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Chapter 1 Overview: Many Cultures Meet SSUSH1: The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. Chapter 2 Overview:

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Overview: Many Cultures Meet SSUSH1: The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. Chapter 2 Overview:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Overview: Many Cultures Meet SSUSH1: The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. Chapter 2 Overview: European Establish Colonies SSUSH1a: Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery. SSUSH1d. Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec. Ch. 1 and Ch. 2 section 1-3

2 1. By the 1700s, three European nations made claim to the land in North America. Name them. A. France, Austria, and Italy B. England, France, and Spain C. Portugal, Spain, and England D. Russia, Spain, and England 2. What was possibly the first crop grown by Native Americans? A. CoffeeC. Corn B. WheatD. Bananas 3. Early Native American civilizations left evidence of a dominant culture in Middle and South America. Which civilization was known for their capital city Tenochtitlan? A. MayaC. Olmec B. Aztec D. Mississippian B. England, France, and Spain B. Aztec C. Corn

3 QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW 1. In the land that became the U.S., the Spanish inhabited A. FloridaC. Kansas B. Texas D. All of the Above 2. The men largely responsible for Spain’s conquest of the new world were known as A. Los conquistadorsC. Sea dogs B. Conquest leadersD. World conquerors 3. Who led the Spanish march into the Aztec empire in 1519? A. Hernando CortesC. Hernando de Soto B. Francisco PizzaroD. Francisco de Coronado 4. What was a reason for French colonization of America? A. Fur tradingC. Educational organization B. Religious freedomD. Escape from the plague D. All of the Above A. Los conquistadors A. Hernando Cortes A. Fur trading

4 5. In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec, which became the capital of the new colony of A. Nova ScotiaC. Canada B. IcelandD. France 6. The Spanish established a great empire in the New World called A. New SpainC. Brazil B. PeruD. El Salvador 7. These people were of mixed Spanish (European) and Native American ancestry A. MongollonsC. Mullatto B. MestizoD. Conquistadors 8. When the Spanish monarchy abolished this system, Spanish landlords in New Spain turned to African slaves to meet their needs of labor A. SlaveryC. Nativism B. EncomiendaD. Spanish conquest D. France A. New Spain*** B. Mestizo*** B. Encomienda***

5 Columbian Exchange Widespread transfer of plants (agricultural goods), animals, and diseases (microbes) between the Eastern (Europe) and Western (Americas) Hemispheres that occurred after 1492 around Columbus’ first voyage and continues today.

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7 SOUTHERN COLONIES British Southern colonies consisting of Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia The government of the Southern colonies was representative assemblies and the economy was dependent on a cash crops such as tobacco (main crop), rice, and indigo.

8 Jamestown First successful English colony in North America founded in Virginia in Three small ships sailed from England to establish a colony in Virginia, arriving in May Jamestown became America's first permanent English settlement.

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10 Questions for Review 1. The problem of raising money to settle in the New World led to English merchant capitalists creating the institution of A. MercantilismC. Primogeniture B. Headright SystemD. Joint-Stock Companies 2. Which of the following statements is true? I. Joint-Stock companies were use to fund the English colonies in America. II. John Smith was popular among the American colonists. III. The early settlements of Jamestown had a hard time surviving. IV. Jamestown was saved by the discovery of Gold. A. I, II, & IIIC. I, III & IV B. III & IVD. I & II 3. This crop allowed for the settlers of Jamestown to survive and thrive in Virginia. A. CottonC. Rice B. TobaccoD. Maize D. Joint-Stock Companies A. I, II, & III B. Tobacco

11 4. After 1618, the Virginia Company’s principle means of attracting new settlers was A. Granting religious freedom B. A system of land grants C. Payments of passage by other colonists D. Liberal suffrage requirements 5. In the early years of the Virginia colony, a field laborer was most likely to be A. A slaveC. A landlord B. A Powhatan IndianD. An indentured servant 6. Which of the following occurred as a result of Virginia being made a Royal colony? A. It became under the direct control of the King. B. Joint-stock companies became willing to invest into the colony. C. Colonists had to pay taxes to the King. D. The King received 1/5 of the gold and silver found there. B. A system of land grants*** D. An indentured servant*** A. It became under the direct control of the King.***

12 7. Which of the following statements are true? I. English colonists had relations with Native Americans and produced mullatoes. II. English colonists in Jamestown wanted more land to grow tobacco. III. English colonists in Virginia did not have generally good relations with the Native Americans. IV. Chief Powhatan’s daughter Pocahontas married the English settler John Rolfe. A. I & IIC. I, III, & IV B. I & IIID. II, III, & IV 8. In late 1607, the Jamestown colony was short of food, Captain John Smith began trading with the local Native American group called the A. InuitsC. Croatian B. IroquoisD. Powhatan confederacy D. II, III, & IV*** D. Powhatan confederacy***

13 Chapter 2 Overview: European Establish Colonies Southern, Middle, and New England Colonies SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. SSUSH1b. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter. SSUSH1c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania. Chapter 2 section 4 & 5

14 Why English Settlers Came to America Land Freedom of Assembly Freedom of Religion New Beginning

15 New England Colonies British colonies including Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Connecticut The goals of the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colony was to establish communities based on Puritan beliefs that would be Both morally and economically Successful and thereby inspire the adoption of Puritan reforms in England.

16 Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson Religious dissenters who left Massachusetts over disagreement with Puritan church leaders and who played key roles in founding Rhode Island. Roger WilliamsAnne Hutchinson

17 1. The name given to the 16 th century religious movement that was critical of the Roman Catholic Church was A. Counter ReformationC. Catholic Reformation B. Protestant ReformationD. Scientific Revolution 2. The name Puritan came from this group’s desire to A. Lead pure lives. B. Build a model and new society. C. Shelter its members from the influence of outsiders. D. Remove from the Roman Catholic Church traditions of the Church of England. 3. What impact did the old Puritan faith have on New England? A. It was one of several major religions to develop during colonial New England. B. It led to the establishment of New Amsterdam. C. It defined religion and government in the region. D. It led to King Philip’s War as an attempt to end religious dissent. D. Remove from the Roman Catholic Church traditions of the Church of England.*** A.It was one of several major religions to develop during colonial New England. B. Protestant Reformation***

18 4. This was a civil type of government that pledge loyalty to the King in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. A. U.S. ConstitutionC. Plymouth Rock B. Mayflower CompactD. Bill of Rights 5. Roger Williams, a strict separatist founded the town of A. Portsmouth, RIC. Providence, RI B. Wethersfield, RID. Boston, MA 6. Anne Hutchinson and a few followers settled on an island Rhode Island later called A. BostonC. Philadelphia B. ProvidenceD. Portsmouth 7. This war between the colonists and Native Americans in Connecticut led to virtual elimination of the Native American group called A. WampanoagC. Pequot B. PowhatanD. Pueblos B. Mayflower Compact*** C. Providence, RI*** D. Portsmouth*** C. Pequot***

19 8. The following describe what group of settlers in colonial North America · religious dissenters · social conformity · belief in hard work · New England A. Catholics C. Puritans B. Quakers D. Amish 9. The Mayflower Compact was unique because it A. was the foundation for the Declaration of Independence. B. allowed black colonists freedom centuries before emancipation. C. was the first example of colonial European self-government in northeastern North America. D. established the precedent of freedom of religion in the southern colonies of North America. 10. In 1636, Roger Williams was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and founded Rhode Island, because he supported A. women's suffrage. B. the abolition of slavery. C. a separation of church and state. D. westward expansion of the colonies. C. Puritans C. a separation of church and state. C*****

20 Middle Colonies British colonies consisting of New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware The Middle colonies exhibited far more ethnic and religious diversity. They also enjoyed peaceful relations with Native Americans and depended on trade with England.

