Presentation on theme: "מצגת זו היא השנייה בנושא. אנו ממליצים לצפות במצגת הראשונה תחילה: שאה-נאמה מצגת ראשונה."— Presentation transcript:
מצגת זו היא השנייה בנושא. אנו ממליצים לצפות במצגת הראשונה תחילה: שאה-נאמה מצגת ראשונה
רוסתם בשאה-נאמה של פירדוסי, רוסתם הוא גיבורה המרכזי של השושלת הכיאנית. ואף על פי כן כמה היבטים עושים אותו לדמות חיצונית: הוא גיבור ולא מלך; הוא גיבור מקומי, ולא גיבור לאומי; והוא בעל קשרים גיניאולוגיים מפוקפקים, בהיותו קרוב משפחה של אויבי השושלת, של בני תוראן. זאל ובנו רוסתם האריכו ימים יותר מכל אדם. שנות פעילותם שקולות באורכן לתקופת השלטון הכוללת של המלכים הכיאניים, עובדה המפתה לראות בהם מעין התגלמות של הזמן עצמו, אך ספק אם פירוש כזה מוצדק במסגרת האפוס. לפי המסופר במיתולוגיה הפרסית, לידתו של רוסתם נתארכה בשל גודלו העצום של העובר, זאל קרא לעזרה את סימורג, ציפור הגדי, אשר הנחה אותם כיצד לבצע ניתוח קיסרי ראשון מסוגו בימים ההם, דבר שהציל את האם ואת התינוק. כילד הוא הורג את הפיל הלבן במכת מקבת של סבו סאם. הסיפור הטראגי הבולט ביותר בשאה-נאמה הוא הסיפור בו רוסתם הורג את בנו סוהראב בקרב בו אף אחד מן הצדדים אינו יודע במי הוא נלחם.
Portrait of the infant Rostam shown to Sam Timurid: Herat, c.1444 Patron: Mohammad Juki b. Shah Rokh London, Royal Asiatic Society, Persian MS 239 Zal fell in love with Rudabeh, daughter of king Mehrab of Kabol. Sam was opposed to a match at first, since Mehrab was a grandson of the tyrannical king Zahhak, but he relented when astrologers told him that a son born to the couple would be a mighty champion of Iran. Assisted by the Simorgh, who was summoned by the burning of one of her feathers, Rudabeh gave birth to a boy of prodigious size. They named him Rostam and his image was sent to Sam. In the Shahnameh, the image is a stuffed doll, but here the artist has interpreted it as a painting on silk. The messenger or courtier who presents the portrait to Sam has perhaps taken on some of the nervousness that the artist himself may have felt in laying his work before his patron. But Sam radiates satisfaction.
Esfandiyar slays Arjasp in the Brazen Hold Timurid: Herat, c.1444 London, Royal Asiatic Society, Persian MS 239, Esfandiyar, son of Goshtasp of Iran, went to the Brazen Hold to free his sisters who had been abducted by Arjasp of Turan. Disguised as a merchant, he entered Arjasp’s fortress, found his sisters, signalled to his army outside to attack the castle, and slayed Arjasp. This extraordinary bird’s eye view distances the main action, while the intricate web of architecture frames and holds it in focus. The tile cartouche above the door reads ‘Mohammad Juki bahador (warrior)’, the name of the patron of this manuscript.
Esfandiyar slays two kargs. Shiraz, 15 January 1475 On his way to release his sisters from Turanian ruler Arjasp in the Brazen Hold, Esfandiyar encountered Seven Perils — the counterpart of those experienced by Rostam when he rescued Key Kavus (both paralleling the Labours of Hercules). The first is the threat posed by two kargs. In this picture the cloven- hoofed monsters have a chance resemblance to unicorns, but the faces of wolves. The rendering of gurg, or ‘wolf’, and karg, or ‘rhinoceros’, is similar in Persian script. In addition, Persian painters had only a vague idea of the appearance of the rhinoceros. This copy of the Shahnameh represents the type of manuscripts described as ‘Commercial Turkman’, since it was produced for the market rather than a specific patron.
