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Chapter Seven, Lecture One Myths of the Olympians.

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1 Chapter Seven, Lecture One Myths of the Olympians

2 Male Deities  Reflect range of activities consistent with the roles Greek men played in their society  Zeus-ruled family and all humankind-male rules Greek family  Hades-King of death ruled under world family- male rules Greek family  Apollo-guide to higher knowledge, only open to males  Poseidon-storms and sea, sailors-male  Hephaestus-smiths-male  Ares-warriors-male  Hermes-merchants-male

3 Greek Men

4 Poseidon, Lord of the Deep  Husband (posis)  An Indo-european male fertility god  This explains the tangle of his competencies –original: springs, horses, earthquakes –acquired: sea  Married to “Amphitrite”  Father of Triton-merman, blew conch shell and the sea calmed

5 Poseidon and Amphitrite Triton-their son

6 Poseidon and Amphitrite

7 Poseidon and Demeter  One of the most notorious love affairs of Poseidon involves his sister, Demeter. Poseidon pursued Demeter and to avoid him she turned herself into a mare. In his lust for her, Poseidon transformed himself into a stallion and captured her. Their procreation resulted in a horse, Arion. Poseidon is Greek for "Husband" (possibly of wheat), and therefore it is thought that he and Demeter (goddess of wheat) are a good match because they reign as the god and goddess of fertility.

8 Poseidon and Demeter

9 Poseidon, Lord of the Deep  The competition in Athens –He offers the Athenians salt water??  Lost also in Argos  Impregnated Medusa  Pegasus born when Medusa killed by Perseus

10 Poseidon VS Athena  The two Olympian gods who were particularly interested in the patronage were Poseidon (Neptune), the god of the Seas and Athena(Minerva), the goddess of Wisdom and Skill. They presented themselves in front of Cecrops and Cecrops asked from them to offer a gift truly valuable for Athens. Poseidon (Neptune) Athena(Minerva)Poseidon (Neptune) Athena(Minerva)  Poseidon came first: he powerfully struck the earth and created a well with his trident; immediately streaming water shot forth, but water turned out to be salty and not very useful for the population.  Next, it was goddess Athena’s turn. Athena stepped forward, struck her spear in the ground and then she kneeled and planted an olive branch in it, creating this way an olive tree as a symbolization of peace and prosperity on earth.  Cecrops was very impressed by Athena’s gift- much more than that from Poseidon- so he chose Athena to lay claim of the city of Athens and Athens was named after her. God Poseidon, however, was not pleased by the decision of Cecrops and cursed the city of Athens to never have enough water from then on; after that, a major problem of water shortage started in Athens, which continues until nowadays.

11 Poseidon VS Athena

12 Poseidon and Medusa  Before Medusa was turned into a monster, she was very beautiful. Medusa and Poseidon had an affair and decided to make love in Athena’s temple. Athena was so offended she turned Medusa into a monster with snakes for hair. Athena then helped Peruses kill Medusa. After cutting off Medusa’s head, two offspring came out, Chrysaor and the flying horse Pegasus.

13 Pegasus and Medusa

14 Poseidon-sorrow of seamen  Odysseus offended Poseidon; therefore, Poseidon sent storms to sea and diverted Odysseus from getting home.

15 Poseidon and the Trojan War  Gold-mane horses pull chariot  golden armor and a golden whip  Achilles set out to avenge his friend, killing many Trojans and driving them back towards city in a rout. Poseidon, who normally favoured the Greeks, saved Aeneas from Achilles. Poseidon told the Trojan hero that he was destined to rule Troy. PoseidonAeneas PoseidonAeneas

16 Poseidon

17 Hades, King of the Dead  the invisible” (Helmet from the Cyclops)  “Pluto” (wealth)  The enricher-materials in the Earth  Lord of the dead who inhabit the top layer of soil  Abduction and Marriage to Persephone (daughter of Demeter), discussed in Chapter 11