21 The Middle colonies were more diverse because their leaders were tolerant.

22 1. Which of the following regions would have featured the most diversity during the late 1600s and 1700s? A. New EnglandC. Jamestown B. Mid-AtlanticD. Southern 2. What did the Dutch name their major settlement located on Manhattan Island? A. New YorkC. Pennsylvania B. North Carolina D. New Amsterdam 3. The Hudson River Valley regions were claimed by the Dutch East India Company and called A. VirginiaC. New Netherland B. Dutch propertyD. New York 4. This colony was given to William Penn by King Charles II as a debt owed to Penn’s father. A. ConnecticutC. Pennsylvania B. DelawareD. Virginia B. Mid-Atlantic*** D. New Amsterdam*** C. New Netherland*** C. Pennsylvania***

23 5. The terms below are associated with what colonial North American region? · religious Quakers · Catholics tolerance · flexible social structure A. New England C. West Indies B. Middle Colonies D. Southern Colonies 6. The mid-Atlantic colony of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn PRIMARILY because of his A. desire to have a government in which all citizens could participate. B. wish to found a logical, well-planned, religiously tolerant colony. C. failure to successfully take power in Massachusetts Bay Colony. D. loss in the war with the Dutch for control of New Amsterdam. B. Middle Colonies B. wish to found a logical, well-planned, religiously tolerant colony.

24 7. The cities of New York, Baltimore, and Philadelphia began to flourish in the late 17th century because of what economic activity? A. trading C. tobacco farming B. slavery D. rice farming 8. The differences in the economic development of the mid-Atlantic, New England, and Southern colonies can BEST be attributed to the A. customs of the immigrants. B. geographic conditions there. C. level of the education of their citizens. D. differences in their colonial governments. 9. What religious group did William Penn belong? A. CatholicsC. Anglicans B. QuakersD. Puritans A. trading B. geographic conditions there. B. Quakers

25 10. Which of these BEST explains the reason for African slaves being brought into the British colonies in Southern North America in the 17th century? A. The economy of Southern colonies needed cheap labor. B. Northern colonial governments considered slavery immoral. C. Southern colonies refused to use Indians as forced labor. D. Industrial factories in the north did not need slave labor. 11. What was the primary similarity of the Plymouth Colony and the Massachusetts Bay Colony? A. Both had many hardships. B. Both received help from a friendly Indian. C. Both were founded by Christians for religious purposes. D. Both were very large colonies. A. The economy of Southern colonies needed cheap labor. C. Both were founded by Christians for religious purposes.

26 12. What was the primary reason the English decided to take over New Netherland? A. The Dutch threatened English commerce. B. The English wanted all their colonies to be joined. C. The English wanted to stop the slave trade. D. King Charles II wanted the land for his brother. 13. In the race for colonies in North America what was the main interest of the Dutch in the 1600s? A. They wanted to convert the Native Americans to Protestantism. B. They wanted colonies that would rival the English and the French. C. They wanted only to make money from their trade with the Native Americans. D. They wanted to create a colonial system that would challenge Spain in the New World. C. They wanted only to make money from their trade with the Native Americans. A. The Dutch threatened English commerce.

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30 Questions for Review 1. Which of the following colonies MOST LIKELY relied on a plantation system based economy in the late 1700s? A. South CarolinaC. Massachusetts B. PennsylvaniaD. Delaware 2. Which colonial region was most known for plantations, large number of slaves, and the production of rice and tobacco? A. New EnglandC. Middle B. Southern D. Atlantic 3. Which of these BEST explains the reason for African slaves being brought into the British colonies in Southern North America in the 17th century? A. The economy of Southern colonies needed cheap labor. B. Northern colonial governments considered slavery immoral. C. Southern colonies refused to use Indians as forced labor. D. Industrial factories in the north did not need slave labor. A. The economy of Southern colonies needed cheap labor. B. Southern A. South Carolina

31 4. In the early 1700s, the size of plantations began to increase as wealthier planters in Virginia and Maryland A. switched from indentured servants to slave labor. B. switched from growing tobacco to growing rice. C. brought more land from the government. D. took more land from the Native Americans. 5. The Triangular trade could be best described as a network connecting A. England, Europe, & Asia C. Northern colonies & Southern colonies B. England & West Indies D. New England colonies, West Indies, & Africa A. switched from indentured servants to slave labor D. New England colonies, West Indies, & Africa

32 6. All of the following were reasons why southern planters chose to use enslaved Africans except: A. Africans were believed to be well suited to working in harsh conditions. B. Slaves produced labor for their entire lifetime. C. Enslaved Africans were very expensive to purchase. D. Most white colonists thought Black people were inferior. 7. Which of the following is TRUE regarding African slaves in the thirteen colonies? A. African slaves came from common cultures in Africa and shared the exact same beliefs. B. African slaves originally spoke different languages had different religious beliefs, and were familiar with different traditions. C. African slaves lacked any cultural background and immediately tended to fully accept the Christian beliefs and English language of their masters. ****

33 8. Which of the following statements most accurately describes African Americans in the English colonies? A. All Africans who lived in the colonies were slaves. B. Black slaves actually outnumber whites in certain colonies for a time. C. Although African Americans suffered racism and persecution everywhere, only in the Southern colonies were they actually made slaves. D. Due to discrimination, only whites could purchase a slave’s freedom or own slaves as property. *****

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35 1. According to this theory a nation’s power is measured by its gold reserves. A country that strives to export more than they import in order to create a surplus of gold reserves A. capitalismC. supply side economics B. socialismD. mercantilism 2. Which of the following statements BEST describes the relationship between mercantilism and colonization? A. countries established colonies to minimize the need to export gold reserves to competing powers. B. mercantilists, as supporters of free trade sought to expand their markets wherever they could. C. mercantilists favored building colonies primarily to expand the Catholic religion. D. mercantilists favored building colonies as a place to put manufacturing plants, which were increasingly polluting. D. mercantilism*** *****

36 SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed. c. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism. d. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening. Chapter 3: The American Colonies Take Shape 3.2 The American Colonies and England 3.3 Comparing Regional Cultures

37 THE ENLIGHTENMENT A movement of intellectual growth to encourage the use of experimentations as tools to make discoveries about the natural world. Use the values in reason and science, rational explanation of the world, and the importance of the individual. Ex: Benjamin Franklin a colonial politician, embraces the notion of obtaining truth through experimentation and reasoning—experiment on electricity.

38 First Great Awakening A religious movement that featured passionate preaching from evangelists who believed that colonists needed to be called back to sincere Christian commitment. It helped establish separation of church and state as a valued colonial principle.

39 Great Awakening”– A Religious Revival Christian worship began to change in the 1730s -1740s. A religious revival swept through the colonies. Ministers began to preach that all people were guilty of sin and needed to repent. Only way to achieve salvation and the peace, & love of God was through public repentance of their sin. Jonathan Edwards “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” preaches people are sinful and must seek God’s mercy.

