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Presentation on theme: "BRITISH EMPIRE AND INDIAN GOVERNANCE Colonial Legacy."— Presentation transcript:


2 English East India Company and the Making of Colonial State (1757-1857) Conquest by Sword and Diplomacy ( subsidiary Alliance) Rule of Bureaucracy and Army: A System of Supervised Empire Land Revenue Settlements Orientalists and Utilitarians Honeymoon with Progress: A Reformist State

3 Thomas B. Macaulay's "Minute on Indian Education" 2ND OF FEBRUARY, 1835 I have no knowledge of either Sanscrit or Arabic.--But I have done what I could to form a correct estimate of their value. I have read translations of the most celebrated Arabic and Sanscrit works. I have conversed both here and at home with men distinguished by their proficiency in the Eastern tongues. I am quite ready to take the Oriental learning at the valuation of the Orientalists themselves. I have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia. The intrinsic superiority of the Western literature is, indeed, fully admitted by those members of the Committee who support the Oriental plan of education. We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population.

4 Rebellion and the British Rule The 1857 Rebellion and the Transfer of Power New Raj and Perpetual Crisis of Legitimacy Landlords and Princes as Natural Allies Railways, Telegraphs and Modernization of Infra-Structure Low Agricultural Productivity India in British Empire: Economic Arrangement Rule by Convention through Strategic Interventions Paternalist Despotism Village Self Republics Census and Enumerated Communities Civilizing Mission and a Pedagogic Project Contradictions of the Raj

5 Decolonization and Democratization 1909 Morley-Minto Act 1919 Montagu-Chelmsford Act Principles of Separate Electorate Limited Representations Based on Property and Educational Qualifications Principles of Dyarchy Government of India Act 1935 Pressure Compromise and Pressure Non Violent Revolution and Gradual Politicization of hitherto Unenfranchised Groups

6 Imagining India as Nation Unnatural Nation : A Colonial perspective Nation Naturalized : Perspective of Bharat Mata Contesting Visions of Nation: Gandhi, Nehru and Ambedkar Can Nation be naturalized?

7 Vande Mataram Mother, I bow to thee! Rich with thy hurrying streams, bright with orchard gleams, Cool with thy winds of delight, Dark fields waving Mother of might, Mother free. Glory of moonlight dreams, Over thy branches and lordly streams, Clad in thy blossoming trees, Mother, giver of ease Laughing low and sweet! Mother I kiss thy feet, Speaker sweet and low! Mother, to thee I bow. Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands When the sword flesh out in the seventy million hands And seventy million voices roar Thy dreadful name from shore to shore? With many strengths who art mighty and stored, To thee I call Mother and Lord!


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