The Simorgh heals Rakhsh Ferdowsi, Shahnameh Safavid: Shiraz, c.1590–1595 London, British Library, Rostam and his horse Rakhsh were severely wounded in combat with prince Esfandiyar. Rostam retreated to his father, Zal, who burnt a feather of the Simorgh and summoned her assistance. The magical bird drew eight arrowheads out of Rostam and six out of Rakhsh, and provided another of her feathers to stroke and heal their wounds. We see the fully restored Rostam — whose wide turban indicates the period of Shah ‘Abbas I (1587–1629) — kneeling behind his father. They are surrounded by the three braziers mentioned in the text. The Simorgh’s questing beak is the chief focus. The main image and the margin are both united and divided by the Simorgh’s streaming tail, reminding the viewer that she is a creature of two worlds.
Tahmineh comes to Rostam Timurid: Herat, c.1444 Patron: Mohammad Juki b. Shah Rokh London, Royal Asiatic Society, Persian MS The scene of Tahmineh visiting Rostam at night with the request to bear his child is one of the most frequently illustrated episodes in the Shahnameh Rostam’s enthusiasm and Tahmineh’s bashfulness make this is one of the most delightful versions. The exquisite rendering of a princely interior transports the viewer into the fifteenth century. Tahmineh is no longer attended by a woman but by a black eunuch, perhaps reflecting a change in contemporary custom.
Tahmineh comes to Rostam Sultanate India: probably North Deccan, c.1435–1450 Private Collection
Rostam lifts Afrasiyab of Turan by the belt Timurid: Shiraz, c Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum. The murder of Iraj by his brother Tur sparked continuous warfare between their descendants in Iran and Turan. The Turanian attack during the reign of Key Qobad is the first appearance in battle of the young champion Rostam, whose exploits dominate the legendary section of the Shahnameh. Here Rostam lifts the Turanian king Afrasiyab by his belt into the air, the only way to unhorse him because of the shape of the saddle. The hero lifts his enemy effortlessly, ‘as if he weighed no more than a mosquito, making his soul worth less than a fistful of dirt’, as Afrasiyab told his father later, having escaped after his belt broke.
The young Rostam kills the mad elephant Safavid: Tabriz, Mashhad, c.1570 London, British Museum We see the young Rostam giving an early sign of his heroic future. His grandfather Sam is visiting and after the celebration Rostam goes to bed intoxicated. He is woken by shouts that a white elephant has run wild. Rostam overcomes the elephant with a blow from his grandfather’s mace and returns to bed. Rostam’s coat is kirtled into his belt in a way seen in Shah Tahmasp’s Shahnameh (64), while the turban worn by the mahout of the elephant suggests knowledge of contemporary Mughal costume under the emperor Akbar (1556–1605).
יג,ד רוסתם הורג את דיו-לבן
Rostam slays the White Div Safavid: Qazvin or Transoxiana, mid- to late 16th century Private Collection, Rostam has defeated the White Div and is extracting its liver to cure the blindness of Key Kavus. This image exemplifies a new fashion for the selection of celebrated episodes, individual figures or small groups for inclusion in albums of drawings and paintings: the traditional two- figure group has been changed from a horizontal to a vertical position. Persian painting on silk is known from c.1400 and tends to be associated with Tabriz or Herat. The Shahnameh records that silk was the normal support for letters exchanged between sovereigns.
Rostam slays a dragon Timurid: Shiraz, c.1430 Patron: Ebrahim Soltan b. Shah Rokh Oxford, Bodleian Library Rostam, like Hercules, faced many trials, notably the Seven Perils he encountered in the Caspian province of Mazandaran, while on his way to rescue King Key Kavus who had been captured by divs (demons). This action-filled image shows the third Peril. Rostam’s watchful steed, Rakhsh, had woken his owner twice during the night when he saw the dragon approaching, but as soon as Rostam opened his eyes, the dragon disappeared. Here, the dragon appears for the third time, the hero attacks him and cuts off his head. Rostam is shown in his emblematic tiger-skin coat and snow-leopard cap.
