Presentation on theme: "11 1 BYU Student Alumni Conference Buying a Home March 1, 2014 Bryan Sudweeks, Ph.D., CFA. From the Marriott School of Management’s “Personal Finance:"— Presentation transcript:
11 1 BYU Student Alumni Conference Buying a Home March 1, 2014 Bryan Sudweeks, Ph.D., CFA. From the Marriott School of Management’s “Personal Finance: Another Perspective” web site at from lessons on Understanding Credit Understanding Consumer and Mortgage Loans, and The Home Decision
22 2 Session Summary Buying a home is for most the single largest purchase for most families and individuals. Yet many put the same effort into buying a home as they would into buying a camera or TV. You should spend significantly more time in the home buying process as it will save you significant amounts of money in the long-run. This presentation gives suggestions where I believe that most of that research and time should be spent. I discuss perspective, the risks of home ownership, and a four step process for buying a home. My overall advice is to follow a prophet who counseled us on what his father said: “Buy a modest home, make it beautiful, and pay off the mortgage as quickly as possible.”
33 3 Definition House: a hole in the middle of the yard that you pour money into.
44 4 Objectives A. Understand perspective B. Understand risks in home ownership C. Understand the Four-Step Process for Buying a Home: Step 1. Understand your limits Step 2. Find your home Step 3. Negotiate your loan Step 4. Enjoy home ownership
55 5 A. Understand Perspective What is our perspective? We all have lists of what we could and should do in our [ priesthood ] responsibilities. The what is important in our work, and we need to attend to it. But it is in the why of [priesthood service] that we discover the fire, passion, and power. The what of [priesthood service] teaches us what to do. The why inspires our souls. The what informs, but the why transforms... My prayer is that... we will ever stay attuned to the why of [priesthood service] and use the principles of the restored gospel to transform our lives and the lives of those whom we serve (italics, color and brackets added, Dieter Uchtdorf, “The Why of Priesthood Service”, Ensign, May 2012).
66 6 Perspective (continued) We all have lists of what we could and should do in our [personal finance] responsibilities. The what is important in our work, and we need to attend to it. But it is in the why of [ personal finance ] that we discover the fire, passion, and power. The what of [ personal finance ] teaches us what to do. The why inspires our souls. The what informs, but the why transforms... My prayer is that... we will ever stay attuned to the why of [ personal finance ] and use the principles of the restored gospel to transform our lives and the lives of those whom we serve (italics, color and brackets added, Dieter Uchtdorf, “The Why of Priesthood Service”, Ensign, May 2012).
77 7 Perspective (continued) What are the “whys” of personal finance? I believe we apply personal finance in our lives to: 1. Learn the lessons that personal finance can teach us to help us come to and become more like our Savior Jesus Christ—to bring us to Christ 2. To learn the things and acquire the resources needed to prepare for and accomplish our divine missions for which we were sent here on earth 3. Help us return with our families back home to our Savior and Heavenly Fathers’ presence 4. Become wise stewards over the things we are blessed with
88 8 Perspective (continued) On what is that perspective based? 1. Ownership: Everything we have is the Lords Things we have are not ours but on loan 2. Stewardship: We are stewards over all God shares with us We must learn to be better stewards 3. Agency: the gift of choice is a wonderful gift We must used that agency wisely 4. Accountability: We will be held accountable for all our choices in life We must make the best choices we possibly can as we will be held accountable for them
99 9 Perspective (continued) We have received wise counsel on the subject of buying a home President James E. Faust stated: Over the years the wise counsel of our leaders has been to avoid debt except for the purchase of a home or to pay for an education. I have not heard any of the prophets change this counsel ( “ Doing the Best Things in the Worst Times, ” Ensign, August 1984, 41).
10 Perspective (continued) President Gordon B. Hinckley commented: We have been counseled again and again concerning self-reliance, concerning debt, concerning thrift. When I was a young man, my father counseled me to build a modest home, sufficient for the needs of my family, and make it beautiful and attractive and pleasant and secure. He counseled me to pay off the mortgage as quickly as I could so that, come what may, there would be a roof over the heads of my wife and children. I was reared on that kind of doctrine (italics added, Gordon B. Hinckley, “The Times in Which We Live,” Ensign, Nov. 2001, 72).
