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Outline of Chapter 10: Language Change

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1 Outline of Chapter 10: Language Change
 Phonological Change 503  Morphological Change 506  Syntactic Change 508  Lexical Change 510 New Words 511 Loan Words 512 Semantic Change 515 Broadening 515 Narrowing 516 Meaning Shift 516

2 History of English Old English 449-1066 449 Saxons invade Britain
6th c Religious literature 8th c Beowulf 1066 Norman Conquest Middle English 1387 Canterbury Tales 1476 Caxton’s printing press 1500 Great vowel shift Modern English 1564 Birth of Shakespeare Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 500.

3 Regular Sound Correspondence
English /f/ French /p/ Spanish /p/ father père padre fish poisson pescado (patrimony) (piscine) Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 502.

4 Regular Sound Correspondence
Indo-European /p/ Latin /p/ Proto-Germanic /f/ French /p/ Spanish /p/ English /f/ German /f/ poisson pescado fish F Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 502.

5 Historical Phonological Change Old/Modern English
ADD New Sounds leisure [] azure [] over (ofer) [v] LOSE Old Sounds night [nxt] drought [druxt] CHANGE Old Sounds elk (eolh) [lx] [lk] hollow (holh) [hlx] [hlo] house [u:] [a] feet [e:] [i] Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 503.

6 Modern English Morphological Endings
INFLECTIONS (Only eight left) Vs Ns Aer Ving N’s Aest Ved (Ns’) Ven NO GENDER

7 Modern English Morphological Endings
CASE ENDINGS Disappeared EXCEPT: Genitive ’s EXCEPT: Pronouns I you he she it we they me you him her it us them my your his her its our their mine yours his hers its ours theirs

8 Irregular Native English Words
(brother) child foot goose louse man mouse ox tooth woman

9 OLD ENGLISH NOUN DECLENSIONS
hound child foot ox Singular Nom. hund cild f8t oxa Acc. hund cild f oxan Gen. hundes cildes f8tes oxan Dat. hunde cilde f4t oxan Plural N.-Ac. hundas cildru f4t oxan Gen. hunda cildra f8ta oxena Dat. hundum cildrum f8tum oxum The Origins and Development of the English Language, fourth edition. Thomas Pyles and John Algeo. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.

10 OLD ENGLISH VERB FORMS-1
INF PRET PAST PARTIC keep c4pan c4pte gec4ped buy bycgan bohte geboht carry ferian ferede gefered end endian endode geendod have habban hQfde gehQfd say secgan sQgde gesQgd The Origins and Development of the English Language, fourth edition. Thomas Pyles and John Algeo. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.

11 OLD ENGLISH VERB FORMS-1
keep help Present-Indicative I c4pe helpe you(sg) c4pest hilpst he,she,it c4peD hilpD(( we,you(pl),they c4paD helpaD Present-Subjunctive singular c4pe helpe plural c4pen helpen Imperative singular c4p help plural c4paD helpaD The Origins and Development of the English Language, fourth edition. Thomas Pyles and John Algeo. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.

12 we,you(pl),they c4pton hulpon Preterit-Subjunctive
Infinitive c4pan helpan t8 c4pennet8 helpenne Present-Participle c4pende helpende Preterit-Indicative I c4pte healp you(sg) c4ptest hulpe he,she,it c4pte healp we,you(pl),they c4pton hulpon Preterit-Subjunctive singular c4pte hulpe plural c4pten hulpen Past Participle gec4ped geholpen The Origins and Development of the English Language, fourth edition. Thomas Pyles and John Algeo. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.

13 Old English, Middle English, and Modern English Verb Forms
OLD MIDDLE MODERN ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH findan finden find infinitive fundon f8[nde(n) found pret. pl. funden f8[nde(n) found past part. The Origins and Development of the English Language, fourth edition. Thomas Pyles and John Algeo. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.

14 Modern English Verb keep help Present-Indicative
he, she, it keeps helps OTHER keep help Present-Subjunctive ALL keep help Imperative Infinitive To keep to help Present-Participle keeping helping Preterit-Indicative / Subjunctive, Past Part. kept helped

15 Etymology of Nag nag: < Scandinavian (as in Swedish nagga, obsolete Danish nagge, to nibble, gnaw, nag) < Old Norse gnaga; for Indo-European base see GNAW; for sense development see FRET1 Webster’s New World College Dictionary, third edition. Victoria Neufeldt, editor in chief. New York: Macmillan, 1997.

16 Sources of New Words Derivation Compounding Acronyms Back-formation
Clipping / Abbreviations Eponyms (words from names) Blends Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 511.

17 Lexical Change Borrowings Native Foreign English Source
20,000 most common 40% 60% 500 most common 71% 29% Tokens in running text 80% New Words Chapter 3: Morphology Loss of Words Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 512.

18 Uncommon Words in Modern English
fain gladly wot know wherefore why beseem to be suitable mammet doll or puppet gyve a fetter Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 515.

19 Semantic Change Broadening of Meaning dog specific breed
holiday only religious days picture only painted Narrowing of Meaning meat food deer animal hound any dog Meaning Shifts knight young man lust pleasure lewd ignorant silly happy fond foolish Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, pp

20 Comparative Method of Reconstruction
French Italian Spanish Portuguese cher caro caro caro ‘dear’ champ campo campo campo ‘field’ chandelle chandela candela candeia ‘candle’ [k] [m] [p] Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 521.

21 Four Hypothetical Languages
Lang A Lang B Lang C Lang D hono hono fono vono hari hari fari veli rahima rahima rafima levima hor hor for vol Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 521.

22 Three Chinese Dialects
Mandarin Cantonese Taiwanese 1 / i / / jt / / dzit / 2 /  / / i / / n / 3 / san / / sa:m / / sã / 4 / sz / / sei / / si / 5 / wu / /  / / g / 6 / lou / / lok / / lak / 7 / ti / / tst / / tsit / 8 / pa / / pa:t / / pue / 9 / tou / / kau / / kau / 10 / r / / sp / / tsap / These are not official IPA spellings. Only a limited font was available. The transcriptions may also be inaccurate because of faulty hearing.

23 Zhuang and Chinese Words
Cung go Zhongguo Yin min Ren min Yan man Yinhang ha gak Wu jiao gok ha cib maen Wu shi yuan sap man

24 Chapter 11 Homework (Exercise 3, pp. 538-539)
a. It nothing pleased his master Nothing pleased his master b. He hath said that we would lift them whom that him please. He has said that we would lift those who please him. c. I have a brother is condemned to die. I have a brother who is condemned to die. d. I bade them take away you. I asked them to take you away. e. I wish you was still more a Tartar. I wish you were even more of a Tartar. I wish even more that you were a Tartar. f. Christ slept and his apostles. Christ slept and his apostles did too. Christ and his apostles slept. g. Me was told. I was told.

25 Chapter 11 Homework (Exercise 5, p. 540)
a. False ‘thing’ / k / before / a / in Latin becomes French /  / b. True ‘tail’ Otherwise we might have expected /  / c. False There are NO examples of / s / and /k/ in complementary distribution. d. True Latin / kertus / We have two examples of Latin words with / ke / (‘deer’ and ‘hundred’) that become / s /

26 (A) Original Language Today’s Languages

27 (B) Today’s Languages Original Languages
Source(s) of Today’s Languages Adapted from David Crystal The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 291.

28 In Search of the First Language
Nova Series Overview / Table of Contents  Introduction to Historical Linguistics  Comparative Method  Indo-European languages  Interlude  Sino-Tibetan languages  African languages  Native American languages  Language Isolates  Language Change  Nostratic  Evolution of Language  Conclusion


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