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LECTURE 7 Middle English: literature Lei ZHU Shanghai International Studies University ISTORY OF ENGLISH.

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Presentation on theme: "LECTURE 7 Middle English: literature Lei ZHU Shanghai International Studies University ISTORY OF ENGLISH."— Presentation transcript:

1 LECTURE 7 Middle English: literature Lei ZHU Shanghai International Studies University ISTORY OF ENGLISH

2 1 Overview 12th cen, Ormulum 奥姆之镜, blank verse late 12th cen, Layamon’s Brute 布 鲁特, alliteration + some rhyme 1190’s, The Owl and the Nightingale 猫头鹰和夜莺, rhyming couplets of 8- syllable lines early 13th cen, Ancrene Wisse (Ancrene Riwle) 修女的教规, prose 13th cen (2nd half), The Bestiary 动物寓言集, a variety of verse forms late 13th cen, Cursor Mundi 世界的运行 者, rhyming couplets of 8-syllable lines 1340, Ayenbite of Inwyt 良心的刺痛, prose 1375, Bruce 布鲁斯, rhyming couplets of 8-syllable lines late 14th cen, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 高文爵士与绿衣骑士, alliteration + rhyme late 14th cen, Piers Plowman 农夫 皮尔斯, alliteration late 14th cen, The Canterbury Tales 坎特伯雷故事, rhyming couplets in iambic pentameter late 14th cen, Wycliffe’s Bible 威 克利夫圣经, prose early 15th cen, The Boke of Margery Kempe 肯普之书, prose 15th cen, Le Morte Darthur 亚瑟 之死, prose late 14th cen, The York Plays 约克组剧, rhyme + alliteration

3 1 Overview 12th cen, Ormulum 奥姆之镜, blank verse late 12th cen, Layamon’s Brute 布 鲁特, alliteration + some rhyme 1190’s, The Owl and the Nightingale 猫头鹰和夜莺, rhyming couplets of 8- syllable lines early 13th cen, Ancrene Wisse (Ancrene Riwle) 修女的教规, prose 13th cen (2nd half), The Bestiary 动物寓言集, a variety of verse forms late 13th cen, Cursor Mundi 世界的运行 者, rhyming couplets of 8-syllable lines 1340, Ayenbite of Inwyt 良心的刺痛, prose 1375, Bruce 布鲁斯, rhyming couplets of 8-syllable lines late 14th cen, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 高文爵士与绿衣骑士, alliteration + rhyme late 14th cen, Piers Plowman 农夫 皮尔斯, alliteration late 14th cen, The Canterbury Tales 坎特伯雷故事, rhyming couplets in iambic pentameter late 14th cen, Wycliffe’s Bible 威 克利夫圣经, prose early 15th cen, The Boke of Margery Kempe 肯普之书, prose 15th cen, Le Morte Darthur 亚瑟 之死, prose late 14th cen, The York Plays 约克组剧, rhyme + alliteration Religious: Bible, homily, sermon, autobiography, confession, animal fable, play …

4 1 Overview 12th cen, Ormulum 奥姆之镜, blank verse late 12th cen, Layamon’s Brute 布 鲁特, alliteration + some rhyme 1190’s, The Owl and the Nightingale 猫头鹰和夜莺, rhyming couplets of 8- syllable lines early 13th cen, Ancrene Wisse (Ancrene Riwle) 修女的教规, prose 13th cen (2nd half), The Bestiary 动物寓言集, a variety of verse forms late 13th cen, Cursor Mundi 世界的运行 者, rhyming couplets of 8-syllable lines 1340, Ayenbite of Inwyt 良心的刺痛, prose 1375, Bruce 布鲁斯, rhyming couplets of 8-syllable lines late 14th cen, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 高文爵士与绿衣骑士, alliteration + rhyme late 14th cen, Piers Plowman 农夫 皮尔斯, alliteration late 14th cen, The Canterbury Tales 坎特伯雷故事, rhyming couplets in iambic pentameter late 14th cen, Wycliffe’s Bible 威 克利夫圣经, prose early 15th cen, The Boke of Margery Kempe 肯普之书, prose 15th cen, Le Morte Darthur 亚瑟 之死, prose late 14th cen, The York Plays 约克组剧, rhyme + alliteration Romance: matters of Britain matters of France matters of Rome