11 Perspective (continued) He further counseled: I recognize that it may be necessary to borrow to get a home, of course. But let us buy a home that we can afford and thus ease the payments which will constantly hang over our heads without mercy or respite for as long as 30 years. … I urge you to be modest in your expenditures; discipline yourselves in your purchases to avoid debt to the extent possible. Pay off debt as quickly as you can. … That’s all I have to say about it, but I wish to say it with all the emphasis of which I am capable (italics added, Gordon B. Hinckley, “To the Boys and to the Men,” Ensign, Nov. 1998, 51).
12 B. Risks in Home Ownership There are significant risks in home ownership: You buy too big a house Your other goals (missions, etc.) are not met You buy a fixer-upper without the skills or time It stays a fixer upper You buy the wrong type of house for your lifestyle You must pay others to keep it up You buy a house without the necessary inspections You pay dearly for someone else’s problems You buy a more expensive house than you can afford You lose your house, credit, and your self-respect
13 Risks in Home Ownership (continued) The single biggest mistake young couples make out of school that impacts them the most financially is they purchase too big a house Their other goals cannot be realized as they are paying so much for their house They go farther and farther into debt to furnish and maintain the house They cannot save for their other short-term and long-term family goals as they have little after housing costs to save Their marriages and families suffer from the added financial strain
14 C.Understand the Home Buying Process Purchasing a house is a four-step process: Step 1. Understand your limits Know yourself, what you can afford and what you need when Step 2. Find your home Make sure you know what you want, and get it Step 3. Negotiate your loan Know what lenders need and be ready Step 4. Enjoy home ownership Realize you are a steward over all God has blessed you with. Be the best you can be
15 Step 1. Understand your Limits Know yourself and your limits relates to 8 areas: a. Know your budget and how much you can afford b. Know your credit score c. Calculate your front and back-end bank ratios d. Calculate your bank ratios for LDS e. Choose your preferred loan type and term f. Know what you need for a down payment and upfront costs g. Have two years of copies of taxes h. Get pre-approved
16 1.a. Know Your Budget and How Much You Can Afford YOU MUST HAVE and Live on a Budget President Spencer W. Kimball said: Every family should have a budget. Why, we would not think of going one day without a budget in this Church or our businesses. We have to know approximately what we may receive, and we certainly must know what we are going to spend. And one of the successes of the Church would have to be that the Brethren watch these things very carefully, and we do not spend that which we do not have (Marvin J. Ashton, “One for the Money” pamphlet, Intellectual Reserve, 1992, inside cover).
17 Budgeting: The Old Way Available for Savings Personal Goals IncomeExpensesTithing
18 Budgeting: A Better Way Income Expenses Personal Goals Other Savings Pay the Lord Pay Yourself
19 A Better Way (continued) Elder L. Tom Perry said: After paying your tithing of 10 percent to the Lord, you pay yourself a predetermined amount directly into savings. That leaves you a balance of your income to budget for taxes, food, clothing, shelter, transportation, etc. It is amazing to me that so many people work all of their lives for the grocer, the landlord, the power company, the automobile salesman, and the bank, and yet think so little of their own efforts that they pay themselves nothing (L. Tom Perry, “Becoming Self-Reliant,” Ensign, Nov. 1991, 64).
20 1b. Know Your Credit Score Know your Credit History Review your credit history every year from all three agencies Three major credit reporting agencies Experian (www.experian.com), Equifax (www.equifax.com), and Transunion (www.tuc.com)www.experian.comwww.equifax.comwww.tuc.com You can get a free copy of your credit report from each agency each year by going to: Fill out the info and you can get a copy online Make sure it is correct
21 Know Your Credit Score (continued) Get your Credit Score After checking your credit report for errors, order a copy of your credit score. I recommend a FICO score. You can order it directly from FICO at for $19.95 (less with coupons) What determines your Credit Score or lending risk? Payment History: What is your payment record? Amounts Owed: How much do you owe? Length of Credit: How established is yours? New Credit: Are you taking on more debt? Types of Credit Use: Is it a healthy mix?
