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Test Review Chapters 6,7, and 8

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1 Test Review Chapters 6,7, and 8
Consumer Math Test Review Chapters 6,7, and 8

2 A First Look at Credit Cards and Open Credit
Credit involves receiving cash, goods, or services with an obligation to pay later. Open credit (revolving credit) is a line of credit extended before the purchase. Unpaid balance plus interest carries over to next month. Higher balances on credit lines, higher costs.

3 Interest Rates Annual Percentage Rate (APR)—the true simple interest rate paid over the life of the loan. APR for all consumer loans must be disclosed. Fixed APR vs. variable APR Teaser Rates Compound interest

4 Buying Money: The Cash Advance
Cash advances at ATMs are just like taking out a loan. Higher interest rate charged immediately on cash advances Up-front fee of 2-4% of the amount advanced. Pay down the balances for purchases before paying down the higher interest rate cash balance.

5 Annual Fee A fixed annual charge imposed by a credit card.
Over 70% of biggest credit card issuers do not charge an annual fee. Many don’t charge the fee if the card is used at least once a year. Merchant’s discount fee—the percentage of the sale that the merchant pays to the credit card issuer.

6 Additional Fees Cash Advance Fee Late Fee Over-the-Limit Fee
Penalty Rate

7 Pros and Cons of Credit Cards
Advantages: Convenience Used as identification Phone and internet purchases Temporary funds Use product before paying for it Bill consolidation Pay less today and earn interest elsewhere Extended warranties, travel insurance, and rewards.

8 Pros and Cons of Credit Cards
Disadvantages: Too easy to spend money Too easy to lose track of spending High interest rate Obligating future income Heavy budgetary problems with uncontrolled spending

9 The Choice: What’s Best for You
Credit user—carries an unpaid balance from month to month. Convenience user—pays off the credit card balance each month (avoids interest). Convenience and credit user—generally pays off all the balance

10 Factors That Determine Your Score
Your Payment History (35%) Amount You Owe and Your Available Credit (30%) Length of Credit History (15%) Types of Credit Used (10%) New Credit (10%)

11 Summary Main form of open credit is the credit card which you can use to make charges up to a certain point as long as you pay off the minimum amount of your debt each month. Costs of open credit include interest rate, cost of cash advances, annual fee, penalty fees. Choices of open credit lines include different types of credit cards and charge accounts.

12 Consumer Loans—Your Choices
Single-payment loans Variable-rate installment loans Unsecured fix-rate loans Secured loans

13 First Decision: Single-Payment versus Installment Loans
Single-Payment or Balloon Loan—paid back in a single lump-sum payment with interest at maturity. Bridge or interim loan– short-term loan. Installment loan—repayment of both principal and interest at various intervals. Loan amortization—with each payment, the interest portion covered decreases and principal portion covered increases.

14 Second Decision: Secured versus Unsecured Loans
Secured loan—guaranteed by an asset which typically lowers the rate of the loan. Unsecured loan—not guaranteed by an asset or collateral

15 Third Decision: Variable-Rate versus Fixed-Rate Loans
Fixed-rate interest rate loan—stays fixed for entire duration of the loan, not tied to market interest rates. Variable-rate or adjustable interest rate loan—interest rate varies based on the market interest rate. Prime rate—the interest rate that banks charge to their most creditworthy, or “prime” customers Convertible loan—variable-rate loan that can be converted to a fixed-rate loan.

16 Fourth Decision: Loan Maturity—Shorter versus Longer Term Loans
Shorter term loan means lower interest rate and larger monthly payments Longer term loan means smaller monthly payments and higher interest rate

17 Understand the Terms of the Loan: The Loan Contract
Security agreement Note Default Acceleration clause Deficiency payments clause Recourse clause

18 Special Types of Consumer Loans
Home Equity Loan or Second Mortgage – secured loan using equity in home as collateral. Advantages: Interest is tax deductible Lower interest than other consumer loans. Disadvantages: Puts your home at risk. Limits future financing flexibility.