The King of Mazandaran turns himself into a rock Timurid: Shiraz, c.1430 Oxford, Bodleian Library This striking miniature of a stone horseman illustrates the battle between Rostam and the King of Mazandaran, a master-sorcerer of demons, who refused to pay tribute to King Key Kavus. Just as Rostam was about to spear his chest, the sorcerer transformed himself into a rock — the moment captured here. Rostam puts his finger to his lips in amazement and Rakhsh bites the stone horse in disbelief. But Rostam was able to carry the massive stone to Key Kavus’s camp, where the sorcerer resumed his normal shape and was executed. The petrified king is normally shown as a round boulder. This portrayal of an equestrian statue is unusually elaborate.
Rostam deflects a rock Timurid: Shiraz, c.1430 Oxford, Bodleian Library When Shah Goshtasp realized that his son Esfandiyar coveted his throne, he dispatched him to Sistan to bring back Rostam, if necessary in chains, on the pretext that the hero had not come to pay homage. Goshtasp was aware of a prophecy that Esfandiyar would be killed. Esfandiyar sent his son, Bahman, to convey Goshtasp’s demand. On seeing the massive Rostam roasting an onager, Bahman realized that his father’s mission might fail and rolled a boulder down on the hero. Rostam nonchalantly waited until the last moment and we see him here kicking the boulder aside, while continuing to cook his meal.
Rostam lifts an adversary on his spear Qazvini, ‘Aja’eb al-Makhluqat, anonymous Persian translation Turkman Commercial style: Shiraz, c.1475 Compiled in the later thirteenth century, the ‘Aja’eb al-Makhluqat, or ‘Wonders of Creation’, resembles an encyclopaedia of cosmology and the natural world. Heroes of the Shahnameh are included in some copies, such as this late fifteenth-century example, where Rostam is mentioned eighth in a list beginning with Faridun. There is no mention in the text of any particular feat, but Rostam’s habitual ability to unseat an opponent with his spear is emphasized and illustrated here.
Sohrab slain by Rostam Timurid: Shiraz, c.1430 Oxford, Bodleian Library This image illustrates one of the most famous and tragic episodes in the Shahnameh. Unaware of his opponent’s identity, Rostam kills his son Sohrab. Tahmineh’s son had grown up knowing that Rostam was his father, but the two have never met until they found themselves fighting on opposing sides in a battle between Iran and Turan. With matching stubbornness they refused to reveal their identity to each other. Rostam delivered a deadly blow, but on opening Sohrab’s clothing he found the jewel that he had given to Tahmineh for their child.
Rostam binds the Black Div Azadsarv, Shabrangnameh Late Mughal period: late 18th century London, British Museum, This leaf is not from a copy of the Shahnameh, but from a successor epic about the Black Div, son of the Shahnameh’s White Div. Both the event and this illustration are modelled on Rostam’s slaying of Akvan. This bold page with its six text columns poses questions. The lightly tinted landscape shows a well assimilated influence from European watercolour and suggests a late 18th-century date. The strong sense of physicality of the div’s plump body, argue for an Indian rather than Persian origin. The stylized form of the div’s muzzle and that of Rostam’s snow- leopard cap recall various artefacts made for Tipu Sultan of Mysore (1782–1799).
Rostam rescues Bizhan from the pit Safavid: Esfahan, May 1628 London, British Library, Manizheh has guided Rostam to the pit where her lover Bizhan is imprisoned. Rostam is about to let down his lasso for the rescue. The period when this manuscript was made witnessed a considerable production of single-figure studies of fashionable people. The curving posture of Manizheh and the companion nearest to Rostam show the influence of such studies. Their impact is also felt in the soft rendering of trees and rocks. By contrast, the bold pink background, signalling intense drama, originated in manuscript illustration.
