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De Götzen EASY START GUIDE ERROR CODES. BASIC KEY FUNCTIONS ON TIMER.

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Presentation on theme: "De Götzen EASY START GUIDE ERROR CODES. BASIC KEY FUNCTIONS ON TIMER."— Presentation transcript:

1 De Götzen EASY START GUIDE ERROR CODES

2 BASIC KEY FUNCTIONS ON TIMER

3 Main power switch Key switch to activate/deactivate keypad (I = active / 0 = not active) LED display (Shows time settings, and error codes)

4 Key to decrease exposure time Key to increase exposure time X-RAY firing button (Keep pressed till yellow LED goes out) X-RAY firing LED indicator

5 Indicates tube type (AC or DC) and set by internal dip switch setting only Selects tube head 1 or 2 (Will toggle between both tube heads IF two tube heads are present. Also set by internal dip switch settings) Cone size indicator (8 or 12 inch) (Set by internal dip switch settings)

6 Selects kV of tube head (60 or 70 kV) (Please note: 60kV mode can be selected with the“xgenus®dc” radiographic system only.) Selects adult or child Selects mA of tube head (4 or 8 mA) (Please note: The 4mA mode can be selected with the “xgenus®dc” radiographic system only.)

7 Stores exposure range presets X-ray output signal (Lights during exposure) Pause/cool down indicator (X-ray will not fire again till lamp turns off) Error light (Will inhibit x-ray and give an error code in LED display if unit is experiences a problem)

8 Selects Maxillary upper teeth Selects Mandibulary lower teeth

9 Select for occlusal exams Select for bitewing exams Select for digital radiography Selects film Type

10 INSTALLATION / REPLACEMENT OF THE TUBE HEAD This next section demonstrates the assembly or replacement of the tube head

11

12 1- Take out the tube head from the packaging and check that all the rating data match the power supply voltage 2- Remove both side covers from the scissor arm by loosening the side screws 3- Using a phillips screwdriver or other such tip push on the unlocking tab to release the side covers NOTE: Failure to do this will result in breakage of the side covers!!! 4- Remove both side covers 5- Insert the tube head molex connector into the scissor arm head

13 7- Insert the scissor arm “c” clip 6- Check that during insertion, the pin of the rotation limit ring correctly fits the cutout located on the tube head base 8- Connect the scissor arm and tube head molex plugs together and fit them into the slot in the scissor arm and replace side covers

14 BALANCING THE SCISSOR ARM The scissor arm must be adjusted only AFTER the tubehead is assembled To prevent damages to the internal mechanism while performing adjustment and the balancing tests, the adjustment key must not be left in place. These adjustments are necessary to ensure proper balance of the tube head and scissor arm. It may be necessary over time to perform these adjustments if the tube head does not stay in place when moved.

15 1- Remove both tube end side covers from the scissor arm by first loosening the side screws 3- Remove both side covers This now exposes the screw in the scissor arm that’s used to tighten the spring for balancing the tube head and scissor arm 4- Remove both elbow side covers by removing the relevant screws 2- Using a phillips screwdriver or other such tip push on the unlocking tab to release the side covers NOTE: Failure to do this will result in breakage of the side covers!!!

16 To reach the adjustment screw X, the arm A must be put in vertical position. To reach the adjustment screw Y, the arm B must be put in horizontal position. The adjustment key provided can be inserted only under the above conditions.

17 BALANCING THE ARM A The scissor arm is supplied with the spring in arm A already tightened The spring in arm B is supplied untightened for safety reasons. BALANCING THE ARM B 1. Arm A should be vertical 2. Arm B should be horizontal 3. Insert the adjustment key in Y 4. Tighten the spring clockwise by 22 turns 5. Withdraw the key

18 CHECK THE BALANCING Move the arm B in different positions IF IT DOES NOT KEEP THE POSITION: 1.Bring the arm B to the horizontal position 2.Insert the adjustment key in Y 3.Rotate the adjustment key by half turn 4.Clockwise if it tends to come down 5.Counter clockwise if it tends to go up 6.Withdraw the key NOTE: Repeat the test and adjustment until arm B is steady and stable in all positions, even when arm A is completely extended.

19 RE-ADJUSTMENT OF ARM A 1. Bring arm A to the vertical position 2. Insert the adjustment key in X 3. Rotate the adjustment key by a half turn: 4.Clockwise if it tends to come down 5.Counter clockwise if it tends to go up 6.Withdraw the key Repeat the test and adjustment until the arm A is steady and stable in all positions, even when the arm B is completely extended.

