Presentation on theme: "Scientifically Naming Established by Linnaeus in 1753."— Presentation transcript:
Scientifically Naming Established by Linnaeus in 1753
Why do we need scientific names? Many organisms have common names, but these are often confusing. The same organism can be known in different parts of the world by many various different common names.
Why do we need scientific names? Marmota monax is an animal some people call woodchuck, other call it a groundhog, and others a whistlepig.
Binomial nomenclature a system of naming organisms binomial means "two name" nomenclature means "naming"
Linnaeus chose Latin for the language to use in naming organisms.
Reasons why Linnaeus chose Latin unchanging descriptive a root of many modern languages
Canterbury Tales in Middle English 1: Whan that aprill with his shoures soote 2: The droghte of march hath perced to the roote, 3: And bathed every veyne in swich licour 4: Of which vertu engendred is the flour; 5: Whan zephirus eek with his sweete breeth 6: Inspired hath in every holt and heeth 7: Tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
1 Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote When April with its sweet-smelling showers 2 The droghte of March hath perced to the roote, Has pierced the drought of March to the root, 3 And bathed every veyne in swich licour And bathed every vein (of the plants) in such liquid 4 Of which vertu engendred is the flour; By the power of which the flower is created; 5 Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth When the West Wind also with its sweet breath, 6 Inspired hath in every holt and heeth In every wood and field has breathed life into, 7 The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne The tender new leaves, and the young sun
Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum, þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon, hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum, 5 monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, egsode eorlas. Syððan ærest wearð feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad, weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah, oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra Beowulf Prologue in Old English
Each organism is given a generic name (Genus) and the specific name (species). Canis familiaris
In a scientific name the species is referred to as the specific epithet. species
Perognathus californicus Perognathus nelson Perognathus spinatus What can you tell from a scientific name?
Perognathus californicus What can you tell from a scientific name? Perognathus nelson Perognathus spinatus
Perognathus californicus Genus (plural genera) is a classification grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms. Perognathus nelson Perognathus spinatus
Perognathus californicus Species often describes a distinctive feature of an organism. (such as where it lives or its appearance) Perognathus nelson Perognathus spinatus
Homo sapiens Homo (Genus) sapiens (species) Genus Homo = man Sapiens = thinking Literally, in Latin, thinking man
The scientist who first described the Central American red-eyed treefrog thought it was especially pretty with its pea-green back, chrome-yellow and bright blue ladder patterns on its sides, bright orange feet, and vermillion eyes, and thus named it Phyllomedusa callidryas - the beautiful wood nymph (calli=beautiful and dryas=wood nymph)
Helianthus annuus common sunflower Genus is written first Genus is capitalized, species is not Italicized or underlined A scientific name is given to an organism by the first person to publish a description of the organism.
Genus Felis Felis share characteristics such as sharp, retractable claws and behaviors such as hunting other animals.
Felis concolor (puma) Concolor means “the same color.” Notice that this animal’s coat is mostly the same color.
Felis marmorata (Marbled cat) Notice the marbled pattern of this animal’s coat. Marmorata means “marble.”
Felis domesticus (House cat) Domesticus means “of the house.”
Scientific Names Every organism has one and only one scientific name. A single scientific name applies to only one species. Sometimes scientific names are called Latin names, but they are not actually Latin. The terms that make up the scientific name can be from any language; however, they must conform to Latin grammar and are thereby Latinized.
Scientific Names People don’t always agree with the name because opinions differ and mistakes are made. Therefore scientific names are occasionally adjusted by international committees that meet periodically. There are different committees for plants, animals, etc. It is the responsibility of these committees to make scientific names and classifications as up-to-date as information allows.
Species and Biblical Kinds biblical kind (not same as species): the grouping of organisms established by God Species: a group of similar organisms established by man
Biblical Kinds 2 main characteristics of biblical kind: 1. they can reproduce with other organisms in the kind 2. they produce offspring that look like themselves and that can also reproduce
Tools for Identifying Organisms Field guides Dichotomous keys
Field guides most have descriptions and illustrations of organisms and information about where each organism lives
Dichotomous keys a detailed list of identifying characteristics