40 QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW 1. The ability of someone to advance from one status in society to another is known as A. mercantilismC. indentured servants B. social mobilityD. common sense 2. Enlightenment thinkers stressed all of the following except: A. use of reasonC. importance of the individual B. scientific methodD. unpredictability of nature 3. The Enlightenment period was a movement that emphasized the value of A. ReligionC. Miracles B. MotivesD. Reason 4. __________________ set forth the idea that the Earth and all of the other planets revolve around the sun. A. Benjamin FranklinC. Nicolas Copernicus B. Galileo GalileiD. Isaac Newton B. social mobility*** D. unpredictability of nature*** D. Reason*** C. ***

41 5. ______________________ was a very important Enlightenment thinker during this period. A. John Smith C. Benjamin Franklin B. John Winthrop D. Frederick Douglas 6. This movement focused on reason and conscience also based knowledge on fact and mathematical concepts. A. Great AwakeningC. Revolutionary thought B. EnlightenmentD. Psychological reasoning 7. Why was the Enlightenment period considered a revolutionary thought? A. it focused on violence rather than peace. B. it gave people the idea we have individual rights in which the government must respect. C. Benjamin Franklin encouraged rebellion in the colonies against England. D. Science, math, and reason are all cruel subjects and hard to pass. C. Benjamin Franklin B. Enlightenment*** B. it gave people the idea we have individual rights in which the government must respect.***

42 8. This movement came about due to a need for salvation and a return to Puritan values. A. Great AwakeningC. Church revivals B. EnlightenmentD. Miracle sessions 9. Jonathan Edwards was an important figure in the A. Salem Witchcraft trialsC. Enlightenment B. Stono RebellionD. Great Awakening 10. The evangelist George Whitefield preached his sermons during which period. A. the American RevolutionC. the French and Indian War B. the First Great AwakeningD. the Salem Witch Trials 11. During the Great Awakening period there was an increase in A. People dying because of disease. B. People asking for god’s forgiveness. C. People returning home from war. D. People focusing on education. A. Great Awakening*** D. Great Awakening*** B. the First Great Awakening*** B. People asking for god’s forgiveness.

43 Section 3—Comparing Regional Cultures

44 Questions for Review 1. In the mid 1700’s, what did the American colonies all have in common? A. short growing seasonC. long growing season B. temperate climateD. agricultural economy 2. Because of New England’s climate and landforms, farmers A. Raised livestock to be shipped to England. B. Raised livestock and grew wheat, maize, and potatoes for their own use. C. Produced wheat and shipped it to Europe. D. Produced cash crops 3. Which colonies raised the staple crop, tobacco? A. Virginia and MarylandC. South Carolina and Georgia B. North Carolina and South Carolina D. Philadelphia and New York 4. Women in the American colonies A. Were treated as first rate workers B. Were treated as second class citizens C. Had authority over the plantation D. Had the ability to change laws D. Agricultural economy **** A. Virginia and Maryland B. Were treated as second class citizens

45 5. Which region had the most educational opportunities in the 1600s? A. the SouthC. New England B. the Middle coloniesD. Mid-Atlantic 6. In colonial South Carolina and Georgia, most slaves worked A. in cities.C. in factories. B. on fishing ships.D. on farms. 7. In colonial America, married women were A. allowed to serve in legislatures. B. legally dependent on their husbands. C. allowed to vote if they owned land. D. given the same legal rights as their husbands. 8. Women’s main contribution to the colonial household was to A. keep the household operating. B. plan leisure time activities. C. supplement the family income. D. teach family members manners. C. New England D. on farms. B. legally dependent on their husbands. A. keep the household operating.

46 Chapter 3: The American Colonies Take Shape 3.4 Wars of Empire SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution. a. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution.

47 French & Indian War War between the British and French (and their Native American allies) that was fought for control of eastern North America. The British eventually won.

48 Treaty of Paris (1763) Treaty ending the French and Indian War that resulted in Great Britain winning control of France's claims in Canada and east of the Mississippi River and Florida.

49 Proclamation of 1763 Proclamation made by King George III limited colonial settlement because forbade colonists from moving into territory west of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists resented the king's restrictions and many ignored the proclamation. It was doomed to fail because keeping settlers east of the Appalachians was unpopular with people who wanted to move west, and there were too few British troops to enforce it.

50 QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW 1. What was the main pressure leading up to the French and Indian War? A. Concern for the Indians C. A War in Europe B. Desire for land D. Different political philosophies 2.Which of the following best describes the results of the French and Indian War? A. France gave up most possessions in North America to either Britain or Spain. B. Britain gave Florida to Spain. C. All treaties with Native Americans were revoked. D. France gave up its territory east of the Mississippi but kept the port of New Orleans. B. Desire for land A. France gave up most possessions in North America to either Britain or Spain.

51 3. What did France give up, and to whom? A. All of its colonial territories to the British B. Nothing C. All territory east of the Mississippi to the British; all territory west of the Mississippi to the Spanish D. Just Louisiana, to the British 4. What conflicts did the French and Indian War leave unsolved? A. The presence of the French in America B. Conflict with colonists, land claims C. Conflict with Native Americans D. None 5. When was the Treaty of Paris signed? A. 1763C B. 1760D C.All territory east of the Mississippi to the British; all territory west of the Mississippi to the Spanish B. Conflict with colonists, land claims A. 1763

52 6. What Native American tribe did Pontiac belong to A. DelawareC. Seneca B. OttawaD. Cherokee 7. What effect did the end of the French and Indian War have on the Native American tribes? A. Most Indian tribes were happy with the French victory since the French treated the Indians fairly. B. The end of the war brought peace between the Indians and the British settlers. C. With the French presence officially removed from North America, the Indians were no longer able to play one nation against the other. D. Pontiac united all Indian tribes in the Ohio River Valley and encouraged them to move further to the west. B. Ottawa C. With the French presence officially removed from North America, the Indians were no longer able to play one nation against the other.

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54 Chapter 4: The American Revolution 4.1 Causes of the Revolution SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution. a. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution. b. Explain colonial response to such British actions as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence.

55 North America in 1763

56 WHAT WERE THE CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION? PROCLAMATION OF 1763 SUGAR ACT (1764) QUARTERING ACT (1765) STAMP ACT (1765) TOWNSHEND ACT (1767) TEA ACT (1773) INTOLERABLE ACTS (1774)

57 PROCLAMATION OF 1763 To prevent conflict with the Native Americans the British set forth a law which banned all colonial settlement West of the Appalachian Mountains (Ohio River Valley area/old French lands). The colonists felt they helped the British win those lands and they did not like the Native Americans receiving the land and it convinced the colonists the British government did not care about their needs. The colonists ignored the law and continued to move westward disobeying British laws. The British could not enforce the ban effectively.

58 SUGAR ACT (1764) Financial expert/Prime Minister George Grenville began suspecting colonial smuggling goods into the country and enacted the Sugar Act, which was an extra tax on goods due to stop colonial smuggling. – It halved the duty/taxes on foreign made molasses; placed a duty on certain imports; and strengthen the enforcement laws against smugglers. The colonists reduced their smuggling of goods and continued to disagree about how the colonists should be taxed and governed. Tensions began between the colonists and the British government. Colonists began making their own goods from their raw materials.

59 QUARTERING ACT (1765) This act authorized British commanders to house soldiers in vacant homes/rooms or other buildings of the colonists. The Quartering act completely disregarded the colonists privacy. This definitely upset the colonists….Eventually will become protected by amendment #3 of the Bill of Rights. The colonists organized the 1 st Continental Congress (protests and boycotted goods) Declaration of Colonial Rights which stated that parliament lacked the power to impose taxes on the colonies because the colonists were not represented in parliament.

60 STAMP ACT 1765 This act was put in place to increase revenue from the colonies; to finance debt from the French and Indian War and any future European wars. It was a special tax on wills, birth certificates, paper, pamphlets, and even playing cards. The Stamp Act required the colonists to pay a tax (directly) on special stamped paper, legal documents, and stamp duties on packages. The colonists held protesting demonstrations; organized the Sons of Liberty; held the stamp act congress which boycotted British goods. –B–Benjamin Franklin helped write a Declaration of Rights and Grievances to repeal the Stamp Act.

