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The Civil War, 1861-65 Culture Wars, Past and Present.

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1 The Civil War, Culture Wars, Past and Present

2 Who Won? Military conflict - S: “defensive”, wait for recognition - N: “offensive”, seize / hold territory Ideological conflict - 18 th Century (Contract) Nationalism v. 19 th Century (Romantic) Nationalism - Who gives meaning to the War?

3 Jefferson Davis - statues; four counties; Stone Mountain; birthday; ban from office; Memorial Highway “Lost Cause” - D.W. Griffith - Gone with the Wind

4 I. Prelude to War The Decline and fall of the United States of America

5 A. Unification of the “North” 1. Economic / cultural empire 2. Evolved Liberalism - economic - personal

6 B. Conspiracy Theories 1. Dred Scott John Brown’s Raid 1859

7 C. Election of candidates, one result (Lincoln, Douglas, Bell, Breckinridge) 2. Pro-slave faction permanent minority

8 D. Southern Radicalism 1. Deep South revolt Dec. 20, 1860 – South Carolina Convention - followed by MS, AL, GA, LA, TX by February - Montgomery Convention, Feb. 1861

9 2. Confederate Constitution - strong states’ rights - no abolition of slavery - Jefferson Davis Contractual / Lockian emphasis Articles of Confederation

10 E. Presidential response 1. “Lame Duck” Buchanan 2. Abraham Lincoln - moderate - Federalist What I do about slavery and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union.

11 II. Inevitable conflict?

12 A. Why did the North Win? 1. Population - 22 v. 6 M - immigration & slavery 2. Industrialization / infrastructure - Federalism v. Agrarianism

13 3. King Cotton a bust - Victorian Culture

14 4. Estimation of will - money-grubbing Yankees - Just Cause - dominant culture psychology 5. Failure of Contract Theory - 5% taxes - resistance to draft - reliance on slave labor

15 B. Why fight at all? 1. Vox populi - L’s 1 st Inaugural: acquiesce to majority will “of, by and for the people” - Madison: states’ rights v. political factions 2. Realpolitik - cannot “acquiesce to its destruction” - Jefferson: govt. has no life of its own

16 3. Liberalism - govt. “agent” of reform, liberty - democracy expression of positive human nature - “arc” of Western Civilization / Revolution 4. Romanticism - Nation as “sacred”, “Divine Mission” (Puritans) - Redemptive Violence - consistent with 1 st & 2 nd Great Awakenings

17 It is not light that we need, but fire; it is not the gentle shower, but thunder. We need the storm, the whirlwind, and the earthquake. - Frederick Douglass Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord; He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored; He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword. - Battle Hymn of the Republic

18 C. Legacy 1. Federalism prevails - “All power flows from the barrel of a gun” - function as a Nation-State, world power 2. End of the Agrarian Republic - acceleration of economic growth - westward expansion Civil War does not create change, but dramatically accelerates those taking place.

19 III. The Second American Revolution

20 A. War and Society 1. Era of “Big” Government - pensions - “greenbacks” 2. R & D - priming the pump - business integration - agricultural development McCormick

21 3. Conscription - 1 st Draft, March “substitutes” - immigrant / racial tension 4. Dissent - habeus corpus - Clement Vallandigham “Copperheads”

22 B. War changes meaning 1. Focus on Union - Platform 1860; Crittendon - state issue - Democratic opposition 2. Freedmen force the issue - Butler, “Contrabands” - manpower shortages

23 C. Road to Emancipation 1. Meaning of “War” - Constitutionality - Antietam, Sept Military strategy - Anaconda Plan

24 3. Moral issue - undercut international involvement - tapped into Northern “radicalism” 4. Emancipation Proclamation Sept limited - revolutionary

25 5. Self-emancipation - exodus 6. Black Soldiers K - J. Davis, General Orders 111 Dec Fort Pillow Massacre, 1864

26 D. Behind the Lines 1. Myth of the “Solid South” - Mobile food riots, 1863; “unruly women” - Southern Unionists 2. Role of Women - clerical work; male professions; agriculture - Dorothea Dix, Clara Barton

27 Will social, political gains made during War last beyond it? - Who wins the ideological battle? (Who writes the history of the Civil War?) - Will the Nation stay committed to Reconstruction?


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