2008 Class Syllabus TimeTopicSutras and material Name Feb 10 th 12 dept. originationSN 12.23 http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/bodhi/wheel277.html Robin Feb 24 th 4 noble truths http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/study/truths.html March 9 th Right View MN 9, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/nanamoli/wheel377.html March 23WisdomMN 58, MN 78 April7 Stages of PurificationVisuddhimagaYing May 4th4 found. of mindfulnessSN 47.16, SN 47.35, SN 47.40, MN 125, SN 47.8, SN 35.206, SN 47.19 May 18th4 right effortsSN 49.1, MN 2, SN 16.2, MN 101, MN 66, MN 78 June 1st4 bases of powersSN 51.2, SN 51.26, SN 51.20, SN 51.13, SN 51.15, SN 51.22 June 15th5 facultiesSN 48.8, SN 55.5, SN 48.10, SN 48.50, SN 48.52 June 29th5 kinds of powersSN 50.1, SN 48.43, SN 48.55, SN 48.55 July 13th7 factors of enlightenmentSN 46.6, SN 54.2, SN 56.52, SN 46.51, SN 56.53, SN 56.54 July 27th8 fold pathSN 45.1, SN 45.8, MN 117, MN 149 August37 wings of awakeningYing Sept 7thBehaviors of RecluseMN 57, MN 61, MN 86, MN 82 Sept 21stPowers of EnlightenedMN 77, MN 81, MN 89, MN 100 Oct 5thActions and KarmaMN 51, MN 56, MN 84, MN 88 Oct 19thSocial HierarchyMN 93, MN 94, MN 96, MN 98 NovSila & Mettahttp://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/buddharakkhita/wheel365.htmlYing DecReflections, FeedbackAll Panna/WisdomThe Training PathSila/Virtue
Two Inter-related Meditation Systems Samathabhavana or Samadhibhavana –The development of serenity and concentration –Calming, stabilizing, unified, and concentrated –The necessary platform for gaining insights Vipassanabhavana or Pannabhavana –The development of insights and wisdom –Gaining understanding the real natural of phenomena –The essential key to liberation Jhanas (in relationship to the two systems) –Jhanas refer to a set of meditative attainments that are pivotal to both systems with an inherent reference to Samathabhavana –Jhanas (U Pandita) (also translated as “absorptions”) refers to the quality of the mind that can stick to an object and observe it –There are two kinds of Jhanas Samatha Jhanas – Concentration and Tranquility only Vipassana Jhanas – Jhanas that have insights and liberation as the end results
Jhanas Two meanings of Jhanas (According to Buddhaghosa) –Burn up One of the root word for Jhanas is “Jhapeti”, which means burn up, i.e., to burn up defilements that prevent the development of concentration and insight. –Contemplation Contemplation of object – Development of concentration Contemplation of the characteristics of phenomena – Related to insights SamadhiJhanas In a narrow sense Refers to one specific mental factor: one- pointedness Refers to a whole group of mental factors contributing to a meditative state In a wider sense Covers 3 levels of Samadhi: 1.Preliminary concentratio (Parikammasamadhi), initial efforts 2.Access concentration (Upacarasamadhi), suppression of the five hindrances, the manifestation of the jhana factors, clear mental object 3.Absorption concentration (appanasamadhi), full maturation of the Jhana factors Overlaps with Samadhi in the 3 level. Refers to the absorption concentration, which comprises the 8 attainments and the 4 immaterial attainments. Samadhi vs Jhanas 1.Samadhi: To collect, to bring together, calm, to unify 2.Jhana: Meditative attainments
Preparation for Jhana Attainments Four factors to prepare –Virtue and morality –Choose good friends –Choose meditation subjects –Choose suitable dwelling Virtues and Morality –Negatively abstain from immoral body, verbal, and mental actions –Positively promote and incline moral and ethical actions Loving kindness and compassion Mindfulness Generosity –Four fold Purification of morality (Catuparisuddhisila) (Based on Visuddhimaga) Morality of restraints (Precepts) Restraint of the senses (Protect sense doors) Purification of livelihood, obtaining basic requisites Proper use of requisites, only for maintenance of his health, comfort, not for enjoyment and luxury Choose good friends –Kalyanamitta (good friend) includes qualified teachers and yogis supporting the training
Preparation for Jhana Attainments – Choose Meditation Subjects 40 meditation subjects categorized into 7 categories and two angles: See table below –Inducing the deeper levels of concentration and attainments –Suitable to different personalities, greedy, hating, deluded, faithful, intelligent and the speculative AttainmentsPersonalitiesMeditation Subjects 10 KasinasAbsorption, 4 Jhanas4 colors -- Hating4 elements: Earth, water, fire, air 4 colors: blue, yellow, red, and white Light and the limited space 10 kinds of foulness Absorption Only 1 st Jhana (require applied thought) Greedy (to counter sensual desires) The 10 stages of the decomposition of the corpse: the bloated, the livid, the festering, the cut-up, the gnawed, the scattered, the backed and scattered, the bleeding, the worm-infested and a skeleton. 10 recollections Access Concentration only – except for the mindfulness of body (1 st Jhana) and breathing (4 Jhanas) Mindfulness of body - greedy Mindfulness of breathing – deluded and the speculative 1st 6 recollections – faithful M. of death, peace - Intelligent Recollections of Buddha, the Dhama, the Sangha, morality, generosity and the deities, mindfulness of death, mindfulness of body (32 parts), mindfulness of breathing (in & out), and the recollection of peace (reflection on the qualities of Nibana. 4 divine abidings Absorption, the first 3 can lead to 3 rd Jhana (due to pleasure/joy), the last one 4 th Jhana HatingBrahmavihara: Loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity 4 immaterial states Absorption, the 4 immaterial Jhanas The base of boundless space, the base of boundless consciousness, the base of nothingness, and the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. 1 perceptionAccess Concentration IntelligentPerception of the repulsiveness of food 1 definingAccess Concentration IntelligentThe defining of the 4 elements, the analysis of the body in the 4 modes: solidity, fluidity, heat, and oscillation.