61 TOWNSHEND ACTS 1767 This act was passed to increase revenues of the British government. It was an indirect tax on imported materials such as glass, lead, rubber, paint, paper, etc. & A three-penny tax on tea. The colonists felt the tax was unfair because they had no representation in the taxing body of the British parliament. The indirect is levied on goods or services ultimately paid by the consumer in higher prices. The colonists reacted with rage and well-organized resistance; protesting “no taxation without representation”; colonists began making their own goods; committees of correspondence.

62 TEA ACT 1773 The East India Company (official monopoly on tea imports) was hit hard economically by colonial boycotts. This tax granted the company the right to sell tea to the colonies free of the taxes that colonial tea sellers had to pay. The colonial merchants opposed this law due to it would cut colonial merchants out of the tea trade because the East India Company could sell its tea directly to the consumers for less. The colonial merchants continued to protest violently; a large group of rebels disguised themselves as Native Americans and dumped approximately 18,000 pounds of tea into the Boston harbor (the Boston Tea Party).

63 INTOLERABLE ACTS 1774 King George III issued a series of laws (these acts were passed due to the incident of the Boston Tea Party): (1) shut down the Boston Harbor, (2) issued the Quartering Act, (3) General Thomas Gage became new Royal governor of Massachusetts, (4) Boston placed under martial law. The colonists would lose their revenue from trading and England tighten control over the colonies which prevented any type of smuggling, etc. The Committees of Correspondence assembled the First Continental Congress; in September 1774, 56 delegates met in Philadelphia and drew up a Declaration of Colonial Rights which was to defend their colonial rights to handle their own affairs, supported protest in Massachusetts, and stated if the British used force against the colonies, the colonies should fight back.

64 LEXINGTON AND CONCORD 1775 The first battles in the American Revolutionary war. The British are traveling toward Concord to check out a stockpile of colonial weapons. Lexington (15 minute battle)—British soldiers were met by 70 minutemen resulting in 8 minutemen dead and 10 more were wounded and only 1 British soldier dead….British won!!! Concord—British find the empty arsenal and on their way back are met by 3,000 to 4,000 minutemen (ready to fight); the British soldiers were outnumbered, some were wounded, the others retreated….Colonists won!!!

65 Sons of Liberty & Daughters of Liberty Groups that formed to help enforce colonial boycotts against British goods in response to the Stamp Act. The Sons of Liberty used violence and intimidation to enforce the boycotts while the Daughters of Liberty used their skills to weave fabric and other products that were usually bought from Britain.

66 Boston Tea Party So, In December 1773 a group of radicals dressed as Mohawk Indians raided ships hauling British tea and threw the crates overboard into Boston Harbor.

67 Questions for Review 1. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 declared that colonists could not settle west of a line drawn north to south along the A. Rocky MountainsC. Appalachian Mountains B. Ohio RiverD. Hudson River 2. In response to the Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts), the First Continental Congress A. agreed to an increased presence of British troops. B. planned to organize against Britain and halted trade with them. C. agreed to Parliament’s conditions D. took no action 3. Colonial governments in America A. provided that all members of the legislature be elected by the people. B. allowed some citizens to have a voice in the laws directly affecting them. C. answered only to the people of England. D. strengthened the power of the King of England in the colonies. C. Appalachian Mountains B. planned to organize against Britain and halted trade with them. D. strengthened the power of the King of England in the colonies.

68 4. He was elected to the Massachusetts Assembly, a tax collector, and leader of the Sons of Liberty. A. Thomas JeffersonC. Samuel Adams B. Benjamin FranklinD. Patrick Henry 5. What followed the Boston Tea Party? A. the free flow of trade between the colonies and other countries. B. harsh restrictions on colonial liberties and trade. C. Increased self-government in New England. D. the removal of British troops from the colonies. 6. What did “no taxation without representation” mean to the colonies? A. The taxing power of British shopkeepers is represented in Parliament. B. There should be no taxation of British goods entering the colonies. C. Taxation in the colonies should only be for British citizens. D. The colonists should not be taxed without representation in Parliament. C. Samuel Adams B. harsh restrictions on colonial liberties and trade. D. The colonists should not be taxed without representation in Parliament.

69 Chapter 4: The American Revolution 4.2 Declaring Independence SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution. c. Explain the importance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense to the movement for independence. SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. a. Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources of the Declaration of Independence; include the writing of John Locke and the role of Thomas Jefferson.

70 BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL (JUNE 17, 1775) British leader: General Thomas Gage and William Howe; British won only because of Colonists not having enough ammunition. British suffered a great loss in troops named the deadliest battle of the war. After the battle of Breed’s Hill (Bunker Hill, Massachusetts), many people called for a peaceful solution to the colonies problems with England.

71 Common Sense by Thomas Paine Written in early 1776, it said that continued American loyalty to Britain would be absurd, and independence was the only rational thing for colonists to do.

72 Thomas Paine was an immigrant from England who wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense, an anonymous 50 page pamphlet. He argued that the time had come for American independence. Paine attacked King George III and explained his own revolt against the King had begun with Lexington and Concord. Paine sold over 500,000 copies and donated most of his profits to the revolutionary war.

73 Man being born with a title to perfect freedom, and enjoyment of all the rights and privileges of the law of nature, equally with any other man, hath by nature a power, not only to preserve his life, liberty and estate, against the injuries and attempts of other men; but to judge of, and punish the breaches of that law in others. John Locke, Two Treatises of Government, John Locke's writing MOST LIKELY reflects the ideals of which movement? A. EnlightenmentC. Liberalism B. ImperialismD. Romanticism 2. John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, and Jean Jacques Rousseau all were A. advocated American independence B. proponents of a constitutional monarchy in France. C. French Enlightenment philosophers. D. influences on the ideals that shaped American government. A. Enlightenment D. influences on the ideals that shaped American government.

74 3. The phrase in the Declaration of Independence stating "that governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed" illustrates the principle of A. federalism.C. equality before the law. B. judicial review.D. the Social Contract theory. * Commander of Continental Army * Encamped troops at Valley Forge in 1777 * Lost Philadelphia to British in 1777 *Accepted British surrender at Yorktown 4. All of these are describing the actions of what personality of the American Revolution? A. John Adams.C. Thomas Jefferson. B. Benjamin Franklin. D. George Washington. D. the Social Contract theory. D. George Washington.

75 Chapter 4: The American Revolution 4.3 Turning Points of the War SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. b. Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette. c. Analyze George Washington as a military leader; include the creation of a professional military and the life of a common soldier, and describe the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and Valley Forge.

76 EARLY VICTORIES Washington takes Trenton and Princeton—Washington and his army were crossing the Delaware river in small rowboats. Those 2,400 men marched through sleet and snow (a fierce storm). Most of the Hessians (Germans) were sleep and had drank too much the night before because it was Christmas night. Washington took the troops by surprise. They killed 30 men, held 918 men captive, and took 6 Hessian’s cannons. This demonstrated Washington’s tactical brilliance which sparked the determination, dedication, and courage of his troops. Many soldiers re-enlisted at this time. Another victory came later against 1,200 British soldiers stationed at Princeton.