20 Insert the plastic exterior plate C between the scissor arm plastic housing and metal frame Align the cover D to slide in front of the plate C; then position them and check that everything is locked into place then replace screw and cap D C C C C

21 BASIC START UP PROCEDURE

22 1.Make sure the green power and the key switch are turned to “0” 2.Attach the main power cord to the wall mains. 3.Switch main green power switch on top of timer to “I” (on). 4.Turn key switch to “I” Timer will now beep for 1 second displaying a time* in the LED screen 5.If no error codes are present the system is ready for use * The exposure time and parameters which appear on the display are the last that were set before the timer was turned off. If the timer remains inactive for a few minutes, it switches to the stand-by mode Press any key on the control panel to restore it to the operative mode.

23 GETTING READY FOR AN EXPOSURE

24 Before making an exposure check that the control panel parameters (from Step 1 to Step 8) are suitable for the radiographic exam. Step 1- The led of the desired tubehead should be lit Step 2- The led of the cone length in use should be lit Step 3- The led of the selected tubehead should be lit Step 4- The led of the desired radiographic voltage should be lit (DC only) Step 5- The led of the desired radiographic current should be lit (DC only) Step 6- The led of the desired type of patient should be lit Step 7- The led of the desired film speed (or digital led if using sensors) should be lit or Step 8- The led of the selected teeth should be lit

25 FINAL SETTINGS Follow the standard intra-oral procedures positioning the patient. Position either the film or the digital sensor depending on the technique to be used. Follow the standard intra-oral procedures positioning the cone. Before proceeding with the exposure check the selected time on the display.

26 TAKING THE EXPOSURE 1. Remove the firing keypad from the timer and extend out to keep a safety distance of a least 6 feet from the tubehead. 2. Advise the patient to remain still 3. On the firing keypad press the yellow button and keep it pressed until the acoustic signal (beep) stops and the yellow led indicator turns off. Notes: If the exposure key is released early, the exposure is immediately interrupted and the E12 error message appears on the display. At the end of the exposure the green PAUSE led on the timer will intermittently light…This time is necessary to allow thex-ray tube to cool down. The display indicates the actual exposure time

27 DC CONE AND EXPOSURE CHARTS

28 DC CONVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE WITH 8” CONE The charts below indicates the “xgenus®dc”radiographic system predefined exposure values.

29 DC CONVENTIONAL FILM-ADULT AT 70 KV 8 MA WITH 8 INCH CONE PROGRAMMED EXPOSURE TIMES (SEC) Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P,BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film F MAXILLA IC,P,BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Op DC CONVENTIONAL FILM-ADULT AT 60KV 8 MA WITH 8 INCH CONE Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film F MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa DC CONVENTIONAL FILM-CHILD AT 70KV 8 MA WITH 8 INCH CONE Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film F MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa DC CONVENTIONAL FILM-CHILD AT 60KV 8 MA WITH 8 INCH CONE Film D MAXILLA IC,P BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P BaM-Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film F MAXILLA IC,P BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P BaM-Oa LEGEND: I = INCISOR; C= CANINE; P=PREMOLAR; Ba=INTERIOR BITEWING; Bp=POSTERIOR BITEWING; Oa=OCCLUSAL ANTERIOR; Op=OCCLUSAL POSTERIOR; M= MOLAR

30 DC CONVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE WITH 12” CONE The charts below indicates the “xgenus®dc”radiographic system predefined exposure values.

31 DC CONVENTIONAL FILM-ADULT AT 70 KV 8 MA WITH 12 INCH CONE PROGRAMMED EXPOSURE TIMES (SEC) Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P,BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film F MAXILLA IC,P,BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Op DC CONVENTIONAL FILM-ADULT AT 60KV 8 MA WITH 12 INCH CONE Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film F MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa DC CONVENTIONAL FILM-CHILD AT 70KV 8 MA WITH 12 INCH CONE Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film F MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa DC CONVENTIONAL FILM-CHILD AT 60KV 8 MA WITH 12 INCH CONE Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa Film F MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa LEGEND: I = INCISOR; C= CANINE; P=PREMOLAR; Ba=INTERIOR BITEWING; Bp=POSTERIOR BITEWING; Oa=OCCLUSAL ANTERIOR; Op=OCCLUSAL POSTERIOR; M= MOLAR

32 DC DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE WITH 8” CONE The charts below indicates the “xgenus®dc”radiographic system predefined exposure values.

