Presentation on theme: "INSOMNIA AO2. Just to remind you – how do we explain insomnia? Types Initial, middle, terminal? Causes: Primary/Secondary? Predisposing/precipitating."— Presentation transcript:
Just to remind you – how do we explain insomnia? Types Initial, middle, terminal? Causes: Primary/Secondary? Predisposing/precipitating and perpetuating factors? Genetic vulnerability? (Spielman and Glovinsky) Teenage shift in circadian rhythms (Kalb) Risk factors: Age? Other disorders? Personality?
How can we evaluate? Remember, you need an absolute minimum of: 2 studies 1 methodological 1 IDA 1 RWA It would be wise to gather at least 8 points, to enable you to have a range to pick from!!! This will also ensure you are covered for any slightly weaker AO2
What could you include? Is insomnia an effect of other problems or is it the cause? (Ohayon and Roth, 2003) Twin studies provide evidence for genetic vulnerability (Watson et al, 2006) Biological factors - Hyperarousal in insomniacs (Bonnet and Arand, 1995) IDA – above studies provide evidence for the biological approach – insomnia is another example of behaviour being all down to our genes!!
What could you include? Predisposing factors alone not enough to explain chronic primary insomnia: Diathesis stress model – environmental stressors also needed. Perpetuating factors e.g. being tense when going to bed because of insomnia make it worse (Espie, 2002) Roberts et al (2008) 25% teenagers suffer insomnia – supports the circadian shift explanation
What could you include? Difficulty in studying insomnia – such a complex problem with lots of factors/causes – hard to reach firm conclusions RWA – knowing about the self-fulfilling prophecy of sleep problems has allowed psychologists to develop attribution therapy (Storms and Nisbett)
Now to the essay!!! Using your notes from yesterday, your work booklets and your hand-outs, you should draft out an essay for the following question: Discuss explanations of insomnia (8 + 16)