77 The American victory at the Battle of Saratoga was the turning point in the American Revolution—it prompted France’s involvement and the British army was not able to combine to defeat the Continentals. The victory at Saratoga bolstered the French trust in the American army and France had now agreed it was time to support the revolution. The massed American troops finally surrounded Burgoyne at Saratoga. The British strategy had to be changed and General Burgoyne had to surrender to General Horatio Gates. The British now had to fight near the coast and close to their guns arsenal and the supply base on the British fort.

78 Valley Forge ( )—harsh winter camp where the continental army of 10,000 soldiers stayed. The soldiers suffered from cold weather exposure and frost bite; resulting in a loss of soldiers, there were no deserters! Surgeons worked constantly but often were unsuccessful in saving soldiers’ arms and limbs from amputation. The continental army suffered greatly. The British soldiers during this period stayed in our country’s capital Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. “To see men without clothes to cover their nakedness, without blankets to lie upon, without shoes…without a house of hut to cover them until those could be built, and submitting without a murmur, is a proof of patience and obedience which, in my opinion, can scarcely be paralleled.”-- Washington

79 Questions for Review 1. One of the central reasons for the military success of the United States in the American Revolution was A. a well armed and well trained military force. B. financial and military assistance from France. C. substantial industrial production of armaments. D. its navy was vastly superior the that of Britain. 2. It is evident from this diagram that in the early years of the Revolutionary War A. the British were close to winning. B. the Americans were close to winning. C. most of the fighting was in the South. D. that the outcome was far from decided. B. financial and military assistance from France. D. that the outcome was far from decided.

80 William Howe John Burgoyne Lord Cornwallis Henry Clinton 3. With regards to the American Revolution, what does these people have in common? A. They were American military leaders. B. They were training the American soldiers. C. They were the British military leaders. D. They were in the British Parliament. 4. In the United States, the Marquis de Lafayette is best known for A. giving away secrets to the Germans in World War II. B. his role in the XYZ Affair with the French government C. fighting for the United States in the American Revolution. D. leading the French Resistance to aid American pilots in World War II C. They were the British military leaders. C. fighting for the United States in the American Revolution.

81 Chapter 4: The American Revolution 4.4 War’s End and Lasting Effects SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. b. Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette. c. Analyze George Washington as a military leader; include the creation of a professional military and the life of a common soldier, and describe the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and Valley Forge. d. Explain Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis, and the Treaty of Paris, 1783.

82 King George III King of England during the American Revolution.

83 George Washington Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution.

84 Marquis de Lafayette Frenchman who made his way to America to fight for the revolution, a brave, idealistic 20-yr old French aristocrat, aided the American cause by joining George Washington’s staff, leading a command in Virginia, and suggesting the military strategy that resulted in the surrender of the British army at (Yorktown). He also encouraged the French to send reinforcements in 1779.

85 French Help At Yorktown On October 19, 1781, Cornwallis surrendered to Washington at Yorktown. The French troops joined the siege, while other French ships blocked a British rescue by sea. There was also some Spanish support (as an ally to The French). Spain allowed the American Navy to use the Spanish port of New Orleans.

86 Lord Cornwallis British commander who fought the American army in the Carolinas and surrendered to Washington at Yorktown.

87 Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty ending the American Revolution. Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the United States.

88 Questions for Review 1. The outcome at Saratoga was important because A. it led to victory in the South. B. it won the Americans a foreign ally. C. it was the first major victory for the colonists. D. it marked the end of British presence in the north. 2. By 1778, the Revolutionary War had reached a stalemate in the North. The British army MOST LIKELY decided to launch a southern offensive because A. southern governors assured the army that Georgia militias had few trained soldiers. B. the generals believed that they could draw the northern army to unfamiliar territory. C. the generals believed that they could convince neighboring Indian tribes to help them. D. southern governors assured the army that British loyalists were waiting to assist them. B. it won the Americans a foreign ally. ***

89 3. Lord Charles Cornwallis’ role in the American Revolution is significant because A. he successfully defeated Washington outside of New York City. B. led the British invasion of the colonies by way of the Canada territory. C. he abandoned the British Army and declared his allegiance to the Colonial Army. D. his invasion of Virginia eventually led to his being trapped in 1781 at the battle of Yorktown. 4. The Battle of Yorktown is significant in the American Revolution because A. it was there that the "shot heard ‘round the world" was fired. B. it marked the only time Washington was ever defeated in battle. C. the British victory there succeeded in dividing George Washington's Colonial Army into two parts. D. the British Army surrendered after being surrounded there, marking the end of fighting in the war. D. his invasion of Virginia eventually led to his being trapped in 1781 at the battle of Yorktown. D. the British Army surrendered after being surrounded there, marking the end of fighting in the war.

90 5. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 A. ended French colonial holdings in North America. B. granted the United States independence from England. C. ensured Loyalists would not be compensated for their lands. D. established an alliance between the United States and France. 6. Which European philosopher proposed that dividing the government into three branches would prevent any one person or group from gaining total control? A. Voltaire C. Rousseau B. Thomas Hobbes D. Baron de Montesquieu B. granted the United States independence from England. D. Baron de Montesquieu

91 91 Chapter 5 Creating the Constitution

92 92 SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government.

93 Articles of Confederation First national body of laws adopted by the US following its declaration of independence. It proved ineffective because it did not give enough power to the national government.

94 Articles of Confederation First national government Unicameral Congress One vote per state regardless of size Strengths: Had the power to make war, negotiate treaties, request troops and taxes from the states (did not receive help), settle arguments between states, admit new states, and borrow money.

95 Articles of Confederation Weaknesses: Lack of power to levy taxes Raise an army Regulate trade All 13 States had to agree to change anything

96 DISCOURAGED CENTRALIZED AUTHORITY The states felt that a centralized authority would diminish their own independence. They may have remembered the failure to the English Commonwealth under Cromwell. They also feared the kingly power if they decided on a strong central government.

97 97 Shays cont’d In 1787 Shays leads his army to Springfield, Massachusetts, to raid the arsenal. Massachusetts calls out the state militia, which kill four rebels and scatters the rest. Clearly, if this many farmers were willing to rebel, something was wrong. Shay’s rebellion made states decide to participate in the Philadelphia convention because some states had already feared uprising in their state. Shay’s rebellion showed the weaknesses of the national government in dealing with economic problems.

98 Questions for Review 1. What is a unicameral legislature? a. a lawmaking body with a single house of elected representatives b. a lawmaking body with two houses of elected representatives c. an executive committee that preserves Britain’s political traditions d. an executive committee that shares power with state governments 2. Under the Articles of Confederation, who chose the federal government’s congress of delegates? a. the presidentc. state governors b. the peopled. state legislatures 98 a. a lawmaking body with a single house of elected representatives d. state legislatures

99 3. Under the Articles of Confederation, small states like Rhode Island, wielded as much power as large states such as Virginia, because a. each state had one vote in Congress. b. there was no executive branch of government. c. representation was determined by a state’s population. d. the legislature had no lawmaking power. 4. Which of the following provided a plan for governing western lands? a. Continental Congressc. Land Ordinance of 1785 b. Articles of Confederationd. Northwest Ordinance of After Shay’s Rebellion the delegates at the Constitutional Convention met to a. write a new Constitution. b. dismantle the national government. c. put down Shays’ rebellion. d. revise the Articles of Confederation. 99 a. each state had one vote in Congress. d. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 d. revise the Articles of Confederation.

