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1. Europe as a linguistic area (Sprachbund): the Standard Average European (SAE) 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Europe as a linguistic area (Sprachbund): the Standard Average European (SAE) 2."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Europe as a linguistic area (Sprachbund): the Standard Average European (SAE) 2

3 Relative clauses with declinable relative pronouns 3

4 Particle comparative with standard of comparison 4

5 Nominative experiencers 5

6 ● Verb fronting in polar interrogatives ● Comparative marking of adjectives ● Suppletive second ordinal ● Relative-based equative constructions – use of adverbial relative pronouns or demonstratives (olyan, ugyanolyan, yhtä) with correlative particles (mint/kuin) ● Lack of alienable/inalieanable opposition in adnominal possession ● Lack of an inclusive/exclusive opposition in first person non-singular pronouns ● Lack of reduplication constructions Some other SAE features displayed by both Hungarian and Finnish 6

7 ● Anticausative prominence: reflexive or medial derivation on the base of the causative verb and not the other way round ● No cooccurrence of verbal negation with negative indefinite pronouns ● Intensifier  reflexive differentiation Some SAE features lacked by both Hungarian and Finnish 7

8 ● Definite and indefinite articles ● Comitative  instrumental syncretism ● Dative external possessors Some SAE features displayed by Hungarian but not by Finnish 8

9 ● Non-pro-drop (strict) person marking (in 3Sg) A SAE feature displayed by Finnish but not by Hungarian 9

10 Degrees of membership in SAE (combining 9 features) 10

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12 Morphological typology: (emerging: 19th century)  grouping languages according to their common morphological structures  main point: word construction 12

13 ● No declinations and conjugations ● Separate stems + separate stems in grammatical function ● Word order, intonation 13

14 agglutination hajlít-hat-atlan-ság-uk-tól ● Analytic (monosemantic) morphemes: stem + suffixes with one meaning/function each ● The string of morphemes constitutes a complete word on every step of extension hajlít ’(s)he bends’ hajlíthat ’(s)he can bend’ hajlíthatatlan ’unbending (inflexible)’ hajlíthatatlanság ’inflexibility’ hajlíthatatlanságuk ’their inflexibility’ hajlíthatatlanságuktól ’from their inflexibility’ ● Morphemes are mostly uniform, their boudaries are strict and clear 14

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17 August Schleicher (19th century) On the basis of Hegel’s dialectics:  Thesis: isolation: the word is a whole, but the grammatical relation is not expressed  Antithesis: agglutination: the grammatical relation is expressed, but the word is not a whole (i.e. falls into its parts)  Synthesis: flection: both the grammatical relation is expressed and the word remains a whole 17

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19 Syntactic typology (emerging: 20th century)  word order types  „contentive” typology: system of alignment (basic sentence construction) patterns 19

20 Basic notions 1. Agent: the actuator or intentional instigator of the act, process or state expressed by the predicate verb Patient: the entity affected by the verbal content, i.e. the animate or inanimate being which undergoes, or is targeted by, the process in question, which comes into being by virtue of the event, or is, independently of its own acts, in the state denoted by the verbal predicate 20

21 Basic notions 2. Intransitive verb: a verb, that constitutes a sentence by itself, or that has only one compulsory complement (argument) (In what follows, we will be only concerned with the latter type.) Transitive verb: a verb, that has two or three compulsory complements (arguments) of which at least one is a patient (We will be only concerned with the two arguments type.) 21

22 Transitivity chart S = A (but  P) – nominative alignment S  A  P – triadic (tripartite) alignment S = P (but  A) – ergative alignment 22

23 Nominative alignment S = A (but  P)  Nominative Accusative 23

24 The boy is cold. A fiú fázik. Poika palelee. (patient of state) The boy runs. A fiú fut. Poika juoksee. (agent of intentional intransitive action) The boy is coughing. A fiú köhög. Poika yskii. (agent [or patient?] of unintentional action) The boy is eating bread. A fiú kenyeret eszik. Poika syö leipää. (transitive affecting agent) The boy is baking bread. A fiú kenyeret süt. Poika leipoo leipää. (transitive effecting agent) Functions of nominative The boy is washing. A fiú mosakodik. Poika peseytyy. (agent of reflexive action) (patient of transitive action) The teacher was given a bottle of wine. (recipient of transitive action) This violin is easy to play the sonata on.(locative of transitive action) This is a house. Ez itt egy ház. Tämä on talo. ([part of a] predicate) A bottle of wine was given to the teacher. 24