The dying Esfandiyar watched by Rostam and Zal Safavid: Qazvin, c.1585 Windsor, The Royal Collection, Lent by Her Majesty The Queen After a long battle with Esfandiyar, Rostam was prompted by the Simorgh to shoot his adversary in the eyes with a double-headed arrow of tamarisk. Esfandiyar fell, but drew out the arrow himself, as his brother Pashutan and his son Bahman ran to assist him. Esfandiyar entrusted Rostam with the care for Bahman, although he found out that the hero had received assistance from the Simorgh. We see Rostam as he begins to regret and his father Zal who realizes that the hero’s life will now be darkened. The manuscript was presented to King George III or George IV by the Marquess of Hastings, who had been Governor General in India.
Bahram Gur pins the coupling onagers The historical age A brief mention of the Ashkānīyān (Arsacid) dynasty follows the history of Alexander and precedes that of Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanid Empire. After this, Sassanid history is related with a good deal of accuracy. The fall of the Sassanids and the Arab conquest of Persia are narrated romantically.
Eskandar (Alexander the Great) visits the Ka‘ba Timurid: Shiraz, c.1435–1440 Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum. The story of Alexander the Great, called Eskandar in the Shahnameh, is an important chapter in the epic. On his way from India to North Africa he made a stop in Mecca, Eskandar paid his respects to the Ka‘ba, the House of Abraham, which Ferdowsi describes, as ‘the place of worship before any others existed … where God causes you to worship and to remember him.’ Here, Eskandar watches as a pilgrim reaches for the door handle of the Ka‘ba; in later versions Eskandar himself is depicted as a pilgrim.
Rashid al-Din, Jami’ al-Tawarikh (‘Compendium of Histories’) Il-Khanid: Tabriz, 1314 Edinburgh University Library Eskandar, or Alexander the Great, went into the Land of Darkness to seek the Water of Life, but failed to find it. Here, he sends his horse forward into the swirling darkness. His followers look anxious and even two of the horses stare at each other, uncertain of what they are about to encounter. The flame-like protuberances on Eskandar’s helmet probably allude to his identification with the qur’anic figure Dhu’l-Qarnayn (‘Lord, or Possessor, of Two Horns’). This is one of the earliest Shahnameh illustrations that are precisely datable. Eskandar (Alexander the Great) enters the Land of Darkness
Eskandar (Alexander the Great) contemplates the Talking Tree Timurid: Shiraz, c.1430 Oxford, Bodleian Library, Towards the end of his travels, Eskandar, came to a town at the edge of the world. The local curiosity was a tree with two trunks of talking heads; the male trunk spoke by day and the female at night. Intrigued, Eskandar visited the tree and heard a voice prophesying his death. He is shown here standing before the tree, his finger to his lips. The tree’s mystical qualities are emphasized by the assortment of human and animal heads. The absence of text lends the image an unusual solemnity.
Eskandar (Alexander the Great) shown his portrait Safavid: Mashhad, 1648 Artist: attributed to Mohammad Qasem by Robinson Patron: Qarajaghay Khan, governor of Mashhad Windsor, The Royal Collection, Lent by Her Majesty The Queen After visiting the Ka‘ba, Eskandar led his troops to Egypt. Queen Qeydafeh of Andalus (Candace of Meroë) sent a spy to make a portrait of him. Eskandar came to Qeydafeh’s court disguised as his ambassador, but the queen recognised him and he had to admit his true identity. One would expect to see Qeydafeh enthroned with Eskandar’s portrait and Eskandar himself seated at a lower level. Instead, the painting shows Eskandar on the throne and no Qeydafeh — unless we imagine that she is looking through our eyes, the eyes of the viewers.
Eskandar seeks the Water of Life Turkman Commercial style: Shiraz, 1494 Oxford, Bodleian Library Eskandar (Alexander the Great) was informed that in the Land of Darkness, where the sun sets, there was a spring of the Water of Life, which bestowed immortality. He took the prophet Khezr as his guide, giving him one of two rings that would light up when near water. Eskandar lost his companion in the darkness. Khezr found the water and bathed in it, while Eskandar passed on to a mountain where a talking tree foretold his doom. The artist has employed a pictorial variant that is more appropriate for the account given in the Khamseh of Nezami, where Khezr is accompanied by Elyas. Both figures have flaming halos indicative of their prophetic powers. The differing paths are clear in the composition: the two prophets focus their attention downwards to the Water of Life, while Eskandar proceeds with his eyes fixed on a distant horizon.
