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Outline of Chapter 10: Language Change  Phonological Change 503  Morphological Change 506  Syntactic Change508  Lexical Change510 New Words511 Loan.

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Presentation on theme: "Outline of Chapter 10: Language Change  Phonological Change 503  Morphological Change 506  Syntactic Change508  Lexical Change510 New Words511 Loan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Outline of Chapter 10: Language Change  Phonological Change 503  Morphological Change 506  Syntactic Change508  Lexical Change510 New Words511 Loan Words512 Semantic Change515 Broadening515 Narrowing516 Meaning Shift516

2 History of English Old English Saxons invade Britain 6th cReligious literature 8th cBeowulf 1066Norman Conquest Middle English Canterbury Tales 1476Caxton’s printing press 1500Great vowel shift Modern English Birth of Shakespeare Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 500.

3 Regular Sound Correspondence English /f/ French /p/Spanish /p/ father pèrepadre fish poissonpescado (patrimony) (piscine) Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 502.

4 Regular Sound Correspondence Indo-European /p/ Latin /p/ Proto-Germanic /f/ French /p/ Spanish /p/ English /f/ German /f/ poisson pescado fish F Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 502.

5 Historical Phonological Change Old/Modern English ADD New Sounds leisure[  ] azure[  ] over (ofer)[v] LOSE Old Sounds night[n  xt] drought[druxt] CHANGE Old Sounds elk (eolh)[  lx][  lk] hollow (holh)[h  lx][h  lo] house[u:][a  ] feet[e:][i] Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 503.

6 Modern English Morphological Endings INFLECTIONS (Only eight left) VsNsAer VingN’sAest Ved(Ns’) Ven NO GENDER

7 Modern English Morphological Endings CASE ENDINGS Disappeared EXCEPT: Genitive ’s EXCEPT: Pronouns I you he she it we they me you him her it us them my your his her its our their mine yours his hers its ours theirs

8 Irregular Native English Words (brother) child foot goose louse man mouse ox tooth woman

9 OLD ENGLISH NOUN DECLENSIONS houndchildfoot ox Singular Nom.hundcildf8t oxa Acc.hundcildf8 oxan Gen.hundescildesf8tes oxan Dat.hundecildef4t oxan Plural N.-Ac.hundascildruf4t oxan Gen.hundacildraf8ta oxena Dat.hundumcildrumf8tum oxum The Origins and Development of the English Language, fourth edition. Thomas Pyles and John Algeo. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.

10 OLD ENGLISH VERB FORMS-1 INF PRETPAST PARTIC keep c4pan c4ptegec4ped buybycgan bohtegeboht carryferianferedegefered endendian endode geendod havehabbanhQfde gehQfd saysecgansQgde gesQgd The Origins and Development of the English Language, fourth edition. Thomas Pyles and John Algeo. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.

11 keephelp Present-Indicative Ic4pe helpe you(sg)c4pest hilpst he,she,itc4peD hilpD(( we,you(pl),they c4paDhelpaD Present-Subjunctive singular c4pe helpe pluralc4pen helpen Imperative singularc4phelp pluralc4paD helpaD The Origins and Development of the English Language, fourth edition. Thomas Pyles and John Algeo. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, OLD ENGLISH VERB FORMS-1

12 Infinitive c4pan helpan t8 c4pennet8 helpenne Present-Participle c4pendehelpende Preterit-Indicative Ic4ptehealp you(sg)c4ptesthulpe he,she,itc4pte healp we,you(pl),theyc4pton hulpon Preterit-Subjunctive singularc4pte hulpe pluralc4ptenhulpen Past Participle gec4pedgeholpen The Origins and Development of the English Language, fourth edition. Thomas Pyles and John Algeo. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.

13 Old English, Middle English, and Modern English Verb Forms OLD MIDDLEMODERN ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH findanfindenfindinfinitive fundonf8[nde(n)found pret. pl. fundenf8[nde(n)found past part. The Origins and Development of the English Language, fourth edition. Thomas Pyles and John Algeo. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.

