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Introduction to Intellectual Property Prof Merges 1.9.12.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Intellectual Property Prof Merges 1.9.12."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Intellectual Property Prof Merges

2 Logistics Course website: udents/2012http://www.law.berkeley.edu/institutes/bclt/st udents/ Intro to IP Spring 2012

3 Two Main Themes Today Philosophical foundations Comparative overview: Patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret & other state law

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5 Philisophical Foundations Natural rights theory: John Locke “Personhood” theory: Hegel Utilitarian theory: Mill, Bentham, etc.

6 John Locke ( )

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8 Locke’s Theory of Appropriation 1.Nature was created for all to share; it is a common

9 Where does labor enter into it? “Whatsoever he removes out of the state that Nature hath provided and left it in, he hath mixed his labor with it, and joined to it something that is his own...”

10 Locke’s Theory of Appropriation 1.Nature was created for all to share; it is a common 2.We each own our body, and the labor it produces

11 “this labor being the unquestionable property of the laborer” For Locke, it is fundamental that these “belong” to the individual; no one has a superior or conflicting claim Each person is “born free”

12 Jeremy Waldron, God, Locke and Equality

13 Waldron’s Locke Fundamentally liberal: a balanced view of property Rejects the “libertarian Locke” of the 1980s

14 Locke’s Theory of Appropriation 1.Nature was created for all to share; it is a common 2.We each own our body, and the labor it produces 3.Mixing labor with the common yields a valid property claim

15 Locke’s Theory of Appropriation 1.Nature was created for all to share; it is a common 2.We each own our body, and the labor it produces 3.Mixing labor with the common yields a valid property claim 4.Subject to caveats and provisos; not an absolute claim

16 The famous “sufficiency proviso” “No man but he can have a right to what [his labor] is once joined to, at least where there is enough and as good left in common for others. ”

17 “The same law of nature that does by this means give us property, does also bound that property too.” -- Second Treatise, ¶ 30; p. 3

18 Spoliation Proviso “As much as anyone can make use of to any advantage of life before it spoils, so much by his labor he may fix his property in...” -- p 3

19 Locke’s “Charity” Proviso 2 nd Treatise, Paragraph 42: – “title to so much out of another’s plenty as will keep him [or her] from extreme want”

20 3 Lockean Provisos Sufficiency (“as much and as good left over”) Spoliation Charity

21 Labor is far from an absolute claim to title “ He that had as good left for his improvement as was already taken up needed not complain, ought not to meddle with what was already improved by another’s labour; if he did it is clear he desired the benefit of another’s pains...” -- 2 nd Treatise, ¶ 33

22 Wendy Gordon: IP’s roots in restitution "Of Harms and Benefits: Torts, Restitution, and Intellectual Property," 21 J. LEGAL STUDIES 449 (1992) – also 34 McGeorge L. Rev. 533 (2003)

23 Philisophical Foundations Natural rights theory: John Locke “Personhood” theory: Hegel Utilitarian theory: Mill, Bentham, etc.

24 Hegel, “personhood” and self- realization

25 Basic Hegelian concepts Individual will Autonomy (freedom to choose and act)

26 Simple version … To become fully self-realized, an individual must be able to “project” his or her will onto objects in the external world This requires a stable set of claims over those objects – i.e., property rights

27 Why appropriation? Permanency: ability to return to an object, work on it, refine it over time Hegel’s chair

28 Appropriation (cont’d) Control: maintain the object in the intended state; hold it steady, to permanently affix the will to it

29 Hegel and “stages of development” The will is ineffectual when “trapped inside the individual” Projection of the will – eg via property claims – is an important step forward Merging of individual wills into a functional, other-regarding state is the “end goal”

30 Labor vs. will Labor may be the result of conscious choice But will is the part of us that “does the choosing”; it is more an integral part of who we are than labor – which is more a quality or product

31 JK Rowling

32 JK Rowling: Locke: she worked hard in drawing from a long tradition of “wizard” and “coming of age” tales, and so deserves copyright in her Harry Potter books Hegel: The writing of these books literally helped “make her who she is,” or “helped her more fully realize who she really is”

33 Dignity Interest of Creators KantHegel

34 Utilitarian Perspective Jeremy Bentham ( ) “By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question: or, what is the same thing in other words, to promote or to oppose that happiness."

35 Utilitarian moral philosophy or ethics can be simply described as "the art of directing men's action to the production of the greatest possible quantity of happiness, on the part of those whose interest is in view."

36 John Stuart Mill Mill argues that the moral worth of actions is to be judged in terms of the consequences of those actions. In this he contrasts his own view with that of those who appealed to moral intuitions.

37 The utilitarian perspective “The greatest good for the greatest number” “Rights” follow only from calculations of collective welfare “Natural rights” are “bullshit on stilts” – Jeremy Bentham

38 Landes and Posner

39 Breyer, The Uneasy Case for Copyright, 84 HLR 281 (1970)

40 Example Landes, W., and R. A. Posner, "Indefinitely renewable copyright." 70 University of Chicago Law Review 471 (2003).

41 System-wide, structural approach Most commonly associated with utilitarianism BUT not limited to that approach

42 Rawls and Institutional Justice

43 Applying the various theories to IP Law Normative foundations are important in a time of rapid change

44 John Perry Barlow

45 Barlow “Information wants to be free...”

46 Larry Lessig

47 Lessig, Free Culture

48 The technology that preserved the balance of our history – between uses of our culture that were free and uses of our culture that were only upon permission – has been undone. The consequence is that we are less and less a free culture, more and more a permission culture.

49 I would dispute some aspects of this empirically Enforcement costs create de facto legality in many areas on the Internet Widespread and easy “waiver of rights” is an important feature of the internet environment; Tons of voluntary “free culture”

50 Nolo Press, 2004 (464 Pages)

51 But to the extent Lessig is correct... Permissions, and the costs of obtaining them, are simply a consequence of recognizing property rights The price we pay for obtaining the benefits of individual creation and control of indivial creative works


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