19 Special Types of Consumer Loans
Automobile Loan – loan secured by auto. Duration usually for 24, 36, or 48 months or even 5 to 6 years. Low-cost auto loan rates used to push slow-selling vehicles or older models. Repossession if default on loan.

20 Getting the Best Rate on Your Consumer Loans
Inexpensive sources—family, home equity loans, cash value life insurance loans. More expensive sources—credit unions, S & Ls, and commercial banks. Most expensive sources—retail stores, finance companies or small loan companies

21 Should You Borrow or Pay Cash?
Debt is expensive Don’t borrow to spend. Use cash rather than credit. If benefits outweigh costs, borrowing makes sense.

22 Smart Buying Step 1: Differentiate Want From Need
Step 2: Do Your Homework Step 3: Make Your Purchase Step 4: Maintain Your Purchase

23 Smart Buying in Action: Buying a Vehicle
Step 3: Make Your Purchase Financing Alternatives: Cheapest—cash Investigate all financing options before buying. Keep financing out of the negotiations. The shorter the term, the higher the monthly payments.

24 Smart Buying in Action: Buying a Vehicle
Step 3: Make Your Purchase Leasing: ideal for financially stable, want new car every few years, drive less than 15,000 miles annually, good credit, no down payment Closed-end or walk-away lease Purchase option Open-end lease

25 Smart Buying in Action: Housing
Many people equate home ownership with financial success. Housing costs can take up over 25% of after-tax income. Home ownership is also an investment – biggest investment you will ever make. Use smart-buying approach.

26 Your Housing Options A House: Cooperatives and Condominiums:
Most potential for capital appreciation. Cooperatives and Condominiums: Homeowner’s fee Planned unit developments Apartments and other rental housing

27 Smart Buying in Action: Housing
One-time Costs: Down payment Closing/settlement costs Points Loan origination fee Application fee Appraisal fee Title search fee

28 Smart Buying in Action: Housing
Recurring Costs Monthly mortgage payments PITI Maintenance and Operating Costs: repairs, renovations, upgrades, landscaping

29 Renting Versus Buying Decision based on lifestyle Renting advantages:
Financial and lifestyle flexibility Compare costs for each alternative Buying advantages: Longer stay and appreciation, itemized taxes, forced savings

30 Financing the Purchase—The Mortgage
Sources of mortgages: S&Ls and commercial banks Credit unions, mutual savings banks Mortgage bankers—originate mortgage loans, sell to banks, pension funds, insurance companies and collect payments Mortgage brokers—middlemen comparison shop for a fee to secure mortgage loans for borrowers but do not originate the loans

31 Fixed-Rate Mortgages Monthly payment doesn’t change regardless of market interest rate changes. Can lock in low rates for the life of the loan. An assumable loan can be transferred to a new buyer. Prepayment privilege allows early cash payments to be applied to principal.

32 Adjustable-Rate Mortgages (ARM)
Interest rate of ARM fluctuates with level of current interest rates. Initial Rate—”teaser rate”—low for only a short time period then adjusted upward. Interest rate index—rates on ARMs are tied to an index not controlled by the lender, such as 6- or 12-month U.S. Treasuries.

33 Specialty Mortgage Loan Options
Balloon Payment Mortgage Loan – small monthly payments for 5-7 years, then entire loan due. Graduated Payment Mortgage – payments set in advance, rising for 5-10 years, then level off. Growing Equity Mortgage – designed to let homebuyer pay off mortgage early.

34 Specialty Mortgage Loan Options
Shared Appreciation Mortgage – borrower receives below-market interest rate, lender receives a portion of future appreciation. Interest Only Mortgage – interest only payment for initial set period, then pay both interest and principal for remainder of loan.

35 Specialty Mortgage Loan Options
Option Payment ARM Mortgages – can make different types of mortgage payments each month Options include: Amount less than interest due Interest only Payment amount of 150- or 30-year fixed-rate loan

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