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First Tuesday Class Today’s study topic: The Bible & The Use Of Intoxicants.

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Presentation on theme: "First Tuesday Class Today’s study topic: The Bible & The Use Of Intoxicants."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Tuesday Class Today’s study topic: The Bible & The Use Of Intoxicants

2 Use of Intoxicants Pervades Our Society

3 Core Survey of American Campuses

4 Association of Drug with Cigarette & Alcohol Use by Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002

5 Use of Alcohol by Age

6 Frequent Use of Alcohol in Youth Current Users 2.0 % at age % at age % at age % at age % at age % at age 17 Reached peak of 70.9% for age 21 Binge Drinkers 0.8 % at age % at age % at age % at age % at age % at age 17 Reached peak of 50.2 % for age 21 Current - At least 1 drink in past 30 days (includes binge and heavy use) Binge - 5+ drinks on same occasion in past 30 days (includes heavy use) Heavy - 5+ drinks on same occasion at least 5 days in the past 30 days

7 Modern Setting for Issue 1991 University of Michigan study found:   94.1% of those use alcohol   54% of 8th graders use alcohol   72.3% of 10th graders use alcohol   77.7% of 12th graders use alcohol 1989 statistics showed consumption of alcoholic drinks at 39 gallons for each U.S. adult   3.25 gallons a month per adult   $56 billion was total cost for alcoholic drinks   Twice amount paid for home furnishings Whatever the right figure, we have a problem!

8 Has Our Culture Influenced Our Brethren?

9 Examples from Brethren Following quotes are from brethren on a discussion list called “Markslist” (Now called “Marslist”)   “There exists no restrictions against alcohol in the entire NT save that of drunkenness.”   “Many fear sooooooo much accidently crossing some line God has drawn, that they will draw the lines where God has not. I am opposed to sin, but drinking alcohol is not a sin.”   “Wine in the NT times was most likely 8 ‑ 12% and maybe even Mad-Dog style.”   “Jesus clearly did drink wine with enough alcohol to get drunk. I don't necessarily believe He got drunk. But could have if He kept drinking.”

10 More Quotes from Brethren “I doubt that that God would condemn to the fires of hell a person who, on drinking a single glass of wine, got drunk, and then realizing that they had such a physiological condition, never did it again. Markslist (Posted 5/17/95, at 6:18:16am) Drunkenness and gluttony are sins of a kind. They both reflect taking to excess that which is permissible in moderation. Markslist (Posted 5/18/95, at 7:54:35pm) Remember that one of the qualifications for a deacon is "not given to much wine." A necessary inference of this phrase is that he can drink some wine. Markslist (Posted 9/6/94, at 5:21:41pm)

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12 Some In Denominations Note Bible Condemnation Of Using Intoxicants

13 What Is “Moderate” Use? Increasing number try to justify a “moderate” non- medicinal use of modern intoxicating beverages Does Bible approve such? (If so, what passage?) How do we understand passages warning against it?   If only drunkenness is wrong, define drunk   Some say may get “a buzz,” but not drunk   In essence, this gives message identical to liquor industry Can we mirror the call of the world & yet claim to have higher moral standards than the world? Must look closer at Bible teaching

14 What Is “A Drink” Of Alcohol? Standard drink generally considered to be 12 oz. beer, 5 oz. wine, or 1.5 oz. of 80-proof distilled spirits. Each contains roughly the same amount of absolute alcohol -- approximately 0.5 ounce or 12 grams.

15 Old Testament Teaching On WINE Do not look on the wine when it is red, when it sparkles in the cup, when it swirls around smoothly; at the last it bites like a serpent and stings like a viper (Prov. 23:31-32).

16 O.T. Condemns Use of Intoxicants Prov. 20:1Folly & danger of use Prov. 23:29-35Warning of its effect Prov. 31:4-7General rule - don’t drink   exceptional case of medicinal need noted   exception is not rule by which we reinterpret Isa. 5:11, 22“Woe” upon user Hosea 4:11Wine & harlotry enslave Lev. 10:9-10Violates holiness of priest   “that you may distinguish between holy & unholy, and between unclean & clean”   N.T. parallels priests & Christians in holiness

17 O.T. Words for “Wine” TIROSH (used 38 times)   Refers to what we call “grape juice”   Isa. 65:8; Joel 2:24; Hos. 9:2; Prov. 3:10   Generally approved for consumption SHEKAR (used 22 times)   Denoted & usually translated “strong drink”   Alcohol raised by more sugar or non-grape   Generally condemned for consumption   Modern alcoholic beverages fall in this group YAYIN (used 135 times)   Generally used of wine with some alcohol   About half of references clearly forbid use   Approved for non-consumptive uses   Jews of later period noted 3 distinct kinds

18 Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 16, p. 538 Wine was a popular beverage in talmudic times… the newly pressed wine, prior to fermentation, was known as yayin mi-gat (“wine from the vat”; Sanh. 70a); yayin yashan (“old wine”) was wine from the previous year, and that from earlier vintages, yashan noshan (“old, very old”). The last was usually diluted by one- third with water in order to reduce its potency. [See Isa. 16:10 & Jer. 48:33 as O.T. parallels of yayin mi-gat above]

19 The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, p 529 There were three kinds of wine, called yayin, tirosh and shechar. Yayin was ordinary, matured wine, and was usually drunk diluted with water. Tirosh was new wine, and Shechar was old, strong wine used undiluted.