100 Most state constitutions guaranteed a. the tyranny of the majority. b. universal suffrage. c. freedom of religion. d. the dominance of a state church. 7. What type of government did the Articles of Confederation create? a. a strong, centralized government b. an alliance of weak and dependent states c. a loose confederation of strong state governments d. a federal system with a bicameral legislature and a president 8. What event caused the delegates to seek a strong central government? a. American Revolutionary Warc. Shays Rebellion b. Whiskey Rebelliond. Bill of Rights c. freedom of religion. c. a loose confederation of strong state governments c. Shays Rebellion

101 America Under the Articles Financial chaos Unpaid army threatened to mutiny Land Ordinance of 1785 were passed to provide for settling the land north of the Ohio River—distributed public lands. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 outlawed slavery in land settled north of the Ohio River and gave those settlers a Bill of Rights— provided a government for the lands.

102 WESTERN LANDS Land ordinance of 1785 Land ordinance of 1785 established a plan for dispensing or distributing, (surveying) the public lands. By running a grid of lines north to south and east to west, federal surveyors divided the land into hundreds of townships, each six square miles. Once the land was surveyed it would be divided among families in small parcels. Each township was then subdivided in 36 “sections” of one square mile (640 acres) to be sold for at least one dollar per acre. This would allow for not only the rich to purchase land but poor families.. This would allow for not only the rich to purchase land but poor families. Once the land was surveyed it would be divided among families in small parcels. This would allow for not only the rich to purchase land but poor families.

103 An accomplishment of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was to establish requirements for admitting new states to the union: 1.Congress would appoint a territorial governor and judges. 2.When a territory had 5,000 voting residents, it could write a constitution and elect their own government. 3.When the population reached 60,000, it could apply to be a state. These laws were the confederation’s greatest achievements and established a blueprint for future growth of the nation.

104 DISCOURAGED CENTRALIZED AUTHORITY The states felt that a centralized authority would diminish their own independence. They may have remembered the failure to the English Commonwealth under Cromwell. They also feared the kingly power if they decided on a strong central government.

105 105 Big States vs. Small States – Big states: wanted Congress to be composed of two houses and delegates should be assigned according to population (favored representation of each state based on population). Small states: wanted a Congress of one house because each state should be preserved and each state should have one vote (favored equal representation of each state).

106

107 Questions for Review 1. The Great Compromise was over the issue of A. How to elect the President. B. Representation in Congress. C. Who would be the first Chief Justice. D. Farm states and states involved in commerce. 2. The Great Compromise was over the debate between the A. Free states and slave states. B. Big states and little states. C. Northern states and Southern states D. Rich states and poor states. 3. As a result of the Great Compromise, the ___________ is based on population and the _________ has an equal number from each state. A. Senate; House of Representatives B. House of Representatives; Senate C. Supreme Court; Senate D. Supreme Court; House of Representatives 107 B. Representation in Congress. B. Big states and little states. ****

108 108

109 National government vs. State governments The national government has the power to control foreign affairs, provide national defense, regulate trade between states, and coin money. The state governments have the power to provide and supervise education, establish marriage laws, and regulate trade within the state.

110 DELEGATED POWERS: THOSE POWERS SPECIFICALLY GRANTED THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BY THE CONSTITUTION. RESERVED POWERS: THOSE POWERS NOT DELEGATED TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT OR DENIED THE STATES ARE RESERVED FOR THE STATES. REGULATE INTERSTATE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE, COIN MONEY, DECLARE WAR, MAINTAIN ARMED FORCES, ESTABLISH A POSTAL SYSTEM, ENFORCE COPYRIGHTS, SIGN TREATIES, ACQUIRE TERRITORY CONCURRENT POWERS: POWERS THAT ARE SHARED BY BOTH THE FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS. REGULATE INTERSTATE TRADE, ESTABLISH SCHOOLS, ESTABLISH LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, PASS STATEWIDE LAWS (EX. SAFETY BELT LAWS), RUN ELECTIONS, GRANT PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION, MARRIAGE REQUIRMENTS  POWER TO TAX,  MAINTAIN COURTS,  BORROW MONEY,  DEFINE CRIME AND PUNISHMENTS, CONDEMN PRIVATE PROPERTY EXAMPLES OF DIVIDED POWERS IN US GOVERNMENT

111 111 Separation of Powers The delegates created three branches – Legislative branch to makes laws and changes to existing laws based on the Constitution and the Bill of Rights (House of Representatives & Senate). – Executive to carry out/enforce laws (President, Vice President, and Cabinet). – Judicial to study--interpret/reviews laws (U.S. Supreme Court). Established a system of checks and balances. Also established the electoral college, a group of electors to cast votes for the candidates

112 112 Checks and Balances The system preserves the power of government by ensuring that no branch becomes powerful enough to diminish the power of another branch. This maintained separation of power among the branches of the federal government is called checks and balances—provided to prevent one branch from dominating the others. President EXECUTIVE BRANCH CAN VETO CONGRESSIONAL BILLS. LEGISLATIVE BRANCH CAN OVERRIDE PRESIDENTIAL VETO BY 2/3 VOTE APPROVAL. JUDICIAL BRANCH CAN DECLARE CONGRESS LAWS AND PRESIDENTIAL ACTIONS UNCONSTITUTIONAL.

113 Questions for Review 1. What was accomplished at the Constitutional Convention of 1787? A. The U.S. Constitution was written. B. The U.S. Constitution was amended. C. The Articles of Confederation were written. D. The Articles of Confederation were amended. 2. Critics of the Virginia Plan worried that A. A federal court system was needed to review laws. B. A bicameral legislature would give small states too much influence. C. A strong President would gain kinglike power. D. A unicameral legislature would give too much power to the common people. 3. Which plan was favored by the small states? A. Virginia PlanC. New Jersey Plan B. Great CompromiseD. 3/5 Compromise A. The U.S. Constitution was written C. A strong President would gain kinglike power. ****

114 4. What is one feature of the political system created by the original Constitution of the United States? A. guaranteeing equal legal rights to all persons B. requiring the federal government to maintain a balanced budget C. dividing powers between the national and state governments D. granting more power to the executive branch than to the other branches of government 5. To win a presidential election, a candidate must win a A. two-thirds vote of the state legislatures B. two-thirds vote in Congress C. majority of the popular vote D. majority of the electoral college vote C. dividing powers between the national and state governments**** D. majority of the electoral college vote*****

115 6. “…The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny….” — James Madison Which feature of the United States Constitution was included to address the concern expressed by James Madison? A. electoral college C. checks and balances B. Bill of Rights D. amendment process 7. At the Constitutional Convention, the delegates agreed that Congress should have the power to A. declare laws unconstitutional B. levy and collect taxes C. select the president D. eliminate slavery in the states C. checks and balances B. levy and collect taxes******

116 What Kind of Plan? Whose Ideas Are Best? Two Different Factions Federalist: Favored strong central government Believed in a “loose” interpretation of the Constitution Encouraged the growth of business Encouraged urbanization & an economy based on industry and commerce Supported by Washington, Hamilton, & Adams Anti-Federalists: Favored a weak central government & stronger state governments. Believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution Encouraged the development of farming (agriculture) Wanted a rural American society Supported by Jefferson and Madison CONFLICT!!!

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118 The Federalist Papers were written by Federalist leaders John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton to get New York to ratify the constitution. It was a series of 85 essays that analyzed the constitution and explained why ratification of the constitution would be beneficial. It also argued that the division of powers and the system of checks and balances would protect Americans from tyrannical authority or a centralized authority.

119 Bill of Rights helps to approve the US Constitution The Federalists pledged to add the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution. This pledge would help them win the support of additional states they needed to ensure ratification. Before the Constitution could go into effect it had to be ratified by 2/3 of the states. Ratification—official approval—required the agreement of at least nine states of the thirteen states. The Constitution was ratified on September 17, 1789—the Bill of Rights added December Delaware was the first and New Hampshire was the ninth.