22 1c. Know your Front- and Back-end Bank Affordability Ratios Know the rules for lenders Know your affordability ratios Ratio 1: Housing Expenses or front-end ratio This ratio calculates what percent of an your income is used to make basic mortgage payments Housing expenses should be less than 28% of your monthly gross income. The formula is: Monthly PITI* <28% Monthly Gross Income *PITI = mortgage principle, mortgage interest, property taxes, and property insurance
23 Affordability Ratios (continued) Ratio 2: Debt Obligations or back end ratio This ratio calculates what percent of your income is used for housing expenses plus debt obligations. It should not exceed 36% of your monthly gross income. The formula is: Monthly PITI* and other obligations < 36% Monthly Gross Income *PITI = Mortgage principal, mortgage interest, property taxes, and property insurance
24 1d. Calculate Your Ratios for LDS As members of the Church, we have other important obligations that we also pay, i.e., tithing and paying ourselves, i.e., saving As such, should have smaller houses (at least less expensive), because we pay the Lord first and ourselves second. For a spreadsheet that takes into account the fact that we pay the Lord first and ourselves second within this front-end and back-end ratio framework, see: Teaching Tool 7: Maximum Monthly Mortgage Payments for LDS Spreadsheet (from the website)Mortgage Payments for LDS
25 1e. Choose your Preferred Loan Type and Loan Term Choose your preferred loan type The best type of loan takes into account your: Goals, budget, income stream, down payment, and view on risk There are a number of different types of mortgage loans available. These include: Fixed Rate (FRMs) - RECOMMENDED Variable or Adjustable Rate (ARMs) Interest Only (IO): Variable or Fixed Interest There are also special loans (if you can get them) FHA (best for students) or VA (if military)
26 Fixed Rate Mortgages (FRMs) These are mortgage loans with a fixed rate of interest for the life of the loan. This is what I recommend Benefits Higher but constant payments—you pay down principle faster No risk of negative amortization Interest rate risk is transferred to the lender Risks Interest rates are higher Higher monthly payments may make payments more difficult, particularly for those not on a regular salary
27 Fixed Rate Mortgages (continued)
28 Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs) Mortgage loans with a rate of interest that changes periodically over the life of the loan Benefits Lower initial interest rates Generally lower monthly payments, as you assume the interest rate risk No risk of negative amortization Risks You assume the risk that interest rates rise Possible “payment shock” as interest rates rise, perhaps beyond what you are able to pay
29 Adjustable Rate Mortgages (continued)
30 Interest Only Options (Fixed or Variable) These are FRMs/ARMs with an option that allows interest only payments for a set number of years. After that, payments are reset to amortize the loan over the remaining years of the loan (it is not like a credit card) Benefits Lower monthly payments as you are paying interest. You can afford more house due to lower payments Risks There will be a major rise in payments when the interest only period ends There is no paying down of principle
31 Interest Only Options (continued)
32 Mortgage Loans (continued) Insured Loans FHA (Federal Housing Administration) Insured Loans FHA does not originate any loans, but insures the loans issued by others based on income and other qualifications There is lower PMI insurance, but it is required for the entire life of the loan (1.5% of the loan) While the required down payment is very low, the maximum amount that can be borrowed is also low
33 FHA Loans
34 Mortgage Loans (continued) Guaranteed Loans VA (Veterans Administration) Guaranteed Loans These loans are issued by others and guaranteed by the Veterans Administration Are only for ex-servicemen and women as well as those on active duty Loans may be for up to 100% of the home value
35 VA Loans
36 Recommended Loan Term Choose your loan term Generally, I recommend a 30 year fixed rate loan However, I recommend you make additional payments on principal to pay off the loan sooner if possible after you have 3-6 months income in your emergency fund
37 1f. Know How Much You Need for a Down Payment and Upfront Costs Know what you will need for a down payment and upfront costs, and begin saving for it Down payments: You will need a larger down payment to get into your home now versus two years ago Begin saving for that now Conventional loans – 20 % recommended, but you can get in with 5% FHA loans – 3.5% VA loans – 0% no down payment required Once you realize how hard it is to save, it will help you not to spend too much
38 Down Payment and Up-front Costs (continued) Upfront costs include closing costs and points Down payment (3-20 percent of the loan amount) Closing costs including points (3-7 percent) Closing costs include: Title insurance Attorney’s fee Property survey Recording fees Lender’s origination fee Appraisal Credit report Termite inspection Prepaids (property insurance & taxes, mort. interest) Points
39 Up-front Costs (continued) What are points? One percent or one hundred basis points of the loan This money is paid to the mortgage broker (not the lender), is deducted from the loan proceeds (you still must pay it back), and is essentially another fee for helping you arrange the loan (minimize points) Why do lenders charge points? To recover costs associated with lending, to increase their profit, and provide for negotiating flexibility Do I have to pay points? Origination points (likely), buy-down points (no)
40 1g. Have Copies of 2 Years of Taxes Lenders want confirmation that you can pay back the loan As such, they generally want to see two years of tax records Have copies of your last two years of tax records, even though you were a student If you have a confirmed job letter with salary, that may also be helpful as well
41 1h. Get Pre-approved—Not Pre-qualified Get pre-approved for your loan by a number of lenders Pre-approved means that lenders have pulled your credit score, looked at your tax records and approved you for a specific amount of a loan You can borrow up to this pre-approved amount without a problem I recommend you check with multiple lenders Remember however that you do not need to borrow that amount I recommend that you borrow less than that amount
