Third Article deals with Sanctification, to make us Holy. Sanctification not as states, but events: communion of saints, forgiveness of sins, resurrection of the body, life everlasting. He speaks not only of what God does to and with us, but what happens among us: revive our conscience, forgive others, bear with and aid others. All this manifests Christ among us. Holiness is not complete in this life: holiness has begun and is growing daily, but it will be completed when our bodies/minds are finally risen. Triune God: God gives Godself completely to us: Father: gives us all creation (space, time, life, etc.). Son: gives us all his works (righteousness, new being, sharing). Spirit: gives us all its gifts (faith, forgiveness, love).
We conclude therefore with Paul, that we are justified by faith only in Christ, without law and works. Now after that a man is once justified, and possesseth Christ by faith, and knoweth that he is his righteousness and life, doubtless he will not be idle, but as a good tree he will bring forth good fruits. For the believing man hath the Holy Ghost, and where the Holy Ghost dwelleth, he will not suffer a man to be idle, but stirreth him up to all exercises of piety and godliness, to the love of God, to the patient suffering of afflictions, to prayer, to thanksgiving, to the exercise of charity towards all men. Wherefore we also say that faith without works is vain and nothing worth.
Now, to love thy neighbor so heartily, that thou art ready to bestow thy money, thy goods, thine eyes, and all that thou hast for his salvation, and moreover to suffer patiently all adversities and afflictions, these, no doubt, are the effects and fruits of the Spirit (3:5).
The law never bringeth the Holy Ghost, but only teacheth what we ought to do: therefore it justifieth not. But the Gospel bringeth the Holy Ghost, because it teacheth what we ought to receive. Therefore the law and the Gospel are two quite contrary doctrines. To put righteousness therefore in the law, is nothing else but to fight against the Gospel. For Moses with his law is a severe exactor, requireth of us that we should work, and that we should give: briefly, it requireth and exacteth. Contrariwise, the Gospel giveth freely and requireth of us nothing else, but to hold out our hands, and to take that which is offered. Now to exact and to give, to take and to offer are clean contrary, and cannot stand together. For that which is given, I take: but that which I give, I do not take, but I offer it unto another. Therefore if the Gospel be a gift, and offereth a gift, it requireth nothing. Contrariwise, the law giveth nothing, but it requireth and straitly exacteth of us, yea even impossible things.
Now, to give glory unto God, is to believe in him, to count him true, wise, righteous, merciful, almighty: briefly, to acknowledge him to be the author and giver of all goodness. This reason doth not, but faith. That is it which maketh us divine people, and (as a man would say) it is the creator of divinity, not in the substance of God, but in us. For without faith God loseth in us his glory, wisdom, righteousness, truth, mercy, etc. To conclude, no majesty or divinity remaineth unto God, where faith is not. This being done, God hath his full and perfect divinity, that is, he hath whatsoever a faithful heart can attribute unto him. To be able therefore to give that glory unto God, it is the wisdom of wisdoms, the righteousness of righteousnesses, the religion of religions, and sacrifice of sacrifices. Hereby we may perceive, what an high and excellent righteousness faith is, and so by the contrary, what an horrible and grievous sin infidelity is.
Therefore before all things, we must hear and receive the promise, which setteth out Christ, and offereth him to all believers; and when they have taken hold upon him by faith, the Holy Ghost is given unto them for his sake. Then do they love God and their neighbor, then do they good works, then do they carry the cross patiently. This is to do the law indeed; otherwise the law remaineth always undone. Wherefore if thou wilt define truly and plainly what it is to do the law, it is nothing else, but to believe in Jesus Christ, and when the Holy Ghost is received through faith in Christ, to work those things which are commanded in the law: and otherwise we are not able to perform the law.
Wherefore Moses together with Paul doth necessarily drive us to Christ, through whom we are made doers of the law, and are not accounted guilty of any transgression. How so? First by forgiveness of sins and imputation of righteousness, because of our faith in Christ. Secondly, by the gift [of God] and the Holy Ghost, which bringeth forth a new life and new motions in us, so that we may also do the law effectually.
The Holy Ghost is sent in two manner of ways. In the primitive Church he was sent in a manifest and visible appearance. So he came upon Christ at Jordan in the likeness of a dove, and in the likeness of fire upon the Apostles and other believers. And this was the first sending of the Holy Ghost; which was necessary in the primitive Church….But after that the Church was gathered together and confirmed with those miracles, it was not necessary that this visible sending of the Holy Ghost should continue any longer. Secondly, the Holy Ghost is sent by the Word into the hearts of the believers, as here it is said, ‘God sent the spirit of his Son,’ etc. This sending is without any visible appearance; to wit, when by the hearing of the spoken Word, we receive an inward fervency and light, whereby we are changed and become new creatures; whereby also we receive a new judgment, new feelings and motions. This change and this new judgment is no work of reason, or of the power of man, but is the gift and the operation of the Holy Ghost, which cometh with the Word preached, which purifieth our hearts by faith, and bringeth forth in us spiritual motions.
This I have said concerning the inward testimony, whereby a [Christian man’s] heart ought to be fully persuaded that he is under grace and hath the Holy Ghost. Now, the outward signs (as before I have said) are, gladly to hear of Christ, to preach and teach Christ, to render thanks unto him, to praise him, to confess him, yea, with the loss of goods and life: moreover, to do our duty according to our vocation as we are able, in faith, joy, etc.; not to delight in sins, nor to thrust ourselves into another man’s vocation, but to attend upon our own, to help our needy brother, to comfort the heavy hearted, etc. By these signs as by certain effects and consequents we are fully assured and confirmed, that we are in God’s favor (4:6).
We must not judge therefore according to the feeling of our own heart, but according to the Word of God, which teacheth us that the Holy Ghost is given to those that are afflicted, terrified, and ready to despair, to raise them up and comfort them, that they be not overcome in their temptations and afflictions, but may overcome them, and yet not without great terrors and troubles.
Follows the Finnish School of Luther Research. Luther’s doctrine was shaped by two fronts: Objectivism of Roman Catholicism, and subjectivism of Enthusiasts. Luther stressed the incarnational dimension of the Spirit. The ‘inner procession’ coincides with his coming to us through material means and signs. The Spirit fulfills the requirements of God’s commands: love. Close association of Spirit and Word: Pentecost symbolizes the coming of the Word through every language. Justification/deification:
The 3 rd article is where WE come in as we undesrtand God as triune. HS signifies the Gospel transforming us, God’s own reality among us. Problem with all Western theological thought: replaces the Spirit (event) with grace (a substance) The Spirit is God’s effect on us.