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What is a Sonnet? A little lyric poem consisting of 14 lines written in a fixed pattern of iambic pentameter. It deals with typical themes of: love, beauty,

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Sonnet? A little lyric poem consisting of 14 lines written in a fixed pattern of iambic pentameter. It deals with typical themes of: love, beauty,"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a Sonnet? A little lyric poem consisting of 14 lines written in a fixed pattern of iambic pentameter. It deals with typical themes of: love, beauty, timeless love, unreturned love, love in absence of old age, conformity, gaining immortality through verse, immortality through offspring, life is like play, striving for perfection, farewell Commonly addressed to a lady: a courtly, chivalrous tradition Puns often employed- using the same word in different capacities

2 How to prove that a poem is a sonnet Does it have fourteen lines- does it look like a box? Does it have a strict rhyme scheme? What is the rhyme scheme? The point here is that the poem is divided into two sections by the two differing rhyme groups. A change from one rhyme group to another signifies a change in subject matter. Does it use iambic pentameter? … each of the 14 lines is made up of 10 syllables which can be broken into five iambs…unstressed followed by stressed…I need 10 volunteers

3 Iambic Foot An iambic foot is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. We could write the rhythm like this: De DUM

4 Iambic Pentameter A line of iambic pentameter is five iambic feet in a row. De DUM /De DUM / De DUM / De DUM / De DUM

5 Iambic Pentameter We can notate this with a '˘' mark representing an unstressed syllable and a '/' mark representing a stressed syllable. In this notation a line of iambic pentameter would look like this using the following line from John Keats' Ode to Autumn as an example: ˘ / ˘ / ˘ / ˘ / ˘ / To swell the gourd, and plump the ha-zel shells

6 Types of Sonnets The Italian (or Petrarchan) A B B A A B B A C D E C D E Petrarchan sonnet is divided into two stanzas Octave: the first eight lines; presents an argument, observation, question, some other answerable charge, theme or experience; A B B A “Turn” or “Shift” : occurs between the eighth and ninth lines; it is the essential element of the sonnet form; second idea is introduced Sestet: the final six lines; answers the question, clarifies, responds or comments on the theme; C D E

7 Types of Sonnets The English (or Shakespearian) A B A B C D C D E F E F G G English sonnet is divided into three quatrains and a couplet, 1st quatrain: states the theme; A B A B, 2nd quatrain: develops theme; C D C D 3rd quatrain: develops theme; E F E F Couplet: gives a conclusion, summary, amplification, or even refutation (reversal) of the previous three stanzas; G G.

8 Types of Sonnets The Spenserian A B A B B C B C C D C D E E Same structure as the Shakespearean- three quatrains and a couplet--but employs a series of "couplet links" between quatrains, as revealed in the rhyme scheme: A B A B, B C B C, C D C D, E E. Three quatrains: develop three distinct but closely related ideas The couplet: different idea (or commentary); turn usually occurs here

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10 Inverted Sentences Rewrite the lines from the following sonnets so that the subjects precede the verbs, and the objects follow the verbs, and the modifiers are close to the words they modify. Feel free to drop the “-eth” endings and change “thee” and “thou’ to “you”

11 Inverted Sentences “From you I have been absent in the spring” (Sonnet 98) You try: In spring, I have been absent from you.

12 Inverted Sentences “Let those who are in favour with their stars Of public honour and proud titles boast” (Sonnet 25) You try: Let those who are in favor of their stars boast of public honor and proud titles.

13 Inverted Sentences “A woman’s face, with nature’s own hand painted, Hast thou” (Sonnet 28) You try: You have a woman’s face painted with Nature’s own hand.

14 Inverted Sentences “That time of year thou mayst in me behold When yellow leaves, or none, or few do hang Upon those boughs…” (Sonnet 73) You try: You may see in me that time of year when a few yellow leaves still remain in the tree limbs.

15 Inverted Sentences “So are you to my thoughts as food to life, Or as sweet seasoned showers are to the ground.” (Sonnet 75) You try: To my thoughts you are like food is to life or as rain is to the earth.

16 Inverted Sentences “ In faith, I do not love thee with mine eyes, For they in thee a thousand errors note; But ‘tis my heart that loves what they despise” (Sonnet 141) You try: I don’t love you with my eyes For they notice a thousand imperfections in you; But my heart loves what my eyes find fault with.

17 Shakespearean Sonnets

18 Shakespearean Sonnet 18: Pattern of rhyme scheme and meter Also, pattern of message Where is the turn in the message? Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed, And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed: But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st, So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee

19 Shakespearean Sonnet 18: 14 line stanza; abab, cdcd, efef, gg rhyme scheme; can be divided into 3 quatrains and a couplet Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed, And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed: But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st, So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. ababcdcdefefggababcdcdefefgg Quatrain 1 Quatrain 2 Quatrain 3 Couplet

20 Shakespearean Sonnets are written in iambic pentameter: 10 syllables, alternating the unstressed-stressed pattern u ` u ` u ` u ` u ` Shall I / com – pare / thee to / a sum / mer's day u ` u ` u ` u ` u ` Thou art / more love / ly and / more temp /er - ate u ` u ` u ` u ` u ` Rough winds /do shake / the dar / ling buds / of May, u ` u ` u ` u ` u ` And sum / mer's lease / hath all / too short / a date:

21 So what does it mean? Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed, And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed: But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st, So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Should I compare you to a summer day? You are prettier and more pleasant Because sometimes it gets windy and the buds on the trees get shaken off And summer doesn’t last very long Sometimes the summer sun is too hot, Or it will be hidden behind the clouds And everything beautiful eventually gets ugly Either because something bad happened or because it was nature’s plan BUT – you will always be young, And your beauty will last forever Death will never be able to claim you, Because you’ll live in this poem I am writing about you So as long as men are alive and they can see enough to read this poem You and your beauty will live on in this poem

22 Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed, And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed: But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st, So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Quatrain 1: I would compare you to summer, but summer’s not that great! Quatrain 2: Yep, there are a lot of bad things about summer and most other beautiful things. Quatrain 3: HOWEVER, you will never ever have to worry about getting old or losing your beauty. Couplet: You will live on forever in this poem I wrote for you.

