Presentation on theme: "The Great Wall 6,700 kilometers (4163 miles) Great Wall in Western Accounts A wall of a hundread leagues in length (1559, Gaspar da Cruz) A wall of a."— Presentation transcript:
Great Wall in Western Accounts A wall of a hundread leagues in length (1559, Gaspar da Cruz) A wall of a hundread leagues in length (1559, Gaspar da Cruz) Two hundred miles long (1604, Benedic Goes) Two hundred miles long (1604, Benedic Goes) Four hundred five miles long (Matteo Ricci) Four hundred five miles long (Matteo Ricci) Five hundred leagues (Bishop Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza) Five hundred leagues (Bishop Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza) Many hundred miles (1606 edition of Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, first western map that includes China, published in 1570) Many hundred miles (1606 edition of Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, first western map that includes China, published in 1570) Thousands of miles long (1665, Martino Martin) Thousands of miles long (1665, Martino Martin) 900 miles (1669, an account of a Dutch ) 900 miles (1669, an account of a Dutch )
Ferdinand Verbiest (1623-88): Ferdinand Verbiest (1623-88): “ the seven wonders of the world put together are not comparable to this work; and all the Fame hath published concerning it among the Europeans, comes far short of what I myself have seen ” “ the seven wonders of the world put together are not comparable to this work; and all the Fame hath published concerning it among the Europeans, comes far short of what I myself have seen ”
Wall Building in Ming times: China’s failure to occupy Mongols territory after the establishment of the Ming Dynasty The Mongols moved back into the Ordos after it had been driven out by the Ming forces
Toghōn Temür (temple name Shundi), the last emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, whose reign was the longest among Yuan emperors (1333-1368)
Emperor Taizu of the Ming, Zhu Yuanzhang, official idealized version; (right) His tomb in Nanjing
Ming Wall Ming Wall at Juyong Guan Myth: Zhu Yuanzhang ordered Xu Da to begin the construction of the Waldron: Hongwu built no wall
Juyong Guan today Wall building in the Ming was closely tied to Ming’s inability to bring the Mongols under control, despite some successful military campaigns in the early period of the Ming
Most prominent segment of the Great Wall, Badaling, was built in 1505 Court officials spent a prodigious amount of time debating foreign policy-- war or peace with the Mongols?
Nomads of the Steppe: Historical precedents Nomads in the Ordos: Xian Yun (Zhou) Xiongnu (Warring State, Qin, W Han, Xin, E Han) Xiongnu built Xia Kingdom (407-431) Turks (N Zhou, Sui, Tang) Tangut Da Xia (Song) Mongols (Ming)
The Jiumen kou section of the Great Wall, built in the Ming, 1450 Border problems troubled Ming rulers from the very beginning of the dynasty: “Ordos Recovery” was the policy adopted in the first 80 years (1368-1449) This “Security without Wall” policy collapsed because the Ming army lost its military edge over the Mongols
Ming security under the founding emperor, Zhu Yuanzhang (1328-1398), Emperor Taizu of the Ming, or Hongwu Emperor
A portrait probably closer to his real look Hongwu emperor defeated his rivals and the Mongol soldiers. He reunified China, but never destroyed the Mongol court, but instead let the last Yuan emperor and his army to escape into the steppe. Hongwu emperor launched offensive military campaigns against Mongols’ continuing threat The offensive policy was continued by his successors, Yongle and Xuande emperors Defensive measures were also used: “eight outer garrisons” and “inner line of forts”—the forerunner of the fixed “Great Wall”
Jizhen Great Wall, Ming, National Library, China
Zhu Di, Emperor Chengzu, or Yongle Emperor, the third emperor of the Ming His seizure of the throne after his father’s death followed the nomadic principle of “tanistry”
Yongle emperor is known for: Moving Ming capital to Beijing and rebuilding it (so that he could recover the northern frontier occupied by the Mogols Building up China’s sea power— Zheng He’s seven voyages into the South and West Genghis Khan
“Feminine segment” of the Great Wall in Xiaohe kou near Hobei
Khubilai Khan or Yuan Shizu Last emperor of the Yuan, Yuan Shundi or Toghon Temur (r. 1332-1370)
The Mongols at Yongle’s time Two divisions: –Oirat (Westen), Dadan (Eastern) Yongle emperor’s withdrawal from the steppe margin allowed the Mongols to grow. Weaken military was due to –Economic causes: profligacy, inefficient military farming –Strategic reasons: favored traditional conception of “tribute” over “trade”
Ming eunuch, colorful sculpture The sixth Ming emperor, Yingzong (r.1435-1449; 1457- 1464), or Zhengtong emperor Security system collapsed: The Tumu Incident in 1449
Zhengtong emperor followed the powerful eunuch Wang Zhen’s advice, leading Ming army to fight against the invading Mongols army led by Esen Ming army was defeated, 500,000 soldiers were killed, and the emperor was captured and imprisoned Note that Ming eunuchs were often assigned to educate crown princes, thus gaining power to interfere with state affairs, although Hongwu emperor had threatened to execute them if they violated his rules.