The Attainments of Jhanas The two fold process –The process of abandoning Abandoning those states that are obstructive to the attainment of Jhanas –The process of acquiring Acquiring those states that compose the Jhana states Jhana Factors –Each Jhana is comprised of a set of factors that were acquired through the two fold-process Jhana Levels –Fine-material Jhanas: 1st – 4 th Jhana –Immaterial Jhanas: The base of boundless space The base of boundless consciousness The base of nothingness The base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.
The Five Jhana Factors Applied Thought – Vitakka –Application of the mind to its object with special clarity –Wholesome Sustained Thought – Vicara –Developed phase of the thought process which has continued pressure on the object –The act of anchoring the mind on the object with continued pressure Rapture – Piti –Gladdening due to seclusion and the abandoning of five hindrances –MN 119. “Secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first Jhana, …. Rapture and happiness born of seclusion…” –Mental formation –The delight in the attaining of the desired object Happiness – Sukha –Signifies pleasant feeling, gratifying and intensifying the associated states –Feeling –The enjoyment of the taste of what is acquired One-pointedness – ekaggata –This is a hinted, derived factors, instead of explicitly mentioned in the sutra –Non-distration, non-wavering First Jhana has these major 5 factors, but also have other additional components Other higher Jhanas progressively abandon gross and crude factors and settle into more subtle, perfect, and gentle factors, except for the 4 th Jhana which has a new factor, i.e., neutral feeling, arising.
Jhana Factors and Their Progressive Levels 4 Immaterial Jhanas 1.First Jhana 5 hindrances are opposed to the 5 Jhana factors One pointedness is hinted, others are explicit from Sutras Abandoning (5 Hindrances)Acquiring (5 Jhana Factors) Greed and Sensual desireOne-pointedness of the mind Ill willRapture Sloth and torportApplied thought Restlessness and worryHappiness DoubtSustained thought AbandoningAcquiring Applied thoughtOne-pointedness of the mind Sustained thoughtRapture (Stronger) Happiness (Stronger) AbandoningAcquiring RaptureOne-pointedness Subtle happiness AbandoningAcquiring HappinessOne-pointedness Equanimity 2.Second Jhana Disappearance of applied and sustained thought Strong rapture and happiness 3.Third Jhana Disappearance of rapture Subtler happiness 4.Fourth Jhana Arising of equanimity Jhanas by Numbers Jhanas by Names
Access Concentration and Absorptions For Jhana attainments have two phases –Access concentration –Absorption concentration –One is encouraged to reach absorption as much as one can before trying the next Jhana Access concentration –Jhana factors are weak and fragile, prone to its dangers Absorption concentration –Jhana factors are strong and fully developed, and the mind can remain continuously in concentration as he/she wishes Perfecting the Jhanas – from access to absorption –Extension of the sign Extending the size of the object of the Jhana, from small to large areas –Five masteries Mastery in adverting: the ability to clearly see each factor one by one after merging from Jhana, wherever he wants and whenever he wants, and for as long as he wants Mastery in attaining: the ability to enter upon Jhana quickly Mastery in resolving: the ability to remain in the Jhana for exactly pre-determined length of time Mastery in emerging: the ability to emerge from Jhana quickly without difficulty Mastery in reviewing: the ability to review the Jhana and its factors with retrospective knowledge immediately after adverting to them
MN 119 pg 952 – Description of the Four Jhanas and Similes First Jhana –“Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first Jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. He makes the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body un-pervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.” –Simile: The bath powder Second Jhana –“with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second Jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. He makes the rapture and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, ….. born of concentration.” –Simile: The lake with cool water Third Jhana –“with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third Jhana, on account of which noble nodes announce: “He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.”. He makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, …” –Simile: The underwater lotus Fourth Jhana –“with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor- pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to enquanimity. He sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pure bright mind” –Simile: The pure white cloth
The Jhana Attainments Attainments Effort Rapture/Happiness First Jhana BIW Initial Efforts Second Jhana Third Jhana Subtle happiness Fourth Jhana Equanimity The base of boundless space Immaterial Jhanas Four Jhanas The base of boundless consciousness The base of nothingness The base of Neither perception nor non-perception