25 1. Both unmarked The boy is eating bread. (This type is commonly called neutral.) 2. Subject unmarked, direct object marked Markedness of subject and direct object A fiú fut.Poika juoksee.’the boy is running’ A fiúk futnak.Pojat juoksevat. ’the boys are running’ A fiú kenyeret eszik.Poika syö leipää. ’the boy is eating bread’ A fiú (meg)eszi a kenyeret.Poika syö leivän. ’the boy eats up the bread’ A fiúk kenyeret esznek.Pojat syövät leipää. ’the boys are eating bread’ A fiúk (meg)eszik a kenyeret.Pojat syövät leivän. ’the boys eat up the bread’ 25

26 No nominative language of this type exists. 3. Both subject and direct object marked. Domin-us agricola-m laudat. ’the master praises the farmer’ Domin-us agricola-s laudat. ’the master praises the farmers’ Domin-i agricola-m laudant. ’the masters praise the farmer’ Domin-i agricola-s laudant. ’the masters praise the farmers’ 4. Subject marked, direct object unmarked 26

27 Passive sentence construction The house is being built by the workers. Дом строится рабочими. A ház építtetik a munkások által. (No such construction in Finnish.) 27

28 Ergative alignment S = P (but  A)  Ergative (case) Absolute case (Absolutive) 28

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32 çi v- aç’-ula ’the man comes’ man male.human.class come-pres. ebél-alda çi v-at- -ula ’the mother finds the man’ mother-erg. (sup.) -find- Avar (Caucasian) 32

33 Georgian (Caucase) dzaghl-i bagh-ši da-i -mal -a dog-abs. garden-dat. he-intr. -hide -aor3Sg ’the dog hid in the garden’ bić’-ma dzaghl-i bagh-ši da-mal-a boy-erg. ’the boy hid the dog in the garden’ bić’-i bagh-ši da-rch -a stay ’the boy stayed in the garden’ 33

34 Yidin (Australia) wagu:ja-ŋgu jugi gunda-l (galba:n-da) man-erg tree cut-impf. (axe-instr.) ’the man is cutting the tree (with an axe)’ galba:n-du wagu:ja gunda-:ji-ŋ -erg. ’the axe cut the man’ 34

35 Antipassive construction Ergative Absolutive Oblique case matyumpa-yu kukapi aca -mu kangaroo-ERG grass (ABS) eat-PAST ’the kangaroo ate the grass’ matyumpa kukapi-u aca-li-ma ’the kangaroo eats grass’ (= ‘kangaroos are grass-eating animals’) 35

36 Triadic (tripartite) alignment S  A  P Agentive Accusative Stative 36

37 Wankumara (Australia) kana -ia palu-  a ’the man died’ man-stat. die-past kana-ulu kalka-  a titi-nana -agnt. hit dog-acc(fem) ’The man hit the bitch’ 37

38 ma-ţa ’I die’ ma-waśte ’I am good’ ma-kaśka ’he binds me’ ma-ya-kaśka ’you bind me’ wa-ti ’I dwell (somewhere)’ wa-kaśka ’I bind it’ Active (agentive) alignment VERB Active case Inactive case wa : active Ima : passive I (= me) 38

39 Choctaw (American indian language) čokma ’good’ I + Active case + čokma ’I do good (things)’ I + Inactive case + čokma ’I am good’ I + Dative + čokma ’I am well’ 39

40 Eastern Pomo wí će·xelkâ’I slip (unintentionally)’ I.inact há· će·xelkâ’I glide (intentionally)’ I.act 40

41 Theme or TOPIC: That part of the sentence which refers to the information already known by the hearer. Rheme or COMMENT: That part of the sentence which displays the new information for the hearer. The central (stressed) element of the comment is the FOCUS. “Actual dismembering” or information structure analysis of sentences 41

42 Comparison: syntatic parsing and actual dismembering The boy likes the soup.The boy likes the soup. Subject Theme (topic) The boy likes the soup. We are speaking of the boy, new information: he likes the soup. The boy likes the soup. We do know that the boy likes something, (It is the soup that the boy likes.)new information: it is the soup. The boy likes the soup. (It is the boy who likes the soup.) We do know that somebody likes the soup, new information: it is the boy. 42

43 Tagalog (Philippines) mags -alis ang babae ng bigas sa sako para sa bata ag.-top.-take (fut.) top woman A/P rice loc. sack for child ’The woman will take rice out of the bag for the child.’ a-alis-in ng babae ang bigas sa sako para sa bata pat.-top. ’As for the rice, the woman will take some out of the bag for the child.’ a-alis-an ng babae ng bigas ang sako para sa bata loc.-top. As for the sack, the woman will take rice out of it for the child.’ ipag-s -alis ng babae ng bigas sa sako para ang bata dat.-top. ’As for the child, the woman will take rice out of the bag for him.’ 43