33 DC DIGITAL ADULT AT 70 KV 4 MA WITH 8 INCH CONE PROGRAMMED EXPOSURE TIMES (SEC) MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa DC DIGITAL ADULT AT 60KV 4 MA WITH 8 INCH CONE MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa DC DIGITAL CHILD AT 70KV 4 MA WITH 8 INCH CONE MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLEIC,P,BaM-Oa DC DIGITAL CHILD AT 60KV 4 MA WITH 8 INCH CONE MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa LEGEND: I = INCISOR; C= CANINE; P=PREMOLAR; Ba=INTERIOR BITEWING; Bp=POSTERIOR BITEWING; Oa=OCCLUSAL ANTERIOR; Op=OCCLUSAL POSTERIOR; M=MOLAR

34 DC DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE WITH 12” CONE The charts below indicates the “xgenus®dc”radiographic system predefined exposure values.

35 DC DIGITAL ADULT AT 70 KV 4 MA WITH 12 INCH CONE PROGRAMMED EXPOSURE TIMES (SEC) MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa DC DIGITAL ADULT AT 60KV 4 MA WITH 12 INCH CONE MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa DC DIGITAL CHILD AT 70KV 4 MA WITH 12 INCH CONE MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa DC DIGITAL CHILD AT 60KV 4 MA WITH 12 INCH CONE MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P,BaM-Oa LEGEND: I = INCISOR; C= CANINE; P=PREMOLAR; Ba=INTERIOR BITEWING; Bp=POSTERIOR BITEWING; Oa=OCCLUSAL ANTERIOR; Op=OCCLUSAL POSTERIOR; M=MOLAR

36 AC CONE AND EXPOSURE CHARTS

37 AC CONVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE WITH 8” CONE The charts below indicates the “xgenus®ac”radiographic system predefined exposure values.

38 CONVENTIONAL AC ADULT AT 70 KV 8 MA WITH 8 INCH CONE PROGRAMMED EXPOSURE TIMES (SEC) Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa Film F MAXILLA NOT AVAILABLE MANDIBLE NOT AVAILABLE CONVENTIONAL AC CHILD AT 70KV 8 MA WITH 8 INCH CONE Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa Film F MAXILLA NOT AVAILABLE MANDIBLE NOT AVAILABLE LEGEND: I = INCISOR; C= CANINE; P=PREMOLAR; Ba=INTERIOR BITEWING; Bp=POSTERIOR BITEWING; Oa=OCCLUSAL ANTERIOR; Op=OCCLUSAL POSTERIOR; M=MOLAR

39 CONE AND EXPOSURE CHART AC CONVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE WITH 12” CONE The charts below indicates the “xgenus®ac”radiographic system predefined exposure values.

40 ADULT AT 70 KV 8 MA WITH 12 INCH CONE PROGRAMMED EXPOSURE TIMES (SEC) Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa Film F MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa CHILD AT 70KV 8 MA WITH 12 INCH CONE Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpM Op MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba - Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa Film F MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa LEGEND: I = INCISOR; C= CANINE; P=PREMOLAR; Ba=INTERIOR BITEWING; Bp=POSTERIOR BITEWING; Oa=OCCLUSAL ANTERIOR; Op=OCCLUSAL POSTERIOR; M=MOLAR

41 PROGRAMMING DEFAULT EXPOSURE VALUES

42 The 17 programmed exposure times of the “xgenus® ac” and the 23 programmed exposure times of the“xgenus® dc” MAY NOT be modified in the “xgenus® ac/dc” radiographic systems, however you can customize the default exposure values. Warning: After customizing, the “Chart of default exposure values” are not valid any more.

43 For programming the new exposure values, press the following keys: OR Please note: The “scroll” function automatically sets in when the key is kept pressed so the time shown on the display scrolls faster. For confirming that the new program times are possible please check the led status of the memo key: LED MEMO ON: Indicates that it is possible to save the new default exposure value. Press the button for 3 sec until the acoustic signal beeps to save the new default exposure values. LED MEMO OFF: Indicates that it is not possible to save the new default exposure value. Note: It is not possible to save data when the “range of exposure field” exceeds the programmed exposure time limits.

