Presentation on theme: "Test Review Chapters 6,7, and 8"— Presentation transcript:
1Test Review Chapters 6,7, and 8 Consumer MathTest ReviewChapters 6,7, and 8
2A First Look at Credit Cards and Open Credit Credit involves receiving cash, goods, or services with an obligation to pay later.Open credit (revolving credit) is a line of credit extended before the purchase.Unpaid balance plus interest carries over to next month.Higher balances on credit lines, higher costs.
3Interest RatesAnnual Percentage Rate (APR)—the true simple interest rate paid over the life of the loan.APR for all consumer loans must be disclosed.Fixed APR vs. variable APRTeaser RatesCompound interest
4Buying Money: The Cash Advance Cash advances at ATMs are just like taking out a loan.Higher interest rate charged immediately on cash advancesUp-front fee of 2-4% of the amount advanced.Pay down the balances for purchases before paying down the higher interest rate cash balance.
5Annual Fee A fixed annual charge imposed by a credit card. Over 70% of biggest credit card issuers do not charge an annual fee.Many don’t charge the fee if the card is used at least once a year.Merchant’s discount fee—the percentage of the sale that the merchant pays to the credit card issuer.
7Pros and Cons of Credit Cards Advantages:ConvenienceUsed as identificationPhone and internet purchasesTemporary fundsUse product before paying for itBill consolidationPay less today and earn interest elsewhereExtended warranties, travel insurance, and rewards.
8Pros and Cons of Credit Cards Disadvantages:Too easy to spend moneyToo easy to lose track of spendingHigh interest rateObligating future incomeHeavy budgetary problems with uncontrolled spending
9The Choice: What’s Best for You Credit user—carries an unpaid balance from month to month.Convenience user—pays off the credit card balance each month (avoids interest).Convenience and credit user—generally pays off all the balance
10Factors That Determine Your Score Your Payment History (35%)Amount You Owe and Your Available Credit (30%)Length of Credit History (15%)Types of Credit Used (10%)New Credit (10%)
11SummaryMain form of open credit is the credit card which you can use to make charges up to a certain point as long as you pay off the minimum amount of your debt each month.Costs of open credit include interest rate, cost of cash advances, annual fee, penalty fees.Choices of open credit lines include different types of credit cards and charge accounts.
13First Decision: Single-Payment versus Installment Loans Single-Payment or Balloon Loan—paid back in a single lump-sum payment with interest at maturity.Bridge or interim loan– short-term loan.Installment loan—repayment of both principal and interest at various intervals.Loan amortization—with each payment, the interest portion covered decreases and principal portion covered increases.
14Second Decision: Secured versus Unsecured Loans Secured loan—guaranteed by an asset which typically lowers the rate of the loan.Unsecured loan—not guaranteed by an asset or collateral
15Third Decision: Variable-Rate versus Fixed-Rate Loans Fixed-rate interest rate loan—stays fixed for entire duration of the loan, not tied to market interest rates.Variable-rate or adjustable interest rate loan—interest rate varies based on the market interest rate.Prime rate—the interest rate that banks charge to their most creditworthy, or “prime” customersConvertible loan—variable-rate loan that can be converted to a fixed-rate loan.
16Fourth Decision: Loan Maturity—Shorter versus Longer Term Loans Shorter term loan means lower interest rate and larger monthly paymentsLonger term loan means smaller monthly payments and higher interest rate
17Understand the Terms of the Loan: The Loan Contract Security agreementNoteDefaultAcceleration clauseDeficiency payments clauseRecourse clause
18Special Types of Consumer Loans Home Equity Loan or Second Mortgage – secured loan using equity in home as collateral.Advantages:Interest is tax deductibleLower interest than other consumer loans.Disadvantages:Puts your home at risk.Limits future financing flexibility.
19Special Types of Consumer Loans Automobile Loan – loan secured by auto.Duration usually for 24, 36, or 48 months or even 5 to 6 years.Low-cost auto loan rates used to push slow-selling vehicles or older models.Repossession if default on loan.
20Getting the Best Rate on Your Consumer Loans Inexpensive sources—family, home equity loans, cash value life insurance loans.More expensive sources—credit unions, S & Ls, and commercial banks.Most expensive sources—retail stores, finance companies or small loan companies
21Should You Borrow or Pay Cash? Debt is expensiveDon’t borrow to spend.Use cash rather than credit.If benefits outweigh costs, borrowing makes sense.
22Smart Buying Step 1: Differentiate Want From Need Step 2: Do Your HomeworkStep 3: Make Your PurchaseStep 4: Maintain Your Purchase
23Smart Buying in Action: Buying a Vehicle Step 3: Make Your PurchaseFinancing Alternatives:Cheapest—cashInvestigate all financing options before buying.Keep financing out of the negotiations.The shorter the term, the higher the monthly payments.
24Smart Buying in Action: Buying a Vehicle Step 3: Make Your PurchaseLeasing: ideal for financially stable, want new car every few years, drive less than 15,000 miles annually, good credit, no down paymentClosed-end or walk-away leasePurchase optionOpen-end lease
25Smart Buying in Action: Housing Many people equate home ownership with financial success.Housing costs can take up over 25% of after-tax income.Home ownership is also an investment – biggest investment you will ever make.Use smart-buying approach.
26Your Housing Options A House: Cooperatives and Condominiums: Most potential for capital appreciation.Cooperatives and Condominiums:Homeowner’s feePlanned unit developmentsApartments and other rental housing
28Smart Buying in Action: Housing Recurring CostsMonthly mortgage paymentsPITIMaintenance and Operating Costs:repairs, renovations, upgrades, landscaping
29Renting Versus Buying Decision based on lifestyle Renting advantages: Financial and lifestyle flexibilityCompare costs for each alternativeBuying advantages:Longer stay and appreciation, itemized taxes, forced savings
30Financing the Purchase—The Mortgage Sources of mortgages:S&Ls and commercial banksCredit unions, mutual savings banksMortgage bankers—originate mortgage loans, sell to banks, pension funds, insurance companies and collect paymentsMortgage brokers—middlemen comparison shop for a fee to secure mortgage loans for borrowers but do not originate the loans
31Fixed-Rate MortgagesMonthly payment doesn’t change regardless of market interest rate changes.Can lock in low rates for the life of the loan.An assumable loan can be transferred to a new buyer.Prepayment privilege allows early cash payments to be applied to principal.
32Adjustable-Rate Mortgages (ARM) Interest rate of ARM fluctuates with level of current interest rates.Initial Rate—”teaser rate”—low for only a short time period then adjusted upward.Interest rate index—rates on ARMs are tied to an index not controlled by the lender, such as 6- or 12-month U.S. Treasuries.
33Specialty Mortgage Loan Options Balloon Payment Mortgage Loan – small monthly payments for 5-7 years, then entire loan due.Graduated Payment Mortgage – payments set in advance, rising for 5-10 years, then level off.Growing Equity Mortgage – designed to let homebuyer pay off mortgage early.
34Specialty Mortgage Loan Options Shared Appreciation Mortgage – borrower receives below-market interest rate, lender receives a portion of future appreciation.Interest Only Mortgage – interest only payment for initial set period, then pay both interest and principal for remainder of loan.
35Specialty Mortgage Loan Options Option Payment ARM Mortgages – can make different types of mortgage payments each monthOptions include:Amount less than interest dueInterest onlyPayment amount of 150- or 30-year fixed-rate loan