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ENLIGHTENMENT.  How might the ideas of the scientific revolution have been a challenge to the divine right of absolute monarchs?  What do you think.

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Presentation on theme: "ENLIGHTENMENT.  How might the ideas of the scientific revolution have been a challenge to the divine right of absolute monarchs?  What do you think."— Presentation transcript:


2  How might the ideas of the scientific revolution have been a challenge to the divine right of absolute monarchs?  What do you think may happen in Europe because of these two ideas? BELL WORK – ENLIGHTENMENT 1/26

3  Because people stopped believing in Divine Right they start protesting for new types of government  Limited Monarchy ENLIGHTENMENT

4  Tutor to noble families  Lived through the English Civil War, where he saw many of his friends and family killed  Came up with the idea of a social contract or an agreement between ruler and ruled that in order to be safe the people must give up freedom in exchange for security  Believed that people were self- interested and that people only act in order to avoid some type of evil  Ideas had a big impact on the Absolutist Monarchs and even some of our own laws ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS: THOMAS HOBBES

5 HOBBESIAN LIBERALISM  “A covenant to accuse oneself, without assurance of pardon, is likewise invalid.”  5 th Amendment “nor shall [an individual] be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself”  “The same is also true of the accusation of those by whose condemnation a man falls into misery; as of a father, wife, or benefactor. For the testimony of such an accuser, if it be not willingly given, is presumed to be corrupted by nature, and therefore not to be received”  Spousal Privilege

6 HOBBESIAN LIBERALISM  “The safety of the people requireth further, from him or them that have the sovereign power, that justice be equally administered to all degrees of people; that is, that as well the rich and mighty, as poor and obscure persons, may be righted of the injuries done them”  14 th Amendment Equal Protection Clause

7 HOBBESIAN LIBERALISM  “And whereas many men, by accident inevitable, become unable to maintain themselves by their labour, they ought not to be left to the charity of private persons, but to be provided for, as far forth as the necessities of nature require, by the laws of the Commonwealth.”  Welfare, Social Security, Workers Comp.


9 THOMAS HOBBES ON HUMAN EQUALITY  Nature hath made men so equal in the faculties of body and mind as that, though there be found one man sometimes manifestly stronger in body or of quicker mind than another, yet when all is reckoned together the difference between man and man is not so considerable.  For such is the nature of men, that howsoever they may acknowledge many others to be more witty, or more eloquent, or more learned; yet they will hardly believe there be many so wise as themselves.

10 THOMAS HOBBES ON THE STATE OF NATURE  From this equality of ability, arises equality of hope in the attaining of our ends. And therefore if any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies…  Hereby it is manifest, that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war, as is of every man, against every man. For 'war' consists not in battle only, or the act of fighting, but in a tract of time, wherein the will to contend by battle is sufficiently known.

11 THOMAS HOBBES ON THE STATE OF NATURE  In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain, and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building… no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and. Which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short

12  Who was Thomas Hobbes?  What perspective did he have when it came to human nature?  What type of government did he support? BELL WORK 1/27

13  Father fought against the Absolutist government in the English Civil War  Came up with Tabula Rasa or blank slate theory and argued that people were a product of their environments and thus were not naturally evil or good  Natural Rights  Life, Liberty & Property  Consent of the Governed  Majority Rule  Separation of Powers  Tyranny & the Dissolution of Government ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS: JOHN LOCKE

14  “To understand political power aright, we must consider what state all men are naturally in, and that is, a state of perfect freedom to order their actions and dispose of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or depending upon the will of any other man….” THE STATE OF NATURE

15  “The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges every one: and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions: for men are all the workmanship of on omnipotent and infinitely wise Maker, all the servants of one sovereign master, sent into the world by his order, and about his business…” THE STATE OF NATURE

16  “the damnified person has this power of appropriating to himself the goods or service of the offender, by right of self- preservation, as every man has a power to punish the crime, to prevent its being committed again, by the right he has of preserving all mankind, and doing all reasonable things he can in order to that end: and thus it is, that every man, in the state of nature, has a power to kill a murderer, for the same reason that he may kill a wolf or a lion; because such men are not under the ties of the commonlaw of reason, have no other rule, but that of force and violence, and so may be treated as beasts of prey, those dangerous and noxious creatures, that will be sure to destroy him whenever he falls into their power.” THE STATE OF NATURE

17  “Men living together according to reason, without a common superior on earth, with authority to judge between them, is properly the state of nature.”  “God, who hath given the world to men in common, hath also given them reason to make use of it to the best advantage of life, and convenience. The Earth, and all that is therein, is given to men for the support and comfort of their being.”  “Nothing was made by God for man to spoil or destroy. And thus, considering the plenty of natural provisions there was a long time in the world, and the few spenders … there could be then little room for quarrels or contention about property so established.” REASON

18  “The State of nature involves people living together, governed by reason, without a common superior, where as the state of war occurs when people make designs of force upon other people, without a common authority.”  “A criminal who, having renounced reason... hath, by the unjust violence and slaughter he hath committed upon one, declared war against all mankind, and therefore may be destroyed as a lion or tyger, one of those wild savage beasts with whom men can have no society nor security. And upon this is grounded the great law of Nature, "Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed.” REASON

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