44 ADULT PROGRAMMED EXPOSURE TIMES (SEC) Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa ADULT PROGRAMMED EXPOSURE TIMES (SEC) Film D MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa Film E MAXILLA IC,P, BpMOp MANDIBLE IC,P M Ba -Oa CUSTOMISED EXPOSURE VALUES: THE RANGE OF THE EXPOSURE FIELD HAS BEEN REDUCED BY TWO STEPS 12” LONG CONE CONVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE (FILM) PREDEFINED DEFAULT EXPOSURE VALUES

45 RESTORING ORIGINAL DEFAULT EXPOSURE VALUES

46 1.Turn the timer off 2. Keep the MEMO key pressed and turn the timer back on 3. “OFF” appears on the display 4. Release the MEMO key 5. Press the MEMO key again 6. “ON” appears on the display 7. Turn the timer off and on again to complete restoration

47 INTERNAL SETTINGS

48 Shown in the next section of slides is how to set the internal dip switches for using an AC tube head with an 8 and 12 inch cone with no external firing button. This is a straight forward example and can be applied to either an AC or DC tube head or a combination of heads and cones.

49 As can be seen in the top picture switch 1 & 2 work as a pair. Switch 1 is on – this selects tube head #1, switch 2 is off - this selects an AC tube head…(For clarity, if it were a DC head it would be on). Switch 3 & 4 also work as a pair for the second tube head and since there is none being used switch 3 is off and switch 4 then has no function. Switch 5 is off - this de-selects a remote firing switch (if one is not used). Switch 6 is on - this selects a 12 inch cone…(Again if an 8 inch cone is used it would be off. Switches 7 & 8 are always left off., Once again in the bottom picture switch 1 & 2 work as a pair. Switch 1 is on – this selects tube head #1, switch 2 is off - this selects an AC tube head…(Again for clarity, if it were a DC head it would be on). Switch 3 & 4 also work as a pair for the second tube head and since there is none being used switch 3 is off and switch 4 then has no function. Switch 5 is off - this de-selects a remote firing switch (if one is not used). Switch 6 is off - this selects an 8 inch cone…(Again if a 12 inch cone is used it would be on. Again, switches 7 & 8 are always left off.

50 Shown in the next slide is how to set the internal dip switches for using a DC tube head with an 8 and 12 inch cone with no external firing button. This is a straight forward example and can be applied to either an AC or DC tube head or a combination of heads and cones.

51 On the top picture we now see switches 1 & 2 in the on position. Switch 1 is on – this selects tube head #1, switch 2 is on - this selects a DC tube head…(For clarity, if it were an AC head it would be off). Switch 3 & 4 also work as a pair for the second tube head and since there is none being used switch 3 is off and switch 4 then has no function. Switch 5 is off - this de-selects a remote firing switch (if one is not used). Switch 6 is on - this selects a 12 inch cone…(Again if an 8 inch cone is used it would be off. Switches 7 & 8 are always left off., On the bottom picture we see switches 1 & 2 in the on position. Switch 1 is on – this selects tube head #1, switch 2 is on - this selects a DC tube head…(For clarity, if it were an AC head it would be off). Switch 3 & 4 also work as a pair for the second tube head and since there is none being used switch 3 is off and switch 4 then has no function. Switch 5 is off - this de-selects a remote firing switch (if one is not used). Switch 6 is off - this selects an 8 inch cone…(Again if an 12 inch cone is used it would be on. Switches 7 & 8 are always left off.,

52 This section provides instructions for some basic troubleshooting if an error code is shown. This information is provided to you as an “extra” should you need/want to know basic troubleshooting especially if an emergency “quick fix” situation should arise

53 If an error is detected when the system is turned on, the anomaly is indicated as follows: - A beeping sound for several seconds - The MALFUNCTIONING INDICATOR LED on timer will light briefly - The error code (Exx) appears on the display - All control panel functions are inhibited…In this case turn off the timer and then turn it back on.

54 In the event the generator experiences an error during use a resulting code will show in the display in the format Exx where xx will be the error code number. This error code will only show for 3 seconds and then will change to ERR. Normally when the user experiences an error code they should first record the error code then contact their dealer or Acteon for tech support and provide the error code to them.