120 I - Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition. II - Right to keep and bear arms. III - Conditions for quarters of soldiers (protection from having to house soldiers). IV- Right of search and seizure regulated (protection from having home being searched). V- Provisions concerning prosecution (provides that certain steps be taken if someone is charged with a crime).

121 VI - Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc. VII - Right to a trial by jury (civil lawsuits, court cases involving private rights). VIII - Excessive bail/cruel punishment (right to fair punishment). IX – Rights maintained by the people (to make sure rights not mentioned in the Bill of Rights would also be protected). X - Rights of the states under Constitution. 121

122 Why amending the Constitution is difficult? So that amending the Constitution would be taken seriously and changes could not be made only to suit or favor a specific individual, group, or cause. How many times has the U.S. Constitution been changed? What are these changes called? The Constitution has been changed 27 times=27 amendments added. 122

123 Questions for Review 1. What did the Federalists want the Constitution to provide? A. A bill of rights protecting basic liberties. B. A strong central government. C. Unlimited power for state governments. D. Citizens’ conventions 2. Anti-federalists criticized the Constitution as A. Concentrating too much power in the hands of a few. B. Granting too much power to the states. C. Weakening the national government by guaranteeing civil liberties. D. Containing too many checks and balances. 3. Which of the following was prominent Federalists? A. Samuel AdamsC. Richard Henry Lee B. Patrick HenryD. James Madison B. A strong central government. A. Concentrating too much power in the hands of a few. ******

124 4. At first, two big states looked like they would not ratify the Constitution. They were A. New Jersey and Connecticut. B. Georgia and South Carolina. C. New York and Virginia. D. Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. 5. Which three men persuaded New York to ratify the Constitution? A. Alexander Hamilton of New York B. John Jay of New York C. James Madison of Virginia D. All of the Above 6. All of the following statements regarding The Federalists Papers is true, except: A. They were newspapers articles written by Madison, Hamilton, & Jay. B. They were meant to persuade New York to ratify the Constitution. C. New York refused to ratify the Constitution. D. It was the beginning of the two-party system. 124 C. New York and Virginia. D. All of the Above ****

125 7. To win support for the Constitution, Federalists promised to add A. The abolition of slavery B. The popular election of the President C. A strong federal judiciary D. A Bill of Rights. 8. The idea that government gets its power from the people is A. FederalismC. Checks and Balances B. Popular SovereigntyD. Limited Government 9. The Bill of Rights guarantees all U.S. citizens certain rights including protection A. Against oppression by foreign governments B. From economic hardship C. From being deprived of property, liberty, or life without due process D. Against military draft by the federal government C. From being deprived of property, liberty, or life without due process B. Popular Sovereignty D. A Bill of Rights.

126 10. Someone who opposed ratification of the Constitution, believed that a central leader would have too much power, and held a strict interpretation of the Constitution was most like a member of which faction? A. FederalistsC. Sons of Liberty B. Anti-FederalistsD. Tories 11. Which of the following was added to the Constitution after its ratification for the purpose of protecting citizen’s rights and ensuring limited government? A. The Articles of Confederation C. The Electoral College B. The Bill of Rights D. the Great Compromise 12. The principle that authority to govern should be divided between different branches in order to respect and uphold the natural rights of citizens is known as A. Separation of Powers C. Popular Sovereignty B. The Tenth Amendment D. The Bill of Rights *** * B. Anti-Federalists*** B. The Bill of Rights***

127 3 BRANCHES OF U.S. GOVERNMENT

128 Separation of Powers Divides authority to govern between different branches of government.

129 Legislative Branch Responsible for making the laws of the country.

130 Questions for Review 1. Which of the following describes the House of Representatives? A. It has exactly 100 members. B. Representatives may serve only two year terms. C. Every States has at least one member. D. It is considered the more prestigious house of Congress. 2. Which statement about the Senate is true? A. It has two members from each state. B. Its membership is proportional to the State’s population. C. It is considered less important than the House of Representatives. D. It has “the power of the purse.” 3. According to the Constitution, who has the sole power to impeach the President? A. The U.S. Supreme Court C. The Attorney General B. No person or group D. The House of Representatives B. Representatives may serve only two year terms. A. It has two members from each state. D. The House of Representatives

131 Executive Branch Responsible for enforcing the laws and is headed by the president of the United States.

132 MAIN DUTIES/ROLES AND POWERS CHIEF EXECUTIVE— ENFORCE THE LAWS PASSED BY CONGRESS ISSUE EXECUTIVE ORDERS, ENFORCING THE LAW; ACT AS THE HEAD OF THE FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY AND ALL FEDERAL AGENCIES NOMINATE JUDGES (INCLUDING THOSE TO THE SUPREME COURT, REQUIRING SENATE CONFIRMATION); APPOINT GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS (SOME REQUIRING SENATE CONFIRMATION, SOME NOT). CHIEF DIPLOMAT— ACT A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNITED STATES TO FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS; MAKE TREATIES WITH FOREIGN NATIONS (REQUIRE 2/3 VOTE IN SENATE FOR APPROVAL); EXTEND OR RESCIND DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN NATIONS. CHIEF LEGISLATOR—PROPOSE A FEDERAL BUDGET; RECOMMEND PROPOSED LAWS TO CONGRESS; VETO LEGISLATION; APPROVE LEGISLATION PASSED BY CONGRESS.

133 MAIN DUTIES/ROLES AND POWERS COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF ARMED FORCES— SUPREME COMMANDER OF ALL BRANCHES OF US MILITARY; AUTHORIZE USE OF US MILITARY FOR UP TO 60 DAYS (WITHOUT APPROVAL OF CONGRESS OR DECLARATION OF WAR). CHIEF OF STATE— SERVE AS CEREMONIAL HEAD OF US GOVERNMENT. VICE PRESIDENT MAIN DUTIES/ROLES AND POWERS PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE— MAKES DECIDING VOTE IN SENATE ONLY IF THERE IS A TIE. OVERSEES THE 25 TH AMENDMENT—MAKES FINAL DECISION OF WHETHER THE PRESIDENT IS CAPABLE OF FULFILLING THE JOB OF PRESIDENCY WHEN HE IS DISABLED.

134 Questions for Review "I've come here to Cairo to seek a new beginning between the United States and Muslims around the world, one based on mutual interest and mutual respect, and one based upon the truth that America and Islam are not exclusive and need not be in competition. Instead, they overlap, and share common principles -- principles of justice and progress; tolerance and the dignity of all human beings. I do so recognizing that change cannot happen overnight. I know there's been a lot of publicity about this speech, but no single speech can eradicate years of mistrust, nor can I answer in the time that I have this afternoon all the complex questions that brought us to this point. But I am convinced that in order to move forward, we must say openly to each other the things we hold in our hearts and that too often are said only behind closed doors" --President Barack Obama, June 4, These lines from President Obama's speech show a President's role as a. party leader. c. Commander in Chief. b. Chief Executive. d. Chief Diplomat d. Chief Diplomat

135 Use the cartoon below to answer the question. 2. Hillary Clinton is advising President Obama on the Middle East conflict due to her expertise in foreign policy, this action is Constitutional because she represents which cabinet position a. Secretary of Domestic peace c. Secretary of State b. Secretary of Defense d. Secretary of Commerce 3. Members of the Cabinet advise the President on various policy issues. Which of the following is a member of the Cabinet? A. Solicitor GeneralC. First Lady B. Vice PresidentD. Attorney General Secretary of State ***