23 Try this one... 1.Label the rhyme scheme 2.Label the quatrains and the couplet 3.Scan (label the stressed and unstressed syllables) the sonnet 4.Find the turn in the message When in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes, I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, And look upon my self and curse my fate, Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Featured like him, like him with friends possessed, Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope, With what I most enjoy contented least, Yet in these thoughts my self almost despising, Haply I think on thee, and then my state, (Like to the lark at break of day arising From sullen earth) sings hymns at heaven's gate, For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings, That then I scorn to change my state with kings. Sonnet 29

24 When in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes, I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, And look upon my self and curse my fate, Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Featured like him, like him with friends possessed, Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope, With what I most enjoy contented least, Yet in these thoughts my self almost despising, Haply I think on thee, and then my state, (Like to the lark at break of day arising From sullen earth) sings hymns at heaven's gate, For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings, That then I scorn to change my state with kings. ababcdcdefefggababcdcdefefgg Quatrain 1 Quatrain 2 Quatrain 3 Couplet

25 u ` u ` u ` u ` u ` When in / dis – grace / with For / tune and / men's eyes, u ` u ` u ` u ` u ` I all / a – lone / be - weep / my out / cast state, And trou / ble deaf / heav’n with / my boot / less cries, And look / u – pon / my self / and curse / my fate, Wish – ing / me like / to one / more rich / in hope, Fea - tured / like him, / like him / with friends / poss - essed, De – sir / ing this / man's art, / and that / man's scope, With what / I most / en - joy / con – tent / ed least, Yet in / these thoughts / my self / al – most / de – spising, Hap – ly / I think / on thee, / and then / my state, (Like to / the lark / at break / of day / a – rising From sul / len earth)/ sings hymns / at hea / ven's gate, For thy / sweet love / re – mem / bered such / wealth brings, That then / I scorn / to change / my state / with kings. Sonnet 29 Turn in the message

26 When in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes, I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, And look upon my self and curse my fate, Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Featured like him, like him with friends possessed, Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope, With what I most enjoy contented least, Yet in these thoughts my self almost despising, Haply I think on thee, and then my state, (Like to the lark at break of day arising From sullen earth) sings hymns at heaven's gate, For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings, That then I scorn to change my state with kings. When I am unlucky and no one likes me, I cry like an outcast all by myself, And I cry to heaven, but no one is listening, And I feel sorry for myself I wish I was like the people who had a lot of hope, I wish I looked like them and was popular like them, I wish I had their talent and their opportunities, I am least happy with the things I used to enjoy, But, I hate myself for thinking this way And I think of you, and then my sadness Like the lark that sings at the break of day From the dark earth and sing hymns to heaven; For thinking about our love makes me happy And at that point, I would not change my present condition, not even with a king. Paraphrasing Sonnet 29

27 Sonnet 30 When to the sessions of sweet silent thought I summon up remembrance of things past, I sigh the lack of many a thing I sought, And with old woes new wail my dear time's waste: Then can I drown an eye, unused to flow, For precious friends hid in death's dateless night, And weep afresh love's long since cancell'd woe, And moan the expense of many a vanish'd sight: Then can I grieve at grievances foregone, And heavily from woe to woe tell o'er The sad account of fore-bemoaned moan, Which I new pay as if not paid before. But if the while I think on thee, dear friend, All losses are restor'd and sorrows end.

28 Sonnet 30 When to the sessions of sweet silent thought I summon up remembrance of things past, I sigh the lack of many a thing I sought, And with old woes new wail my dear time's waste: Then can I drown an eye, unused to flow, For precious friends hid in death's dateless night, And weep afresh love's long since cancell'd woe, And moan the expense of many a vanish'd sight: Then can I grieve at grievances foregone, And heavily from woe to woe tell o'er The sad account of fore-bemoaned moan, Which I new pay as if not paid before. But if the while I think on thee, dear friend, All losses are restor'd and sorrows end. 1.When in these sessions of gratifying silent thought 2.I think of the past 3.I lament my failure to achieve all that I wanted 4.And I sorrowfully remember that I wasted the best years of my life 5.Then I can cry, although I am not used to crying 6.For dear friends now hid in death’s unending night 7.And cry again over woes that were long since healed 8.And lament the loss of many things that I have seen and loved 9.Then can I grieve over past griefs again 10.And sadly repeat to myself my woes 11.The sorrowful account of griefs already grieved for 12.Which the account I repay as if I had not paid before 13.But if I think of you while I am in this state of sadness, dear friend 14.All my losses are compensated for and my sorrow ends

29 Sonnet - Billy Collins All we need is fourteen lines, well, thirteen now, and after this one just a dozen to launch a little ship on love's storm-tossed seas, then only ten more left like rows of beans. How easily it goes unless you get Elizabethan and insist the iambic bongos must be played and rhymes positioned at the ends of lines, one for every station of the cross. But hang on here while we make the turn into the final six where all will be resolved, where longing and heartache will find an end, where Laura will tell Petrarch to put down his pen, take off those crazy medieval tights, blow out the lights, and come at last to bed.


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