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1PowerPoint Presentation Middle ColoniesPowerPoint PresentationNew York colonyNew Jersey colonyPennsylvania colonyQuakersWilliam PennBreadbasket colonies
2VOCABULARY Quakers – William Penn – Cash crops – Colonizing North America Unit The Middle Colonies - PowerPoint Presentation #6VOCABULARYQuakers –William Penn –Cash crops –Breadbasket Colonies –
3Today’s Thinking Focus Question: Why did William Penn start a colony in North America?Why were the Middle Colonies known as the Breadbasket Colonies?William Penn
4And the story continues . . . . . The Dutch and French set up trading forts in North America. Their “gold” is fur!The first successful English colony, Jamestown is established in Virginia. They begin growing tobacco.Separatists (Pilgrims) arrive in Plymouth, Massachusetts and establish the second English colony.The Puritans leave England and settle in Massachusetts Bay. Their strict way of life causes many colonists to leave thus forming new colonies in Rhode Island and Connecticut.Anne Hutchinson is forced to leave Massachusetts Bay Colony and seeks religious freedom in Rhode Island.New Hampshire is made a colony due to the northern growth of the colony of Massachusetts Bay.
5Other Important Information In Class Note-TakingNew York ColonyColony Name/FounderReason for beingFoundedGovernmentAnd/orReligious BeliefsMain ResourcesMajor Portsand CitiesOther Important InformationNew York ColonyListen carefully throughout the PowerPoint discussion and correctly place the information into the Graphic Organizer about New York colony.
6To understand New York we must first remember New Netherland To understand New York we must first remember New Netherland! Lets Review!In the 1600’s when European explorers were looking for a Northwest Passage, the Dutch were among them. They wanted to make money (a profit) from the Americas too!In 1626, Peter Minuit led a group of Dutch settlers to the mouth of the Hudson River.There he bought Manhattan Island from local Indians. He called his settlement New Amsterdam.1660-s New Amsterdam grew into a busy port. The Dutch welcomed people of many nations and religions to their colony.Minuit called his entire colony New Netherland.
7New Amsterdam (aka: Manhattan) was a settlement in New Netherland. Hmmm. Where’s the skyscrapers?
8England InvadesBy 1664, the rivalry (competition) between the English and the Dutch was growing fierce.In August of that year, English warships entered New Amsterdam’s harbor.Peter Stuyvesant, the governor of New Netherlands swore to defend the city.One problem: Stuyvesant had hardly any weapons and little gun powder.Another problem: the colonists wouldn’t help him fight the English because he had been an awful governor! He had imposed heavy taxes and harsh rule.Peter Stuyvesant
9New Netherland becomes New York In the end, Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without firing a shot.New Netherland was taken from the Dutch and now belonged to the English!King Charles II of England then gave New Netherland to his brother, the Duke of York.The King of England then renamed the colony NEW YORK in the Duke’s honor.The colony was governed as a Royal colony, which meant a governor and council of men was appointed (chosen) by the King of England. New York also had a representative assembly (a group of men) elected by the colonists.New York colony did not have a specific religion like the Puritans in Massachusetts Bay, instead it gave its citizens religious freedom.New York’s main city was Albany.Being a “Breadbasket Colony”, New York produced lots of grains! And also, iron, lumber, rum and cattle.
10Other Important Information Colony Name/FounderReason for beingFoundedGovernmentAnd/orReligious BeliefsMain ResourcesMajor Portsand CitiesOther Important InformationNew York ColonyRoyal ColonyRuled by the King of England.Colonists elect a representative assembly.Religious freedomGrainIronRumLumberCattleAlbanyNew York used to be New Netherlands and was a Dutch colony until the English invaded and took it over.It was taken from the Dutch by the English because of its key location and ports.Kings RepresentativeLets stop here for a moment and make sure you have all the important information written down in the correct places.