14 Modern English Verb keep help Present-Indicative he, she, itkeeps helps OTHERkeep help Present-Subjunctive ALL keep help Imperative keep help Infinitive keep help To keep to help Present-Participle keeping helping Preterit-Indicative / Subjunctive, Past Part. kept helped

15 Etymology of Nag nag: < Scandinavian (as in Swedish nagga, obsolete Danish nagge, to nibble, gnaw, nag) < Old Norse gnaga; for Indo-European base see GNAW; for sense development see FRET1 Webster’s New World College Dictionary, third edition. Victoria Neufeldt, editor in chief. New York: Macmillan, 1997.

16 Sources of New Words Derivation Compounding Acronyms Back-formation Clipping / Abbreviations Eponyms (words from names) Blends Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 511.

17 Lexical Change Borrowings Native Foreign English Source 20,000 most common40% 60% 500 most common71% 29% Tokens in running text80% New Words Chapter 3: Morphology Loss of Words Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 512.

18 Uncommon Words in Modern English faingladly wotknow whereforewhy beseemto be suitable mammetdoll or puppet gyvea fetter Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 515.

19 Semantic Change Broadening of Meaning dogspecific breed holidayonly religious days pictureonly painted Narrowing of Meaning meatfood deeranimal houndany dog Meaning Shifts knightyoung man lustpleasure lewdignorant sillyhappy fondfoolish Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, pp

20 Comparative Method of Reconstruction FrenchItalian Spanish Portuguese chercaro caro caro ‘dear’ champcampo campo campo ‘field’ chandellechandelacandela candeia ‘candle’ [k] [m][p] Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 521.

21 Four Hypothetical Languages Lang ALang BLang CLang D honohonofonovono hariharifariveli rahimarahimarafimalevima horhorforvol Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 521.

22 Three Chinese Dialects MandarinCantoneseTaiwanese 1/ i / / j  t // dzit / 2/  // i // n  / 3/ san // sa:m // sã / 4/ sz // sei // si / 5/ wu //  // g  / 6/ l ou // lok // lak / 7/ t  i // t  s  t // t  sit / 8/ pa // pa:t // pue  / 9/ t  ou // kau // kau / 10/  r // s  p // tsap / These are not official IPA spellings. Only a limited font was available. The transcriptions may also be inaccurate because of faulty hearing.

23 Zhuang and Chinese Words Cung go Zhongguo Yin min Ren min Yan man Yinhang ha gak Wu jiao gok ha cib maen Wu shi yuan sap man

24 Chapter 11 Homework (Exercise 3, pp ) a. It nothing pleased his master Nothing pleased his master b. He hath said that we would lift them whom that him please. He has said that we would lift those who please him. c. I have a brother is condemned to die. I have a brother who is condemned to die. d. I bade them take away you. I asked them to take you away. e. I wish you was still more a Tartar. I wish you were even more of a Tartar. I wish even more that you were a Tartar. f. Christ slept and his apostles. Christ slept and his apostles did too. Christ and his apostles slept. g. Me was told. I was told.

25 Chapter 11 Homework (Exercise 5, p. 540) a. False ‘ thing ’ / k / before / a / in Latin becomes French /  / b. True ‘ tail ’ Otherwise we might have expected /  / c. False There are NO examples of / s / and /k/ in complementary distribution. d. True Latin / kertus / We have two examples of Latin words with / ke / ( ‘ deer ’ and ‘ hundred ’ ) that become / s  /

26 (A) Original Language Today’s Languages

27 (B) Original Languages Today’s Languages Source(s) of Today’s Languages Adapted from David Crystal The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 291.

28 In Search of the First Language Nova Series Overview / Table of Contents  Introduction to Historical Linguistics  Comparative Method  Indo-European languages  Interlude  Sino-Tibetan languages  African languages  Native American languages  Language Isolates  Language Change  Nostratic  Evolution of Language  Conclusion


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