5 2 Wycliffe’s Bible John Wycliffe (c.1320’s-1384) “The Morning Star of the Reformation” The Lollard Movement The first complete English translation of the Bible

6 The beginning of the Gospel of John

7 [1] In the bigynnyng was the word, and the word was at God, and God was the word. [2] This was in the bi- gynnyng at God. [3] Alle thingis weren maad bi hym, and with- Vulgate: [1] in principio erat Verbum et Verbum erat apud Deum et Deus erat Verbum [2] hoc erat in principio apud Deum [3] omnia per ipsum facta sunt et sine ipso factum est nihil quod factum est KJV: [1] In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. [2] The same was in the beginning with God. [3] All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. 中文新标准修订版: 1 太初有道,道与神同在, 道就是神。 2 这道太初与神同在。 3 万物是藉着他造的;凡被 造的,没有一样不是藉着他造 的。

8 outen hym was maad no thing, that thing that was maad. [4] In hym was lijf, and the lijf was the liʒt of men; [5] and the liʒt schi- neth in derknessis, and derknes sis comprehendiden not it. [6] A man was sent fro God, to whom the name was Joon. [7] This Vulgate: [3] omnia per ipsum facta sunt et sine ipso factum est nihil quod factum est [4] in ipso vita erat et vita erat lux hominum [5] et lux in tenebris lucet et tenebrae eam non conprehenderunt [6] fuit homo missus a Deo cui nomen erat Iohannes KJV: [3] All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. [4] In him was life; and the life was the light of men. [5] And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not. [6] There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. 中文新标准修订版: 3 万物是藉着他造的;凡被造的,没 有一样不是藉着他造的。 4 生命在他里头,这生命就是人的光。 5 光照在黑暗里,黑暗却不接受光。 6 有一个人,是从神那里差来的,名 叫约翰。

9 man cam into witnessinge, that he schulde bere witnessinge of the liʒt, that alle men schul- den bileue bi him. [8] He was not the liʒt, but that he schulde be- re witnessinge of the liʒt. [9] There was a very liʒt, which liʒtneth ech man that cometh into (this world.) Vulgate: [7] hic venit in testimonium ut testimonium perhiberet de lumine ut omnes crederent per illum [8] non erat ille lux sed ut testimonium perhiberet de lumine [9] erat lux vera quae inluminat omnem hominem venientem in mundum KJV: [7] The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him might believe. [8] He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light. [9] That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. 中文新标准修订版: 7 这人来,为要作见证,就是为光作 见证,叫众人因他可以信。 8 他不是那光,而是要为那光作见证。 9 那光是真光,照亮一切生在世上的 人。

10 3 The Canterbury Tales Geoffrey Chaucer (c ) Tabard Inn Canterbury Cathedral 30 pilgrims x 4 stories = 120 stories planned 24 finished

11 3 The Canterbury Tales Knight Miller Reeve Cook Lawyer Sailor 武士 磨坊主 管家 厨师 律师 船手 decasyllabic couplet rhyme royaldecasyllabic couplet

12 3 The Canterbury Tales Prioress Sir Thopas Melibeus Monk Nun’s Priest Physician 女修道士 托巴斯先生 梅利比 僧士 女尼的教士 医生 decasyllabic couplet rhyme royalprosedecasyllabic couplet

13 3 The Canterbury Tales Pardoner Wife of Bath Friar Summoner Clerk Merchant 赦罪僧 巴斯妇人 游乞僧 法庭差役 学者 商人 decasyllabic couplet rhyme royal decasyllabic couplet