136 4. Commander of the national armed forces is the a. president.c. vice president. b. State of the Union general.d. attorney general. 5. In the _____________________________ the goal is to preserve the nation’s communities and ensures the United States citizens of equal housing opportunities as well as helps to make mortgage money available. a. Department of Commercec. Department of Housing and Urban Development b. Department of Labord. Department of Justice 6. The branch of the federal government that has the power to propose legislation, negotiate treaties with other nations, and appoint federal judges is the A. Legislative BranchC. Judicial Branch B. Executive BranchD. Constitutional Branch C. Department of Housing and Urban Development A. President B. Executive Branch

137 Judicial Branch The federal court system. Its role is to make sure the laws are applied fairly and appropriately.

138 U.S. Supreme Court Serves as the highest court in the land.

139 JUDICIAL REVIEW THE MOST IMPORTANT POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT, THAT OF JUDICIAL REVIEW OR THE ABILITY TO DECLARE LAWS UNCONSTITUTIONAL, IS NOT IN THE CONSTITUTION. THE POWER OF JUDICIAL REVIEW WAS A PRECEDENT SET IN THE 1803 MARBURY V. MADISON DECISION. REGARDLESS, IT HAS BECOME ONE OF THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS IN AMERICAN GOVERNMENT. IT ALSO SERVES A CHECK AND BALANCE ON THE LAWS PASSED BY CONGRESS AND THE ACTIONS AND TREATIES OF THE PRESIDENT.

140 Questions for Review 1. The Supreme Court is established in which branch of government? A. Legislative BranchC. Executive Branch B. Judicial BranchD. Presidential Branch 2. This elevated the Supreme Court to a status balancing the powers of the other branches. A. Judicial reviewC. Enumerated powers B. Constitutional amendment D. Judicial activism 3. How long is the term for a members of the Supreme Court? A. 2 yearsC. 6 years B. 4 yearsD. Lifetime 4. How many justices-including the chief justice-are on the Supreme Court? A. FiveC. Nine B. SevenD. Eleven B. Judicial Branch A. Judicial review D. Lifetime C. Nine

141 Questions for Review 5. The implied power of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional is called A. Judicial activismC. Power of the people B. Judicial reviewD. Presidential veto 6. A new controversial law has passed in both houses of Congress and was signed by the President. A court case concerning the law is being brought to the Supreme Court. Many political analysts believe the Supreme Court will exercise its rights to judicial review in its decision. Which conclusion is best, given this information? A. Every law passed by Congress must be submitted to the Supreme Court for approval. B. The Supreme Court could declare the law unconstitutional. C. The Supreme court will rule on the court case without making a single change in the law. D. None of the above. B. Judicial review ***

142 CHECKS & BALANCES IN GOVERNMENT INTRODUCTION TO CHECKS AND BALANCES IN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT THE CONCEPT OF CHECKING AND BALANCING POWER

143 Checks and Balances Powers given to each branch that allow each branch to check the powers of the other two.

144 EXECUTIVE BRANCH CHECKS ON THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH · PRESIDENT HAS THE POWER TO VETO LAWS PASSED BY THE CONGRESS · PROPOSES LAWS TO CONGRESS · SUBMITS THE FEDERAL BUDGET TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES · APPOINTS FEDERAL OFFICIALS, WHO CARRY OUT AND ENFORCE LAWS

145 EXECUTIVE BRANCH CHECKS ON THE JUDICIAL BRANCH **Nominates judges to the Supreme Court **Nominates judges to the federal court system **President has the power to pardon individuals convicted of crimes **President can grant amnesty, forgiving a class of crime

146 LEGISLATIVE BRANCH CHECKS ON THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH **CONGRESS CAN OVERTURN A PRESIDENTIAL VETO WITH A 2/3 VOTE OF BOTH HOUSES **SENATE CAN REJECT PROPOSED TREATIES (2/3 VOTE TO APPROVE) **SENATE CAN REJECT PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATIONS OF FEDERAL OFFICIALS OR JUDGES **CONGRESS CAN IMPEACH AND REMOVE THE PRESIDENT (HOUSE SERVES AS PROSECUTION, SENATE SERVES AS JURY)

147 LEGISLATIVE BRANCH CHECKS ON THE JUDICIAL BRANCH **CONGRESS CAN CREATE LOWER COURTS **SENATE CAN REJECT NOMINEES TO THE FEDERAL COURTS/SUPREME COURT **CONGRESS CAN AMEND THE CONSTITUTION TO OVERTURN DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT **CONGRESS CAN IMPEACH JUDGES AND REMOVE FROM THE BENCH

148 JUDICIAL BRANCH CHECKS ON THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH · SUPREME COURT CAN USE THE POWER OF JUDICIAL REVIEW TO RULE LAWS UNCONSTITUTIONAL

149 JUDICIAL BRANCH CHECKS ON THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH **SUPREME COURT CAN USE THE POWER OF JUDICIAL REVIEW TO RULE PRESIDENTIAL ACTIONS UNCONSTITUTIONAL **SUPREME COURT CAN USE THE POWER OF JUDICIAL REVIEW TO RULE TREATIES UNCONSTITUTIONAL

150 THE BILL OF RIGHTS THE MOST SIGNIFICANT AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION ARE THE FIRST TEN, ALSO KNOWN AS THE BILL OF RIGHTS. THESE AMENDMENTS WERE ADDED TO THE CONSTITUTION AT THE INSISTENCE OF THE ANTI-FEDERALIST FORCES DURING THE DEBATES OVER RATIFICATION. THE FEAR OF A DOMINATING FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, SUCH AS THE COLONISTS HAD EXPERIENCED UNDER ENGLISH RULE, LED MANY TO DEMAND ASSURANCES THAT SPECIFIC RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES WERE GOING TO BE PROTECTED. IT IS THE BILL OF RIGHTS THAT STANDS TILL TODAY AS THE GREATEST GUARANTEE OF THESE RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES UPON WHICH AMERICA WAS FOUNDED. ALL OF THE AMENDMENTS IN THE BILL OF RIGHTS WERE ADOPTED TOGETHER IN 1791.

151 Questions for Review 1. The Tenth Amendment is confirming the “Founding Fathers” dedication to the principle of A. SuffrageC. Federalism B. Checks and Balances D. Popular Sovereignty 2. The First Amendment establishes the people’s right to A. VoteC. Criticize the government B. Due processD. Raise a militia 3. The Seventh Amendment requires that most people accused of civil crimes be given a A. Speedy trial C. Jury trial B. Lawyer D. Equal protection under the law 4. The Fourth Amendment requires police provide a ______________ to obtain a search warrant. A. Good reasonC. Written accusation B. Police reportD. Witness C. Federalism C. Criticize the government C. Jury trial A. Good reason

152 Questions for Review 5. The Eighth Amendment says that bails, fines, and punishments for crimes cannot be A. DelayedC. Timely B. Unfair or cruel D. Under the law 6. The Second Amendment establishes the people’s right to A. Own a gun C. Criticize the government B. Serve different religions D. Request a jury trial 7. The Fifth Amendment guarantees that the government cannot take private property for its own use without A. Fair payment C. The owner’s agreement B. Approval of Mayor D. Consent 8. The Fourteenth Amendment requires that states give all people A. The right to voteC. An income tax B. Equal protection under the lawD. The weather channel B. Unfair or cruel A. Own a gun A. Fair payment B. Equal protection under the law

153 Other Key Amendments 14 th -Equal protection under the law for all persons born in the United States 15 th -Gave African American males voting rights 17 th –Direct election of Senators 19 th –Gave women voting rights 24 th –Abolished the poll tax 26 th –Extended voting rights to 18 year olds


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