42 Step 2. Find Your Home There is a six step process to finding your home: a. Determine what is important to you b. Develop a plan for finding a home c. Use a realtor/team approach to find a home in your price range d. Once you are serious about the home, get a home inspection (offers can be contingent on the home inspection) e. Determine any CCRs/fees for potential homes f. Negotiate the price
43 2a. Determine what is Important To You Determine what is important to you and what you will and will not do without! This may include: Location Home style and layout Future plans, i.e., kids, work, schools, etc. Realize that you will probably move within five to seven years (if you are like the average family)
44 2b. Develop a Plan Establish a Plan for finding your home Once you know your limits, what you can afford, where you want to be, and what you want (your Plan), then: Start driving around Start looking in earnest But keep to your plan Use Zillow.com or other resources to find current home values in other areas you may be interested in
45 Develop a Plan (continued) Be Patient and take your time Estimate the time you will be in the house If it is less than 3-5 years, look into renting You must make 6-7% on your house price just to break even when you sell it (realtor fees are 6- 7%) You will be in the house for years—don’t make the decision to quickly It will likely be your largest financial commitment you will make for a long time Often renting a luxury apartment for 6 months will give you time to search thoroughly
46 2c. Use a Realtor/Team Approach Get a good realtor While realtors are working for sellers, it may be wise to have a buyer’s broker that works for you They should know the ins and outs of the neighborhood you are looking at Take matters into your own hands Be proactive—talk with friends and others Use the internet and other tools that may help Stay true to your Plan and have patience Be liquid and ready to react quickly Be creative if necessary
47 Realtor/Team Approach (continued) Use a team approach—get lots of good help Use others to help Buyers broker Appraiser Attorney Don’t become emotionally attached to a potential house Be willing to walk away
48 2d. Have a home inspection Once you have found the home you like, can afford, and is where you want to live, have a home inspection This may alert you to potential problems with the home Many of thee problems should be fixed by the seller prior to purchase Don’t buy someone’s problems
49 2e. Determine any CCRs/fees for potential homes Look to potential homes and potential costs Look through all Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions (CCRs) for a potential home These can be quite restrictive as to what you can and cannot do with your home For condos or town homes, determine the amount of the transfer/setup fees Understand any other homeowners/association fees for potential homes and what they include
50 2f. Negotiate the Price of the Home Use the best available resources to negotiate a price for the home Use wisdom and judgment in determining what you can and should pay for the home Realize your best negotiating technique is walking away This is a negotiation process—do not be afraid to haggle Realize that closing costs, things that need to be fixed, and other things can all be part of the negotiated price Most things are negotiable
51 Step 3. Negotiate the Loan 9. Lender audits the documents, verifies all conditions are filled, and funds the loan! 1. You’ve found a home that suites your lifestyle and budget, using resources such as a realtor. 2. The realtor refers you to a mortgage broker. 3. The broker pulls credit, determines your needs and tries to find lenders among the competition to meet those needs. 4. Each lender has unique programs. Lender and broker negotiate points, rates, fees, and other features of the loan. 5. Broker recommends the best loan to the consumer, reviewing the features agreed upon. Consumer makes the final decision. 6. Lender takes the loan package, structures the loan and conditions for any additional information they need to close the deal. 7. Broker, Title, Escrow, and Lender work to fill all conditions 8. Lender sends out the documents to escrow for signing
52 The Lending Process
53 Negotiate the Loan (continued) Negotiate the loan—this is the final part of the process. It is a three-step process a. Choose multiple lenders to compete for your business and get Good Faith Estimates from each of your lenders b. Take the various loan offers from the lenders and calculate your lowest Effective Interest Rate c. Find the best rate from the multiple lenders and take it to your favorite lender and ask him to beat it
54 3a. Choose Multiple Lenders and Get Good Faith Estimates You will get a lower interest rate when lenders compete for your business Work with multiple lenders Talk with friends and others who have gone through the process for their favorite brokers Hold brokers accountable for what they say Get Good Faith Estimates from each lender (not just a Summary) These are the costs you will likely pay Compare GFEs from each lender
55 3b. Calculate your Effective Interest Rate Estimate how long you will be in the home This is important as it helps determine over what period you can allocate points and other costs Calculate your effective interest rate for each loan Your effective interest rate is the interest rate you will pay after all your points, costs, and fees are taken into account Get your best rate The lowest effective interest rate is the best indicator that you got a good rate on your loan
56 3c. Negotiate with Your favorite Lender for the Best Rate The key now is to find the lowest rate Once you have multiple offers from multiple lenders, then you have bargaining power Determine your lowest rate, which includes points, fees, and the loan APR after evaluating each of the offers from the various lenders You can take that offer if you want Or, you can that offer to your favorite lender Then ask them to beat it by 1/8 to ¼ percent and you will go with them
57 Step 4. Enjoy Home Ownership Enjoy home ownership Maintain it well Take care of your purchase and it will take care of you Generally it will take roughly 1% of the home’s value annually for upkeep. Budget accordingly A professional cleaning a few times a year can help retain a home’s value Now keep the value of your home up!