11Other Important Information In Class Note-TakingNew Jersey ColonyColony Name/FounderReason for beingFoundedGovernmentAnd/orReligious BeliefsMain ResourcesMajor Portsand CitiesOther Important InformationNew Jersey ColonyListen carefully throughout the PowerPoint discussion and correctly place the information into the Graphic Organizer about New Jersey colony.
12New JerseyThe Duke of York realized that New York was too large to govern. So he gave some of the land of New York to his friends, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.Berkeley and Carteret set up a proprietary colony and called it New Jersey.A proprietary colony is where land is given to one or more people who divide the land and rent it to others. The proprietors (Berkeley and Carteret) made laws for the colony.Sir George CarteretSir John Berkeley
13Religious Freedom brings many colonists to New Jersey New Jersey and New York both attracted many types of people because they allowed religious freedom. So Puritans mingled with French Protestants, Scots, Irish, Swedes and Finns.In 1702 New Jersey became a royal colony and was no longer under the control of its proprietors. New Jersey came under the control of the English King.But the colony continued to have religious freedom and their elected assembly of men that voted on local matters.New Jersey colony’s largest city was Perth Amboy.New Jersey colony produced Iron and cattle.
14Colony Name/FounderReason for beingFoundedGovernmentAnd/orReligious BeliefsMain ResourcesMajor Portsand CitiesOther Important InformationNew Jersey ColonyA Proprietary government where Berkeley and Carteret created laws under English rights.1702 became a royal colony but kept religious freedom and representative assembly.IronCattlePerth AmboyNew York was too large to govern so it was broken up into two sections. East Jersey and West Jersey.Friends of Duke of York: Sir George Carteret and Sir John BerkeleyLets stop here for a moment and make sure you have all the important information written down in the correct places.
15Other Important Information In Class Note-TakingPennsylvania ColonyColony Name/FounderReason for beingFoundedGovernmentAnd/orReligious BeliefsMain ResourcesMajor Portsand CitiesOther Important InformationPennsylvania ColonyListen carefully throughout the PowerPoint discussion and correctly place the information into the Graphic Organizer about Pennsylvania colony.
16Ever heard of Quaker Oats? What is a Quaker anyway? The QuakersEver heard of Quaker Oats? What is a Quaker anyway?
17William PennSouth of New Jersey, William Penn founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1682.Penn came from a wealthy English family. King Charles II was a personal friend.At age 22, however, Penn shocked family and friends by joining the Quakers, one of the most despised (hated) religious groups in England.William Penn
18What do Quakers Believe? Like Pilgrims and Puritans, Quakers wanted to make changes to the Church of England.Their reforms went further than those of other groups. Quakers believed that all people – men and women, nobles and commoners – were equal in God’s sight.They allowed women to preach in public and refused to bow or remove their hats in the presence of nobility.Quakers spoke out against war and refused to serve in the army.What do Quakers Believe?Quaker woman preaching to crowd.
19To most English people, Quaker beliefs seemed wicked. In both England and New England, Quakers were arrested, fined or even hanged for their ideas.Penn became convinced that the Quakers must leave England. He turned to the king of England for help.Quakers led to execution.
20Penn’s WoodlandsKing Charles II made Penn proprietor (land owner) of a large tract of land in North America.The king named the new colony Pennsylvania, or “Penn’s woodlands”.The King of England gives Penn land in North America.A safe place for Quakers to liveKing Charles IIWilliam Penn
22A Holy Experiment Penn thought of his colony as a “holy experiment.” He wanted it to be a model of religious freedom, peace, and Christian living.Protestants, Catholics, and Jews went to Pennsylvania to escape persecution.Later officials forced Penn to turn away Catholics and Jewish settlers.
23Fair Treatment for Indians Penn’s Quaker beliefs led him to speak out for fair treatment of Native Americans.Penn believed that the land belonged to the Indians.He said that settlers should pay for the land.Native Americans respected Penn for this policy.As a result, colonists in Pennsylvania enjoyed many years of peace with their Indian neighbors.