14 3 The Canterbury Tales Squire Franklin Second Nun Canon’s Yeoman Mancipal Parson 侍从 自由农 第二个女尼 寺僧的乡士 伙食经理 牧师 decasyllabic couplet rhyme royaldecasyllabic couplet prose

15 Prologue

16

17 WHAN that Aprille with his shoures soote The droghte of Marche hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veyne in swich licour, Of which vertu engendred is the flour; Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Hath in the Ram his halfe cours y-ronne, And smale fowles maken melodye, That slepen al the night with open ye, (So priketh hem nature in hir corages): Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, And palmers for to seken straunge strondes, To ferne halwes, couthe in sondry londes; And specially, from every shires ende Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende, The holy blisful martir for to seke, That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seke. When April with his sweet showers has pierced the drought of March to the root, and bathed every vein in such moisture as has power to bring forth the flower; when, also, Zephyrus with his sweet breath has breathed spirit into the tender new shoots in every wood and meadow, and the young sun has run half his course in the sign of the Ram, and small birds sing melodies and sleep with their eyes open all the night— so Nature pricks them in their hearts: then people long to go on pilgrimages, and palmers long to seek strange shores and far-off shrines known in various lands, and, especially, from the ends of every shire in England they come to Canterbury, to seek the holy, blissful martyr who helped them when they were sick. decasyllabic couplet 十音节双韵体

18 Prologue WHAN that Aprille with his shoures soote The droghte of Marche hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veyne in swich licour, Of which vertu engendred is the flour; Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Hath in the Ram his halfe cours y-ronne, And smale fowles maken melodye, That slepen al the night with open ye, (So priketh hem nature in hir corages): Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, And palmers for to seken straunge strondes, To ferne halwes, couthe in sondry londes; And specially, from every shires ende Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende, The holy blisful martir for to seke, That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seke. 当四月的甘霖渗透了三月 枯竭的根须,沐濯了丝丝 茎络,触动了生机,使枝 头涌现出花蕾;当和风吹 香,使得山林莽原遍吐着 嫩条新芽,青春的太阳已 转过半边白羊宫座,小鸟 唱起曲调,通宵睁开睡眼, 是自然拨弄着它们的心弦: 这时,人们渴望着朝拜四 方名坛,游僧们也立愿跋 涉异乡。尤其在英格兰地 方,他们从每一州的角落, 向着坎特伯雷出发,去朝 觐他们的救病恩主、福泽 无边的殉难圣徒。 (方重译)

19 Prologue WHAN that Aprille with his shoures soote The droghte of Marche hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veyne in swich licour, Of which vertu engendred is the flour; Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Hath in the Ram his halfe cours y-ronne, And smale fowles maken melodye, That slepen al the night with open ye, (So priketh hem nature in hir corages): Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, And palmers for to seken straunge strondes, To ferne halwes, couthe in sondry londes; And specially, from every shires ende Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende, The holy blisful martir for to seke, That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seke. 夏雨给大地带来了喜悦, 送走了土壤干裂的三月, 沐浴着草木的丝丝经络, 顿时百花盛开,生机勃勃。 西风轻吹留下清香缕缕, 田野复苏吐出芳草绿绿; 碧蓝的天空腾起一轮红日, 青春的太阳洒下万道金辉。 小鸟的歌喉多么清脆优美, 迷人的夏夜怎好安然入睡—— 美丽的自然撩拨万物的心弦, 多情的鸟儿歌唱爱情的欣欢。 香客盼望膜拜圣徒的灵台, 僧侣立愿云游陌生的滨海。 信徒来自全国东西南北, 众人结伴奔向坎特伯雷, 去朝谢医病救世的恩主, 以缅怀大恩大德的圣徒。 (范守义译)