58 Summary Keep Buying a house in its proper perspective Its part of your personal goals—but not the only goal Keep striving to be financially self reliant The habits you develop now will last a lifetime Remember what our leader’s have said about home ownership Buy a modest home that you can afford, and pay it off quickly)
59 Summary (continued) Our perspective is that personal finance is part of the gospel of Jesus Christ. It is based on four principles: 1. Ownership: Everything we have is the Lords Things we have are not ours but on loan 2. Stewardship: We are stewards over all God shares with us We must learn to be better stewards 3. Agency: the gift of choice is a wonderful gift We must used that agency wisely 4. Accountability: We will be held accountable for all our choices in life Including our financial choices
60 Summary Step 1: Understand your Limits Knowing limits is an eight-step process: a. Know your budget and how much you can afford b. Know your credit score c. Calculate your front and back-end bank ratios d. Calculate your bank ratios for LDS e. Choose your preferred loan type and term f. Know what you need for a down payment and upfront costs g. Have two years of copies of taxes h. Get pre-approved
61 Summary Step 2. Find Your Home Finding your home is a six-step process: a. Determine what is important to you b. Develop a plan for finding a home c. Use a realtor/team approach to find a home in your price range d. Once you are serious about the home, get a home inspection (offers can be contingent on the home inspection) e. Determine any CCRs/fees for potential homes f. Negotiate the price
62 Summary Step 3. Negotiate the Loan Negotiating the loan is a three-step process: a. Choose multiple lenders to compete for your business and get Good Faith Estimates from each of your lenders b. Take the various loan offers from the lenders to calculate your lowest Effective Interest Rate c. Negotiate with your best lender the best rate by asking them to beat your best offer by a specific percentage
63 Summary Step 4. Enjoy Home Ownership Finally, enjoy home ownership Maintain it well Take care of your purchase and it will take care of you Generally it will take roughly 1-2% of the home’s value annually for upkeep Budget accordingly A professional cleaning a few times a year can help retain a home’s value Now keep the value of your home up!
64 Review of Objectives A. Do you understand perspective? B. Do you understand risks in home ownership? C. Do you understand the Four-Step Process for Buying a Home? Step 1. Understand your limits Step 2. Find your home Step 3. Negotiate your loan Step 4. Enjoy home ownership
65 Introduction to the Marriott School of Management Personal Finance Website The Marriott School has put together a website to help you with this and other Personal Finance decisions. Please visit the website at: This presentation was taken from three lessons on: Understanding Credit Understanding Consumer and Mortgage Loans The Home Decision These PowerPoints are available under Tools and Resources, Other Resources, and Buying a Home
66 BYU Website 1 66
67 BYU Website 2 67
68 BYU Website 3 68
69 Summary Let me share one of my favorite scriptures with you that summarizes what I feel for each of you and what is ahead: For verily, I say unto you, that great things await you (D&C 45:62). For great things truly do! Thank You
70 Opt Out for Credit Card Applications Getting too many credit card applications? There is a national credit opt-out number or an online website that can take you off the mailing lists of all four major credit reporting agencies: It is easy and painless Call or OPT OUT or go to Answer the questions on the phone or on the net. It only asks your home phone number, your name, and your social security number. Then they send a form to fill out and mail in. It is worth it (unless you like junk mail).