44 mag -tatrabaho ang lalaki ’The man will work.’ ag.-top.-work (fut.) man papa -wisan ang lalaki ’The man will sweat.’ ag./loc.-top.-sweat (fut.) 44

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50 Prenominativity – any feature that precedes the nominative pattern in the schematogonic tree, i.e. emerged during one of the “proto”- periods, is a prenominative feature – the nominative case and the nominative sentence pattern based on it are historical products (and thus have a prehistory) – this prehistory has left recoverable relics in the nominative languages 50

51 1. Unmarked object Some examples of prenominative relics in the Uralic languages 51

52 52 a. With finite indicative forms of transitive verbs Hungarian: Only with either a first or a second person possessive marker Ide hívom apám(at), anyám(at), minden rokonom(at). ’I will call my father, my mother, all my relatives’ Finnish No such fenomenon

53 53 b. With imperative forms Hungarian: No such phenomenon Finnish: Lue tämä kirja! ’read this book through’, Cf. Luen tämän kirjan. ’I will read this book through’.

54 54 c. With infinitives Hungarian in archaic and dialectal varieties: Az uram oda van fa vágni ’my husband is away cutting wood’ Jó lesz ez a vödör víz hordani ’this bucket will be good for bringing water’ Finnish: Sinun olisi parasta mennä lukemaan englannin läksy ’It would be better for you to go and do your English lesson’, Jaakolla oli halu käydä kiskaisemassa joulupukilta parta ’Jaakko felt like going up to Santa Claus and tearing off his beard’, Tuulikki piti velvollisuutenaan pestä lattia/lattian ’Tuulikki regarded it as her duty to mop up the floor’.

55 55 d. With other non-finite verbal and deverbal nominal forms Hungarian: favágó ’woodcutter’, favágás ’woodcutting, logging’ Finnish: No such phenomenon.

56 56 e. With “passive” verb forms Hungarian: No such phenomenon. Finnish: asia jätettiin lepäämään yli vaalien ’they put the matter aside until after the elections’.

57 57 f. Numerals as unmarked object Hungarian: No adnominal case forms for numerals. Finnish: Näin kaksi pientä sorsaa ’I saw two ducklings’. Cf. Näin vain yhden pienen sorsan ’I only saw one duckling’.

58 58 g. Unmarked object in compounds Hungarian: favágó ’woodcutter’, favágás ’woodcutting, logging’ (noun) dolgavégezetlen ’without having succeeded’ Finnish: tiedonhaku ’data-gathering (lit. information-seeking)’ (tieto + n + haku), henkilöhaku ’casting (lit. person-seeking)’ (henkilö + haku), levontarve ’need for rest’ (lepo + n + tarve), asuntotarve ’demand for flats’ (asunto + tarve), metsänhakkuu ’forest-clearing’ (metsä + n + hakkuu), metsähakkuu ­’forest-clearing’ (metsä + hakkuu).

59 2. The ambivalence of participle voice Some examples of prenominative relics in the Uralic languages 59

60 60 Hungarian: eladólány ‘female shop assistant’ (lit. ‘give-away-P ART girl’) – active, eladó lány ‘girl ready to marry, who has come of age’ (lit. the same) – passive; olvasott ember ‘well-read person’– active, olvasott könyv ‘a book read’– passive. Finnish: karhu on tapettu ‘the bear has been killed’ – passive; ei tapettu ‘no killing has taken place’ ’– active, tapettu karhu ‘the killed bear’ – passive; karhun tapettua kananpojan ‘after the bear killed the chicken’ – active.

61 3. The word order of participial subordination Some examples of prenominative relics in the Uralic languages 61

62 62 Hungarian: A szállodába rendszerint csak sötét este érkező vendégek csak reggel pillantják meg a tengert. ‘Guests normally arriving at the hotel only after dark glimpse the sea only in the morning’ A gépekben hosszú éveken át folyamatosan használt alkatrészeket akkor is ki kell cserélni, ha nem látszanak hibásnak. ‘Parts used in the machine continually for many years have to be replaced even if they do not appear to be faulty’

63 63 Finnish: puolueet valmistautuvat kovaa vauhtia syksyn kunnallisvaalien yhteydessä pidettäviin EU-vaaleihin ‘the parties are busy preparing for the EU-elections to be held simultaneously with the municipal elections in the autumn’ suojelualueet pakkolunastetaan sukupolvien ajan alueella asuneilta maanomistajilta ‘the protected areas are appropriated from landowners who have lived there for generations’

64 64 → Word Order Typology

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