 and 1552 forms) Supplementary consecration happens by repeating the prayer from “All glory be to thee, Almighty God … through “partakers of his Body and Blood” Remaining elements are reverently consumed after the service Note combination of the two administration formulae from 1549 and 1552 (same as in 1662)

58 Structure of Eucharistic Prayers
1662 BCP 1789 US BCP Shortened Sursum corda Short preface with 5 variables Sanctus Prayer of Humble Access Prayer over gifts Institution narrative Shortened Sursum corda Short preface, 6 variables Sanctus Prayer of Humble Access Post-Sanctus Institution narrative Anamnesis/Offering of gifts Epiclesis Prayer Over People/Offering of selves Doxology The 1789 US BCP’s eucharistic prayer is very different in structure from 1662, even though it shares a lot of its language! It bears much closer resemblance structurally to a prayer we saw earlier ... Structure of Eucharistic Prayers

59 Structure of Eucharistic Prayers
West Syrian Anaphora 1789 US BCP Sursum corda Fixed preface Sanctus Post-Sanctus Institution narrative Anamnesis and Offering Epiclesis: gifts, people Intercessions Doxology Shortened Sursum corda Short preface, 6 variables (one optional anytime) Sanctus Prayer of Humble Access Post-Sanctus Institution narrative Anamnesis/Offering of gifts Epiclesis: gifts Prayer Over People/Offering of selves Doxology The 1789 BCP’s eucharistic prayer follows the West Syrian structure that we saw earlier in the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom. This was a structure inherited from the Scottish liturgies, and it’s remained characteristic of EP’s in the Episcopal Church ever since. The West Syrian structure has been very popular in the time of liturgical renewal because of its clear, compelling rhetorical format—it begins with thanksgiving and praise for God’s mighty acts of salvation; specifically continues the thanksgiving for redemption in Jesus; focuses that thanksgiving in the institution narrative; then moves into our offering of the gifts and ourselves and asks the Spirit’s blessing on us and our offering, concluding with a burst of praise. Structure of Eucharistic Prayers


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