1Syntax, Rhyme, Rhythm, Diction, figurative language Poetic ANalysisSyntax, Rhyme, Rhythm, Diction, figurative language
2Syntax Syntax is the ordering of words into patterns and phrases These terms are helpful when discussing poetic syntax:CaesuraEnjambmentEnd-stopped
3Caesuraa pause, usually near the middle of a line of verse, usually indicated by the sense of the line, and often greater than the normal pause.Example: “To err is human, to forgive divine”
4the continuation of the sense and grammatical construction from one line of poetry to the next EnjambmentA thing of beauty is a joy forever:Its loveliness increases; it will neverPass into nothingness but still will keepA bower quiet for us, and asleepFull of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing
5End-Stopped a line with a pause at the end Example: True ease in writing comes from Art, not Chance, As those move easiest who have learn’d to dance.
6Rhymeclose similarity or identity of sound between accented syllables occupying corresponding positions in two or more lines of verse
7Rhyme SchemeThe way rhymes are arranged in a poem
8Rhyming Patterns AABB – lines 1 & 2 rhyme and lines 3 & 4 rhyme Poets can choose from a variety of different rhyming patterns.(See next four slides for examples.)AABB – lines 1 & 2 rhyme and lines 3 & 4 rhymeABAB – lines 1 & 3 rhyme and lines 2 & 4 rhymeABBA – lines 1 & 4 rhyme and lines 2 & 3 rhymeABCB – lines 2 & 4 rhyme and lines 1 & 3 do not rhyme
9AABB Rhyming Pattern First Snow Snow makes whiteness where it falls. The bushes look like popcorn balls.And places where I always play,Look like somewhere else today.By Marie Louise Allen
10ABAB Rhyming Pattern Oodles of Noodles I love noodles. Give me oodles. Make a mound up to the sun.Noodles are my favorite foodles.I eat noodles by the ton.By Lucia and James L. Hymes, Jr.
11ABBA Rhyming Pattern Let me fetch sticks, Let me fetch stones, From “Bliss”Let me fetch sticks,Let me fetch stones,Throw me your bones,Teach me your tricks.By Eleanor Farjeon
12ABCB Rhyming Pattern The alligator chased his tail Which hit him in the snout;He nibbled, gobbled, swallowed it,And turned right inside-out.by Mary Macdonald
13Devices of Sound Poetry is meant to be read and heard There are many devices that poets use to add qualities that can be heard in poetryRhythmRepetitionAlliterationConsonanceassonance
14alliteration Gnus never knew pneumonia the repetition of identical or similar consonant sounds, normally at the beginnings of words
15consonancethe repetition of similar consonant sounds in a group of wordsAdd and readBill and ballBurn and born
16Assonance The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds A land laid waste with all its young men slain
17Rhythm the recurrence of stressed and unstressed syllables The presence of rhythmic patterns lends both pleasure and heightened emotional response to the listener or reader“To be or not to be”
18Diction The way the author uses words in a literary work Formal: the level of usage common in serious books and formal discourseInformal: the level of usage found in the relaxed but polite conversation of peopleDictionThe way the author uses words in a literary workColloquial: the everyday usage of a group, possibly including terms and constructions accepted in that group but not universally acceptable)Slang: a group of newly coined words which are not acceptable for formal usage as yet
19Figurative LanguageWriting that used words to mean something other than their literal meaningTypes we will be discussing:SimileMetaphorHyperbolePersonificationApostrophe
20Simile Compares two things using “like” or “as” Examples: My Love is like a feverThe winter wind is like a howling wolf
21Metaphor A direct comparison of one thing to another unlike thing Examples:My love is a feverThe wind is a howling wolf
22HyperboleA deliberate, frequently outrageous and extravagant, exaggeration"I'll love you, dear, I'll love you till China and Africa meet, And the river jumps over the mountain And the salmon sing in the street, I'll love you till the ocean Is folded and hung up to dry And the seven stars go squawking Like geese about the sky."
23PersonificationA kind of metaphor that gives inanimate objects or ideas humanlike qualitiesI’d love to take a poem to lunch But I was going to say when Truth broke in With all her matter-of-fact about the ice- storm
24ApostropheSomeone (usually not present), something, or some abstract idea is directly addressed as though they were present or could hearPapa Above! Regard a Mouse. -Emily Dickinson Milton! Thou shouldst be living in this hour; England hath need of thee -William Wordsworth