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Forming an American Identity The Colonies and Religious Formation in America.

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1 Forming an American Identity The Colonies and Religious Formation in America

2 European Explorers in America European explorers in America (de Vaca, Columbus, Bradford, etc.) Spanish Colonies(1580s) – lower region of US and Mexico – missionaries convert Natives French Colonies – St. Laurence River in Canada, Northern America

3 European Explorers in America (cont.) English Colonies (three different major groups) – Jamestown, first thriving colony (1607) – Plymouth Colonies (Northern Colonies) pilgrims emigrate to escape persecution(1620s) Mayflower Compact: govern colony for sake of all, free of religious persecution export timber, build boats, produce rum, textile, iron objects – Central and Southern Colonies King Charles II gives land to supporters (New York, Carolinas, Georgia) Quakers (Pennsylvania, Delaware) Catholics (Maryland) plantations, large farms, unskilled workers (dependence on slave trade)

4 Writings of the Explorers General observations catalogued about the New World Governmental documents (“briefs”) between settlers and home countries Emphasis away from class distinction (at least from the European ties); favor merit, talent, effort Emphasize abundant resources, peacefulness, promise of unlimited wealth

5 Puritan Colonial Literature Settlements devoted to open religious life (very strict to religious interpretation) Early publications often reflect religious, security, cultural concerns Describe connections between Biblical events and person experiences Most common forms: diaries, histories, sermons Written in plain style, avoided figures of speech Cotton Mather: biographies of religious leaders, guides for ministers/religious servants, records of wars

6 Colonial Literature example Anne Bradstreet ( ) Background – Born into Puritan family in England – Brought to colonies as teenage bride, married at age 16 to Simon Bradstreet – Settled in Salem, Massachusetts Bay Colony – Suffered fatigue, rheumatic fevers Writings – Influenced by the language and style of Shakespeare – First published (unknowingly) – Earlier poems lofty and elaborate, focus on public events – Later works simple, personal (on topics: birth, death, love, illness, etc)

7 Anne Bradstreet,

8 Bradstreet’s Philosophy “Among all my experiences of God’s gracious dealings with me I have constantly observed this, that He hath never suffered me long to sit loose from Him, but by one affliction or other hath made me look home, and search what was amiss.”

9 “By Night When Others Soundly Slept” Anne Bradstreet By night when others soundly slept And hath at once both ease and Rest, My waking eyes were open kept And so to lie I found it best. I sought him whom my Soul did Love, With tears I sought him earnestly. He bow'd his ear down from Above. In vain I did not seek or cry. My hungry Soul he fill'd with Good; He in his Bottle put my tears, My smarting wounds washt in his blood, And banisht thence my Doubts and fears. What to my Saviour shall I give Who freely hath done this for me? I'll serve him here whilst I shall live And Love him to Eternity.

10 Exercise 1.Groups of 4. 2.As a group, identify SOAP: s=speaker, o=occasion, a=audience, p=purpose) and share literary elements

11 The American Great Awakening (1730s) Major tenets – Encourage return to Calvinist zeal – Stress emotional commitment and complete surrender to faith – Attempt to appeal to new converts with emotional appeal (to those who embraced philosophies of Locke)

12 Jonathan Edwards engraving by R Babson & J Andrews

13 Jonathan Edwards ( ) Background – Born to a minister, groomed to follow in his footsteps – Well educated, entered Yale at age 13 – Began religious revival, “The Great Awakening” Eventually became known for extremism; strictness caused his dismissal from pastorship of Northampton Relocated to Stockbridge, became a missionary, and after 8 years named President of now Princeton Died of small pox inoculation

14 Jonathan Edwards (cont.) Writings/Sermons – Sought to convert congregations from believers who understood Christian logic to Christians emotionally move by their beliefs – Believed in reason and learning, value of independent intellect, human will – Also believed in lowliness of humanity in relation to God’s majesty; ultimate futility of merely human effort to achieve salvation – Dichotomy kept him from being categorized as either Puritan or Rationalist – Marked by intense emotivism, sometimes hysteria – Evangelistic intent: “bringing of good news,” tried to “awaken” people who knew the message but hadn’t made personal emotional connection

15 Methods of Persuasion In one of his many works on rhetoric, Ancient Greek Philosophy Aristotle devises three categories of persuasion: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos.

16 Ethos Ethos, or ethical appeal, means convincing by the character of the author. We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect.

17 Pathos Pathos means persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions. We can look at texts ranging from classic essays to contemporary advertisements to see how pathos, emotional appeals, are used to persuade. Language choice affects the audience's emotional response, and emotional appeal can effectively be used to enhance an argument.

18 Logos Logos means persuading by the use of reasoning. This will be the most important technique we will study, and Aristotle's favorite. We'll look at deductive and inductive reasoning, and discuss what makes an effective, persuasive reason to back up your claims. Giving reasons is the heart of argumentation, and cannot be emphasized enough. We'll study the types of support you can use to substantiate your thesis, and look at some of the common logical fallacies, in order to avoid them in your writing.

19 In short: Ethos: the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority Logos: the logic used to support a claim (induction and deduction); can also be the facts and statistics used to help support the argument. Pathos: the emotional or motivational appeals; vivid language, emotional language and numerous sensory details.

20 “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” The most famous sermon ever preached in America. uR7RumaA&feature=related While you listen, in your journal, make note of your feelings and thoughts. What phrases really grab you? What main message really strikes you personally?

21 Exercise 1.Reread the sermon. Annotate as you go, specifically labeling segments of the sermon which demonstrate ethos, pathos, and logos. 2.Then, find the quotes that you believe best demonstrate each of the three appeals (you will have three quotes, total- write on your own sheet of paper) 3.Under each, explain how those particular lines of the sermon represent those appeals. Are they effective? Are they convincing? Why/Why not? (this should be at least a paragraph long for each)


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