24Write in your own words what you think this settler is saying. What does this mean?One Pennsylvania settler later remarked:“And as [Penn] treated the Indians with extraordinary humanity, they became very civil and loving to us As in other countries [settlements], the Indians were [angered] by hard treatment, which hath been the [cause] of much bloodshed, so the [opposite] treatment here hath produced love and affection.”Write in your own words what you think this settler is saying.
25The Colony GrowsPenn sent pamphlets describing his colony all over Europe. Soon, settlers from all across Europe began to sail the Atlantic Ocean to live in Pennsylvania.Penn carefully planned a capital city along the Delaware River. He named it Philadelphia, a Greek word meaning “brotherly love.”Philadelphia grew quickly. By 1710, a visitor wrote that it was “the most noble, large, and well-built city I have ever seen.”The colonies main resources were: grain, iron, rum, lumber & cattle.Colonial Map of PhiladelphiaCity of Philadelphia today
26A Government Before Its Time The government that William Penn established for Pennsylvania was called the “Frame of Government.” Penn’s government was really important in helping to create what would become America’s democratic government.Penn’s “Frame of Government” had many laws that were before their time. For instance the Pennsylvania government required:Capital punishment (death to a criminal) could only be used on those who committed murder or treason.Colonists could worship or be a part of any church (Freedom of worship).Penn’s government was divided into two groups or “houses” to decide on laws, just like the United States government today.
27Other Important Information Colony Name/FounderReason for beingFoundedGovernmentAnd/orReligious BeliefsMain ResourcesMajor Portsand CitiesOther Important InformationPennsylvania ColonyFrame of GovernmentModeled after “Religious freedom, peace and Christian living”QuakersGrainIronRumLumberCattlePhiladelphia“Land of brotherly love”Penn respected the Indians and believed he should pay for the land. Pennsylvania colony had many years of peace with their Indian neighbors.Pennsylvania means “Penn’s Woodlands”The Quakers were persecuted in England and wanted to establish their own colony for religious freedom.William PennLets stop here for a moment and make sure you have all the important information written down in the correct places.
28The Breadbasket Colonies Life in the Middle Colonies was different from the New England colonies for many reasons:The Hudson and Delaware river valleys were rich and fertile.Winters were milderThe growing season lasted longerBecause of the climate and soil, farmers in the Middle Colonies produced a surplus (extra) of wheat, barley and rye.Farmers grew so much grain that their colonies were nicknamed the Breadbasket Colonies. Grains sold for a lot of money on the market and so these kinds of crops were called cash crops.GrainBread Basket
29The Middle ColoniesFarmers in the Middle Colonies also raised herds of cattle and pigs.Every year they sent tons of beef, port and butter to the ports of New York and Philadelphia. From there the goods went by ship to New England, West Indies, England, and parts of Europe.By William Penn’s encouragement German craftsmen set up shop in Pennsylvania.Over time the colony became the center of manufacturing that turned out items such as: clocks, watches, locks, guns, flints, glass, stoneware, nails and paper.
30The Middle “Breadbasket” Colonies New YorkPennsylvaniaNew JerseyDelaware
31Other Important Information Colony Name/FounderReason for beingFoundedGovernmentAnd/orReligious BeliefsMain ResourcesMajor Portsand CitiesOther Important InformationDelaware ColonySimilar to Pennsylvania.Modeled after “Religious freedom, peace and Christian living”GrainWheatBarleyRyeDover, WilmingtonDelaware was a part of Pennsylvania until 1776 when they became their own territory.1701 Penn allowed the Lower Counties of Pennsylvania to form their own government because Pennsylvania’s main city of Philadelphia was too far for the delegates to travel.William PennLets stop here for a moment and make sure you have all the important information written down in the correct places.
32Today’s Thinking Focus Question: Why did William Penn start a colony in North America?Why were the Middle Colonies known as the Breadbasket Colonies?William Penn