20 New Testament Teaching On Intoxicants

21 Condemns Drunkenness & Intoxicants Gal. 5:21Drunkenness is work of the flesh 1 Cor. 6:10Drunkards not inherit kingdom Rom. 13:12fIntoxication is work of darkness 1 Pet. 4:1-4Included in desires of the Gentiles   Later in this lesson, will examine distinct meaning of three words used in verse 3 Eph. 5:18Condemn “wine, wherein is riot”   “Riot” or “excess” said to be in the wine, not in the one drinking or the act of drunkenness   Was there any other kind of wine in N.T. time?

22 “Wine” (oinos) in N.T. Greek word for “wine” was oinos   Word could refer to juice freshly squeezed from grape or fermented wine in origin Whatever the origin, mixture of water & above was called “wine” (oinos)   Plutarch (Symposiacs III, ix): “We call a mixture ‘wine’ (oinos) although the larger component parts is water.”   Everett Ferguson (Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, p. 939): “The ordinary table beverage of Mediterranean world was a mixture of wine and water.” Thus, modern “wine” is not same as N.T. “wine”

23 Robert H. Stein, “Wine-Drinking in New Testament Times,” Christianity Today, (June 20, 1975), pp It is evident that wine was seen in ancient times as a medicine (and as a solvent for medicine) and of course as a beverage. Yet as a beverage it was always thought of as a mixed drink. Plutarch (Symposiacs III, ix), for instance states, “We call a mixture ‘wine,’ although the larger of the component parts is water.” The ratio of water might vary, but only barbarians drank it unmixed, and a mixture of wine and water of equal parts was seen as “strong drink” and frowned upon. The term “wine” or oinos in the ancient world, then, did not mean wine as we understand it today but wine mixed with water. Usually a writer simply referred to the mixture of water and wine as “wine.” To indicate that the beverage was not a mixture of water and wine he would say “unmixed (akratesteron) wine.”

24 Ratios of Water to Wine   Homer (Odyssey IX, 208f.): 20 to 1   Pliny (Nat. Hist. XIV, vi, 54): 8 to 1   Athenaeus (Learned Banquet): 3 to 1   Alexis (The Nurse): 4 to 1   Hesiod: 3 to 1   Ion (On Chios): 3 to 1   Talmud (Shabbath 77a): 3 to 1   Nichochares: 5 to 2   Clement (Instructor II, ii): “It is best for the wine to be mixed with as much water as possible.”

25 Best Case for “Moderate” Drinking Wine from grapes of Bible land would only yield about 6% alcohol at maximum That fermented wine was then cut:   Ignores fact that wine could be kept without fermentation   Assume wine reached full 6% alcohol content to start   Normal cut was 3-6 water to 1 wine, but will assume 3/1   Yields drink of 1.5% alcohol by volume   Typical beer is 8%   Modern wine is 12-18%   Distilled spirits & liquor around 40% on average   22 glasses of N.T. wine vs. 2 modern drinks to intoxicate   If 6% cut 4/1, must drink gallons an hour Most liberal case for N.T. time far from modern use!

26 1 Peter 4:1-4 1 Forasmuch then as Christ suffered in the flesh, arm ye yourselves also with the same mind; for he that hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased from sin; 2 that ye no longer should live the rest of your time in flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God. 3 For the time past may suffice to have wrought the desire of the Gentiles, and to have walked in lasciviousness, lusts, winebibbings, revellings, carousings, and abominable idolatries: 4 wherein they think strange that ye run not with them into the same excess of riot, speaking evil of you. (ASV) 1 Forasmuch then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same mind: for he that hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased from sin; 2 That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God. 3 For the time past of our life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable idolatries: 4 Wherein they think it strange that ye run not with them to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of you. KJV

27 Words Used in 1 Peter 4:3 Two ways of life are addressed:   life of one with the mind of Christ   life of the flesh lived to lust of men List of sins includes those dealing with decreasing effects of alcohol:   “Winebibbings” or “excess of wine” (oinophlugia)   “Revellings” (komos)   “Carousings” or “banquetings” (potos)

28 Winebibbings (oinophlugia) Also translated “drunkenness” Trench: “marks a step in advance of methe”   More dissipated state of alcohol’s effect described in Gal. 5:21 and Rom. 13:13 One in oinophlugia has lost all control Word used by Aristotle for state that harms body permanently (Eth. Nic. iii ) Arrian used word to denote drunken debauch causing death of Alexander the Great (vii. 24, 25). Summary: drunk prone to passing out

