Presentation on theme: "Elizabethan English Please put these notes in the Literature section of your notebook."— Presentation transcript:
Elizabethan English Please put these notes in the Literature section of your notebook.
Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird 1960 When he was nearly thirteen, my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow. When it healed, and Jem's fears of never being able to play football were assuaged, he was seldom self-conscious about his injury. His left arm was somewhat shorter than his right; when he stood or walked, the back of his hand was at right angles to his body, his thumb parallel to his thigh. He couldn't have cared less, so long as he could pass and punt.
Dicken’s A Tale of Two Cities, 1859 It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way--in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only.
Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” 1594 PUCK If we shadows have offended, Think but this, and all is mended, That you have but slumber'd here While these visions did appear. And this weak and idle theme, No more yielding but a dream, Gentles, do not reprehend: if you pardon, we will mend: And, as I am an honest Puck, If we have unearned luck Now to 'scape the serpent's tongue, We will make amends ere long; Else the Puck a liar call; So, good night unto you all. Give me your hands, if we be friends, And Robin shall restore amends.
Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, 1400 Here bygynneth the Book of the tales of Caunterbury. 1 Whan that Aprille, with hise shoures soote, 2 The droghte of March hath perced to the roote 3 And bathed every veyne in swich licour, 4 Of which vertu engendred is the flour; 5 Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth 6 Inspired hath in every holt and heeth 7 The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne 8 Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne, 9 And smale foweles maken melodye, 10 That slepen al the nyght with open eye- 11 So priketh hem Nature in hir corages- 12 Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages 13 And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes 14 To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes; 15 And specially, from every shires ende 16 Of Engelond, to Caunturbury they wende, 17 The hooly blisful martir for the seke 18 That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke.
Thou, Thee, Thy, and Thine There is no mystery when you see these words in Shakespeare or in the Bible. Nowadays, we use “you” to mean the second person singular and plural. Sometimes, we use “you guys” or “y’all” for the plural. “Thou” used to be singular, and “you” was plural.
Singular and Plural Elizabethan English Singular Thou Thee Thy Thine Elizabethan English Plural Ye (subject) You (object) Your yours Modern English Singular and Plural You Your Yours
SUBJECTOBJECTPOSS 1 st sing ular IMeMy (or mine) plur al WeUsOur (or ours) 2nd2nd sing ular ThouTheeThy (or thine) plur al YeYouYour (or yours) 3 rd sing ular He/She/ItHim/Her/ItHis/Hers/Its plur al TheyThemTheir (or theirs) NOM=nominative = case of the subject OBJ=objective = case of the object of the verb, indirect object of the verb or object of a preposition POSS=possessive = case of possessing or sourcing.
Hint for using Elizabethan English Use “Thou” where you would use “I” Use “Thee” where you would use “me” Use “Thy” where you would use “my” Use “Thine” where you would use “mine” Use “Ye” where your would use “we” Use “You” where you would use “us”
The Verbs If the subject is “Thou”, you will often add -est, -'st, or st to the verb. If you have a verb phrase (helping verbs before the main verb), change the ending of the first helping verb. You would never change two verbs that are next to each other. Present Modern youarehavewillcanshalldo Present old thouarthastwiltcanstshaltdost Past old thouwasthadstwouldstcouldst shoulds t didst
The Verbs Third Person Singular (he, she, it, Hermia, Theseus) often substitutes -th for -s. Again, this is only for present tense verbs. If you have a verb phrase (helping verbs before the main verb), change the ending of the first helping verb.
Common Shakespearean Words Maid – young woman Knave – bad guy Ere – before An – if Fair – beautiful Hark! – Listen Visage – face (noun) Hither - here Thither - there Whither – where Forsooth – Truthfully Common Contractions 'tis ~ it is ope ~ open o'er ~ over gi' ~ give ne'er ~ never i' ~ in e'er ~ ever oft ~ often a' ~ he e'en ~ even
Examples You are a student. Thou art a student. She brings you a donut every day. She bringeth thee a donut every day. He has your book. He hath thy book. You already had yours. Thou already hadst thine.
More Examples Your brother will give you a ride there. How are you today? Where do you live? Before you eat, you should wash your hands.
More Examples Your brother will give you a ride there. Thy brother wilt give thee a ride thither. How are you today? How art thou today? Where do you live? Wither does thou live? Before you eat, you should wash your hands. Ere thou eatest, thou shouldst wash thy hands.