Esen’s invading route The Tumu Incident (1448-49) Beijing Esen’s invading route Defense work at Juyong guan
Yu Qian (13981457) New Emperor, supported by loyal officials such as Yu Qian, began discussing new policy in court and shifted foreign policy from offensive to defensive Wall building was recosidered
Security Strategy: the Ordos Debate Offensive: –Recover the nomadic occupation of the Ordos –No trade but tribute Defensive: –wall-building Emperors Wuzong (Zhengde’s ) and Shizong (Jiajing) favored war –Wuzong had no coherent policy but favored war –Shizong would not compromise –Debate continued and became even acrimonious –Factional struggle aggravated hostility among court officials Zhengde emperor
Mongols under Altan Khan wanted t rade and tribute (late 1540s) Altna Khan repeatedly requested trade and tribute through diplomatic agreement Ming court (emperors) continued to refuse Some officials supported the friendly trade diplomacy Ming emperors also favored military expedition recommended by advocates of the Ordos expedition, even though it was too costly to be realistic Ministry of War did not support it on many grounds including economic difficulty. The Ministry favored effective fortification
Beginning of Wall-Building Late 16 th century Generally, it began in west and moved east Skilled masons hired to do major work that peasants were incapable of doing Walls built along two defense lines in three layers: river wall, outer wall, and inner wall The Mongol threat shifted to east, which forced the Ming to build wall where the terrain required it Wall building in unprecedentedly larger after the Mongols had attacked northeast and raided Beijing suburbs successfully
The Climax of Wall-building Occurred during the reigns of Jiajing, Longqing, and Wanli emperors (1521-1620), particularly in the Wanli period Longqing emperor
Amidst the massive work of wall-building, Zhang Juzheng (1525- 1582), Grand Secretary during the Wanli period, adopted a successful peace and defense policy that saved Ming from taking any military action against the Mongols for twenty years (1570-1590) Amidst the massive work of wall-building, Zhang Juzheng (1525- 1582), Grand Secretary during the Wanli period, adopted a successful peace and defense policy that saved Ming from taking any military action against the Mongols for twenty years (1570-1590) Wanli emperor
Wall-building still continued when the dynasty fellWall-building still continued when the dynasty fell The Mongols continued to invade when the peace policy was stopped and peace broken downThe Mongols continued to invade when the peace policy was stopped and peace broken down New threat came from the Manchu state New threat came from the Manchu state The Manchus established the Qing dynasty, which, as a powerful state that ruled both China and the steppe, paid little attention to wall-buildingThe Manchus established the Qing dynasty, which, as a powerful state that ruled both China and the steppe, paid little attention to wall-building The last emperor of the Ming, Chongzhen emperor
Known as the first pass under the heaven, Shanhai guan was in fact far from being the beginning point of the Great Wall in eastern China
Probably the eastern limit of Ming wall in the Tiger Mountain (Hushan), Dandong, Liaoning, archeologists tend to suspect that it might not be Ming wall, but rather Yan Wall built in the Warring State Period.
Myths and symbol of the Great Wall Westerners helped create the Great Wall myths Chinese in different times changed the meaning of the Great Wall to meet their to their needs –From the symbol of bad rulership to the symbol of Chinese people’s pride and identity –Chinese communists glorified the Great Wall to magnify the “virtue” of the First Emperor whom Mao accorded lavish praise
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