29 “Revellings” (komos) Arndt & Gingrich: “originally a festal procession in honor of Dionysus, then a joyous meal of banquet, in the NT... only in the bad sense excessive feasting” (461). Thayer: “a nocturnal and riotous procession of half- drunken and frolicsome fellows who after supper parade through the streets with torches and music in honor of Bacchus or some other deity, and sing and play before houses of their male and female friends; hence used generally, of feasts and drinking-parties that are protracted till late at night and indulge in revelry” (367). Summary: those partying at Mardi Gras or bar scene

30 Carousings (potos) R.C. Trench (Syn. of the N.T.): "not of necessity excessive, but giving opportunity for excess" (225) Kistemaker (in Commentary on 1 Pet.): noted the same point (160) Primary definition by lexicographers for this word is simply "a drinking” Other forms of word illustrate point:   poterion - “cup”   potidzo - “I drink” In context, a drinking of intoxicants not to excess Summary: modern “moderate” drinker Necessarily implies “moderate drinking” is sinful

31 Where Is Case To Justify “Moderate” Drinking? Condemnation of “wine wherein is excess” excludes drinking of modern intoxicants 1 Peter 4 leaves no room for such:   Condemned to be drunk to loss of control   Condemned to drink for “buzz” or partying drinker (has a drink to “get happy”)   Condemned to drink to level of lesser effect than above - a drinking of intoxicants   What level of use would that condemn? Where is the passage authorizing a “moderate” use of intoxicants?

32 Efforts to Justify Practice 1 Tim. 5:23“For thy stomach’s sake”   Shows only that medicinal use is authorized   Does not authorize any recreational or social use John 2:1-11Water turned to wine   Word “wine” is not equivalent to modern intoxicant   Amount made was gallons   If intoxicating, Jesus provided for total drunkenness   Jesus’ power made it best of most highly valued type Luke 7:33-34Jesus called “winebibber”   No truth necessarily present in charge made by critics   Contrast of context with John the Baptist being Nazarite 1 Tim. 3:3 vs. 1 Tim. 3:8 or Titus 2:3   All deal with what one is not to do; no positive authority   “Don’t get high on dope” -- Authorize using a little?

33 “Alcohol has many defenders, but no defense!” --- Abraham Lincoln ---

34 REMEMBER: A Christian Has Higher Call as Example 1 Thess. 5:21-22 Prove all things; hold fast to good Col. 3:17 Do all in name [by authority] of the Lord 1 Cor. 10:31 Must do all to the glory of God 1 Pet. 2:11-15 Work to glorify God & silence evil Lk. 17:1-2 Not to be a stumbling-block to others 1 Cor. 10:32 Not to cause offense, but bring profit 1 Pet. 3:15-17 Live beyond reproach & shame evil Matt. 5:13-16 Let light shine so good works seen Eph. 5:11 No fellowship, but rather reprove them

35 2 Corinthians 6:14 - 7:1 Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever? And what agreement hath a temple of God with idols? for we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore Come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, And touch no unclean thing; And I will receive you, And will be to you a Father, And ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

36 2 Corinthians 6:14 - 7:1 Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever? And what agreement hath a temple of God with idols? for we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore Come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, And touch no unclean thing; And I will receive you, And will be to you a Father, And ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

37 2 Corinthians 6:14 - 7:1 Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever? And what agreement hath a temple of God with idols? for we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore Come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, And touch no unclean thing; And I will receive you, And will be to you a Father, And ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

38 2 Corinthians 6:14 - 7:1 Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever? And what agreement hath a temple of God with idols? for we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore Come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, And touch no unclean thing; And I will receive you, And will be to you a Father, And ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

39 2 Corinthians 6:14 - 7:1 Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever? And what agreement hath a temple of God with idols? for we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore Come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, And touch no unclean thing; And I will receive you, And will be to you a Father, And ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

40 2 Corinthians 6:14 - 7:1 Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever? And what agreement hath a temple of God with idols? for we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore Come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, And touch no unclean thing; And I will receive you, And will be to you a Father, And ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

41 2 Corinthians 6:14 - 7:1 Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever? And what agreement hath a temple of God with idols? for we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore Come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, And touch no unclean thing; And I will receive you, And will be to you a Father, And ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

42 2 Corinthians 6:14 - 7:1 Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever? And what agreement hath a temple of God with idols? for we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore Come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, And touch no unclean thing; And I will receive you, And will be to you a Father, And ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

43 2 Corinthians 6:14 - 7:1 Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever? And what agreement hath a temple of God with idols? for we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore Come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, And touch no unclean thing; And I will receive you, And will be to you a Father, And ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

44 2 Corinthians 6:14 - 7:1 Be not unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what portion hath a believer with an unbeliever? And what agreement hath a temple of God with idols? for we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore Come ye out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, And touch no unclean thing; And I will receive you, And will be to you a Father, And ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

45 What Can We Prove Right? Can we justify the use of alcohol to point of “getting a buzz” or “chill out”? Can we justify one drink of 80 proof distilled spirits in the bar? At home? Elsewhere? Can we find a Bible passage that says drinking a glass of modern wine (12-18% alcohol) is “good”? Does it make a difference whether that wine is at home, a party or a bar? What passage would allow us to drink a beer (8% alcohol) to unwind? What practice can we prove right, good & holy?


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