20 The Clerk’s Tale Heere bigynneth the tale of the Clerk of Oxenford. Ther is, at the west syde of Ytaille, Doun at the roote of Vesulus the colde, A lusty playne, habundant of vitaille, Where many a tour and toun thou mayst biholde That founded were in tyme of fadres olde, And many another delitable sighte, And Saluces this noble contree highte. A markys whilom lord was of that lond, As were hise worthy eldres hym bifore, And obeisant and redy to his hond Were alle hise liges, bothe lasse and moore. Thus in delit he lyveth, and hath doon yoore, Biloved and drad thurgh favour of Fortune, Bothe of hise lordes and of his commune. Therwith he was, to speke as of lynage, The gentilleste yborn of Lumbardye; A fair persone, and strong, and yong of age, And ful of honour and of curteisye, Discreet ynogh his contree for to gye, Save that in somme thynges that he was to blame, And Walter was this yonge lordes name.

21 The Clerk’s Tale Heere bigynneth the tale of the Clerk of Oxenford. Ther is, at the west syde of Ytaille, Doun at the roote of Vesulus the colde, A lusty playne, habundant of vitaille, Where many a tour and toun thou mayst biholde That founded were in tyme of fadres olde, And many another delitable sighte, And Saluces this noble contree highte. A markys whilom lord was of that lond, As were hise worthy eldres hym bifore, And obeisant and redy to his hond Were alle hise liges, bothe lasse and moore. Thus in delit he lyveth, and hath doon yoore, Biloved and drad thurgh favour of Fortune, Bothe of hise lordes and of his commune. Therwith he was, to speke as of lynage, The gentilleste yborn of Lumbardye; A fair persone, and strong, and yong of age, And ful of honour and of curteisye, Discreet ynogh his contree for to gye, Save that in somme thynges that he was to blame, And Walter was this yonge lordes name. x / x / x / x / x / … ababbccababbcc stanza 诗节 rhyme royal 君王诗体 2 lines: couplet [ˈkʌplɪt] 3 lines: tercet [ˈtəːsɪt] 4 lines: quatrain [ˈkwɔtrɛɪn] 5 lines: cinquain [ˈsɪŋkɛɪn] 6 lines: sestet [səsˈtɛt] 7 lines: heptastich [ˈhɛptəstɪk] 8 lines: octave [ˈɔktɪv] (heptastich, pentameter, ababbcc)

22 The Clerk’s Tale Heere bigynneth the tale of the Clerk of Oxenford. Ther is, at the west syde of Ytaille, Doun at the roote of Vesulus the colde, A lusty playne, habundant of vitaille, Where many a tour and toun thou mayst biholde That founded were in tyme of fadres olde, And many another delitable sighte, And Saluces this noble contree highte. A markys whilom lord was of that lond, As were hise worthy eldres hym bifore, And obeisant and redy to his hond Were alle hise liges, bothe lasse and moore. Thus in delit he lyveth, and hath doon yoore, Biloved and drad thurgh favour of Fortune, Bothe of hise lordes and of his commune. Therwith he was, to speke as of lynage, The gentilleste yborn of Lumbardye; A fair persone, and strong, and yong of age, And ful of honour and of curteisye, Discreet ynogh his contree for to gye, Save that in somme thynges that he was to blame, And Walter was this yonge lordes name. There is, in the west side of Italy, Down at the foot of Mount Viso the cold, A pleasant plain that yields abundantly, Where many a tower and town one may behold, That were there founded in the times of old. With many another fair delightful sight; Saluzzo is this noble region bright. A marquis once was lord of all that land, As were his noble ancestors before; Obedient and ready to his hand Were all his lieges, both the less and more. Thus in delight he lived, and had of yore, Beloved and feared, through favour of Fortune, Both by his lords and by the common run. Therewith he was, to speak of lineage, Born of the noblest blood of Lombardy, With person fair, and strong, and young of age, And full of honour and of courtesy; Discreet enough to lead his nation, he; Save in some things wherein he was to blame, And Walter was this young lord's Christian name.


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