Lohrasp enthroned with scribes in attendance Rashid al-Din, Jami’ al-Tawarikh Il-Khanid: Tabriz, 1314 Edinburgh University Library This image depicts Key Khosrow’s successor, Lohrasp, enthroned. Here we see figures characteristic of the Il- Khanid court: young attendants wear split-brimmed Mongol caps with their hair in bunches, while old, bearded figures with aquiline profiles have turbans. The latter have long written scrolls and pen-boxes. They are Persian bureaucrats, indispensable to the running of the empire. This is one of the earliest Shahnameh illustrations that are precisely datable.
Lohrasp enthroned Ferdowsi, Shahnameh Safavid: Shiraz, 1540s Fitzwilliam Museum, This double-page image captures the splendour of the Persian court. On the right, Lohrasp, who has just succeeded Key Khosrow, is enthroned among courtiers and entertained by musicians beside the pool, while an attendant offers him pomegranates and another one, behind the throne, holds his sword. On the left, food is served, while petitioners wait outside. The fine blue and gold illumination framing the scene marks the beginning of the second part of the Shahnameh.
Bahram Chubineh kills Saveh Shah Safavid : Astarabad or Esfahan, July 1643 Patron: Mirza Mohammad Taher Beg Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, In the Sasanian period, Hormozd of Iran was concerned by the threat posed by Saveh, the Turkish ruler of Herat. Through a prophecy, he was led to Bahram Chubineh, a lord willing and able to lead the army against Saveh. Bahram Chubineh routed the much larger Turkish force. Saveh took to flight, but Bahram shot him in the back. Here, Saveh is shown facing his opponent, rather than fleeing, but he has clearly met his fate. The rearing of the horses, slightly out of phase with the rocky horizon that rises and falls like waves behind them, emphasizes the vigorous action.
Bowl showing Bahram Gur hunting with Azadeh Probably Kashan, late 12th or early 13th century The young prince Bahram Gur is shown hunting with Azadeh, the slave girl who was a fine musician and ‘his heart’s delight and desire.’ Azadeh challenged him to demonstrate his skill as a hunter and, firing successive shots from his bow, to turn a male gazelle into a female, a female one into a male, and then to pin together the foot and ear of a third one. Bahram shot two arrows into the female deer’s head and cut off the antlers of the male deer with a double- pointed arrow. He nicked the ear of a third gazelle and when she raised her foot to scratch it, he pinned foot and ear together, as can be seen here.
Ardeshir executes Haftvad Turkman: Shiraz style, 25 April 1486 Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, This story refers to the beginning of the lucrative silk industry. The Sasanian ruler Ardeshir found himself threatened by Haftvad, who had prospered thanks to a gigantic worm and had established his own formidable fortress. Ardeshir killed the worm by pouring molten lead into its mouth. He then had Haftvad and his son Shahuy suspended from gibbets and shot with arrows — this image illustrates their gruesome fate. On the right, Ardeshir, crowned and under the royal parasol, makes a gesture known as ‘biting the finger of surprise’. Although illustrated in the Commercial Turkman style of Shiraz, this manuscript was produced for a son of the Aq Quyunlu ruler based in Tabriz.
The besotted Iranian camp attacked
Drums thunder and trumpets blare as the Iranian and Turanian armies clash.
The Raja of Hind sends the Game of Chess to Nushirvan
Facade to Ferdowsi's Mausoleum in Tus לצפייה במצגת ראשונה: שאה-נאמה, מצגת ראשונה שאה-נאמה, מצגת ראשונה לצפייה במצגות על כתבי יד עבריים עתיקים: יהדות-כתבי יד עתיקים יהדות-כתבי יד עתיקים
מקורות: פירדוסי, שאה-נאמה-ספר המלכים. הוצאת מוסד ביאליק. A King’s book of Kings. The Shah-Nameh of Shah Tahmasp. קלריטה ואפרים הנכם מוזמנים להיכנס לאתר שלנו נשמח לתגובות נשמח לתגובות