Presentation on theme: "04/00WHO Lost Science in the Third World What has changed since 1995? W. Wayt Gibbs, Senior Writer Scientific American +1.415.397.0226"— Presentation transcript:
04/00WHO Lost Science in the Third World What has changed since 1995? W. Wayt Gibbs, Senior Writer Scientific American
04/00WHO LDC Research is Invisible OECD+ Authors are found on 72% of items in 1994 SCI. LDC Authors could be found on 5.6%. LDC representation in 1994 in: ScienceNatureThe LancetCell 0.3%0.7%2.7%0.0%
04/00WHO 1994 Science Citation Index
04/00WHO LDC Journals Slipping into Obscurity
04/00WHO Change in Impact Factor of 10 LDC Journals,
04/00WHO The Matthew Effect “Unto every one that hath shall be given… but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath.” —Matthew ch.25 Robert K. Merton, Science, 159(3810):56, 1968
04/00WHO Why? “There is no science there.” — Jerome Kassirer, NEJM “Many [LDC journals] do not deserve… to be published.” — Manuel Krauskopf, Univ. of Chile Poor English Page charges (more in US than Europe) LDC libraries get few journals “First-Worldism”— Wielend Gevers; “inherent prejudice” — C.N.R. Rao Bias against applied research
04/00WHO Vicious Circles Local journals have low impact, low prestige, no cash incentives LDC researchers send their best work to SCI journals LDC journals do not meet criteria for indexing Submissions are too low to support rigorous peer review and regular publication
04/00WHO Initiatives ExtraMED, ExtraSCI Incentives for publishing, especially in SCI-listed journals Journal donation programs of AAAS, INASP LDC culling of weak local journals Africa One & direct satellite Internet access
04/00WHO What Would We Cover Now? SCI (3,430 journals in 1995) replaced by the Web of Science/SCI-E (>5,500 journals) Access to citation data in many LDC institutions seems to be falling further behind. Increased size of SCI-E has increased number of LDC-authored items in database SCI-E has double or triple the number of the 1994 SCI for many LDCs.
04/00WHO 1999 Science Citation Index-Expanded
04/00WHO LDC Journals Inch Upward
04/00WHO Impact Factors Rise as Well
04/00WHO A New Look at Matthew ¤Manfred Bonitz, ¤Matthew effect for journals. Most skewed: Nature: 33,901 Matthew citations Physical Review B: 15,380 Science: 14,271Lancet: 7,427 NEJM: 6,502J. Biol. Chem.: 9,559 ¤Parable of the Talents “Olympic Games”
04/00WHO Reviewing Peer Review Special issue of JAMA, 15 July 1998 Retrospective study of all papers submitted to Gastroenterology in 1995 & 1996 detected significant bias (p=0.001; OR=1.49)
04/00WHO Trials of Double-Blind Review 118 MS randomized to masked or open at Ann. Emerg. Med., Ann. Int. Med., JAMA, Ob. & Gyn., Opthalmology 68% success against guessing (less for well- known authors) No difference in review quality, acc. to authors and editors 467 MS randomized to masked, unmasked, control at BMJ 58% success against guessing. No significant difference detected in review quality by editors or authors. No significant difference in acceptance rates.
04/00WHO Past Initiatives ExtraMED: Back in publication after >1 year hiatus. 307 journals, 20,850 articles. Still struggling financially. Has 50 subscribers, ~half in LDC; none of the major US research libraries subscribe. ExtraSCI:
04/00WHO Journal Donations Drop Off AAAS Program dead for several years M.I.T. exchange program halted India Institute of Science receives 1,500 journals now, down from 2,000 in 1995.
04/00WHO The Internet: Broadening the Gap... Monthly cost of Internet access monthly salary of African researcher. Total national bandwidth of majority of African countries is 64kbps. AAAS study: 2 of 4 African universities could not download PDF files.
04/00WHO …or Bridging It? AfricaOne: $1.6bn fiber optic ring to be completed in Two dozen landing points will share ~80Gbps. Brazil: SciELO (http://www.scielo.br/) hosts 42 e- journals. Link to Internet2 will increase bandwidth 77- fold in 4 cities. FAPESP has invested in Web of Science access for Brazilian universities and research labs. Asia-Pacific Advanced Network extended to link with Malaysia biodiversity and bioinformatics network.