55 DESCRIPTION OF COMMON ERROR CODES

56 1) Switch On the XGenus system (Timer) : green light is On and the screen display shows a value of time If not : A.Check the security key (turned to 1 « ON » and not to 0 « OFF ») B.Main fuses burnt on the Timer board (Timer must be opened to replace them) C.Out of order display board (nothing shown on screen display, but other functions are ok) * D.Out of order Timer board (DIP switch on the replacement Timer board must be set) * 2) E00 and E01 A.Wrong tube head selected on the keyboard (if both are enabled on DIP switch setting) B.Tube head fuses burnt on XRay 1 and/or XRay 2 (Timer must be opened to replace them) C.Short-circuited or cut arm cable (inside the arm)  Refer to X-RAY Product Specialist D.Internal tube head wiring insulation defective  Refer to X-RAY Product Specialist 3) E08 X-Ray button already pressed by the user or is jammed « On » when Timer is turned On 4) E12 ______Exposure prematurely interrupted (Do not realese the trigger button until after the yellow light turns off on the remote trigger) 5) E07 Ask technician to check main line voltage - may be too low or too high 6) E41 DC only: do a recalibration. If this does not correct error elevate to higher level support. * Timer must be replaced

57 TUBE HEAD CALIBRATION In many circumstances on a DC system a simple calibration may correct many error codes. Please look at the next slide explaining how to perform this calibration

58 Perform this for the following error codes on a DC system only!!: E30 E32 E33 E41 E42 E43 E44 E45 E46 E47 E48 If no success refer to higher level support. Caution: During this operation there is X-RAY output. It is mandatory to observe all the safety measures relevant to radio protection 1- Turn off the timer with the green power switch 2- Turn the timer on again while holding the mA selection key 3- The LED will display “TUBE” 4- Select the tube head to be calibrated with the tube head selection key 5- Take the exposure until the beep signal stops 6- Once the exposure is finished and there is no error code the calibration is finished 7- Turn the generator off and back on again and then take an exposure to verify the unit is ok

59 LINE VOLTAGE CHECK The next slide discusses how to check the generator via the LED display for any line voltages that may be out of tolerance for this system that would result in a corresponding error code

60 This function can be used to see whether the incoming line voltages are adequate or ever exceeded or went below recommended values. To be used when the below error codes are present: E07 : nominal value -5% +10% (AC) or ±15% (DC) E44 : DC only E45 : DC only E46 : DC only E48 : DC only If the values are outside of -5% +10% (AC) or ±15% (DC) of the nominal line voltage an electrician is needed to check the office and/or building wiring. If the values are within -5% +10% (AC) or ±15% (DC) of the nominal line voltage pass onto higher level support.

61 With X-GENUS® AC/DC radiographic system it is possible to look at the nominal line voltage, actual line voltage, maximum line voltage detected, minimum line voltage detected and software version of the Timer. To access the parameters: Press simultaneously and keep pressed the following keys: MAXILLA MOLAR (2) MANDIBULARY MOLAR (31) Then:

62 Press and hold both buttons shown simultaneously then while holding these buttons in press each button shown below to view the parameters listed in the LED screen on timer RADIOGRAPHIC SYSTEM NOMINAL VOLTAGE Then press: LINE VOLTAGE MAXIMUM LINE VOLTAGE VALUE DETECTED MINIMUM LINE VOLTAGE VALUE DETECTED SOFTWARE VERSION

63 If any of the above troubleshooting does not solve the issue then the doctor should be directed to an X-RAY Product Specialist for further support.

64 NOTE: One frequent question you may encounter in a DeGotzen in-service is: “What is the difference between an AC and DC X-RAY generator?” Please read the below paragraphs to help you understand the difference and therefore better educate the prospective buyer The most economical way to produce x-rays is to use the alternating current that comes from the power company to power the x-ray head. This alternating electric current changes direction in the wires sixty times each second. It also increases and decreases in intensity one hundred and twenty times per second. The effect of using this current is to produce x-rays that turn on and off sixty times each second. Further, the x-rays that are produced each begin too weak to use, then grow to proper strength, then decrease again to being too weak. The design of the AC x-ray calls for filters of aluminum to eliminate the x-rays that are too weak to use. This ultimately leaves sixty pulses of x-ray each some what shorter in intensity than the next one each second. The DC x-ray machine uses direct electric current to power the x-ray head. Direct current does not change direction nor does it change intensity. Direct current is a steady supply of power and consequently the x-rays that are produced are smooth and consistent. This smoothness of the DC x-ray machine produces a better effect on the digital sensors than an AC x-ray generator. “Single pulse” radiation (AC or low frequency – 60 Hz) “Multi-pulse” radiation (DC or high frequency – 200 kHz)

65 THE END


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