18 Rape of Persephone

19 Apollo, the Far-Darter, God of Prophecy  One of the most complex  His competencies are a tangle of different areas  His history is complex and inconsistent  His role at Delphi makes him, next to Zeus, the most important Olympian

20 Apollo Apollo-sun God, archer god-arrows of sickness Lord of Mice- daughter of Chryses captured and the priest prays to Apollo who sends a plague of sickness

21 Apollo- the archer

22 Apollo, the Far-Darter, God of Prophecy  Sender of plagues  God of mice  Healing  Asclepius and the story of Coronis

23 Leto

24 Leto  Leto is the daughter of Coeus and Phoebe. She was an early and favorite lover of Zeus. Zeus married Hera while Leto was pregnant. While the pregnancy began before the marriage Hera was still jealous of Leto. For the duration of Leto's pregnancy Hera created problems. First Leto was pushed out of Olympus. As she wandered no place would allow her to stay for fear Hera would be offended. Hera had the dragon Python chase her. Zeus saved her by sending the North Wind Boreas to carry her out to sea. CoeusPhoebeZeusHeraOlympusCoeusPhoebeZeusHeraOlympus

25 Leto  Finally, the desolate rocky island of Delos, which had little to lose, accepted her. The other goddesses gathered to help Leto as she gave birth. Hera stayed away and managed to detain Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth, until Iris fetched her. Leto first gave birth to Artemis and then after another nine days of labor to Apollo. ArtemisApolloArtemisApollo  Still fleeing Hera's wrath she went to Lycia. The peasants tried to prevent her from drinking from their well, so she turned them into frogs. Initially Leto's problems continued. But, now she had her two fast developing children, both of whom became powerful archers, to protect her. When four days old Apollo was able to slay Python. Then the Euboean giant Tityus tried to rape Leto only to be killed by the children. As they grew into their full power the twins become willing to avenge Leto's honor as well as to protect her safety. Niobe boasted that she was more deserving of adulation then Leto because she had borne seven sons and seven daughters. The twins replied to this by slaying all but one of Niobe's children.

26 Arguments  Leto promised visitor, wealth, riches, and food if a temple to Apollo were built  Delos afraid Apollo will scorn the island and leave it or destroy it.  Delos waterless island that bobbed beneath the surface and did not always see the “light of day” as Hera had decreed no place the saw the “light of day” could have Leto give birth there.

27 Leto and the Twins

28 Apollo and Artemis kill Tityus

29 Apollo’s function in Greek society  Prophesy, oral poet, represents aristocracy

30 Apollo and Delphi  The Python of Delphi was a creature with the body of a snake which was dwelling on Mount Parnassus in central Greece. Wherever it went, it would diffuse obnoxious smell and spread mischief and death.  Python was once sent out by Zeus’ wife Hera to chase Leto, Zeus lover, when she became pregnant from him, so that she couldn’t settle anywhere to give birth. ZeusHeraZeusHera  By the time Apollo was only 4 days old, he decided to take revenge and went to the creature’s cave Python to seek after him. At the moment the creature faced Apollo, it started boiling with rage and lunged at Apollo to devour him. But Apollo was faster and managed to throw an arrow to Python, piercing him right on its forehead.

31 Apollo and Delphi  Python cried of terror and his screaming could be heard all over the canyons of Mount Parnassus. It struggled hard to survive but in the end it surrendered to death.  This filled Apollo with joy and he happily took his lyre and started playing a song of victory, giving joy to people all around. This was the moment Apollo became the god of the Music. Right after he finished his song, Apollo took the creature and buried it under the slopes of Mount Parnassusl; on its surface he built the oracle of Delphi, also known as the "Pythia".  However, Apollo had committed a crime and according to the laws of Mount Olympus he had to be purified. So Zeus ordered from Apollo to institute the Pythian Games at Delphi so that host athletical and musical competitions could be hosted. So Apollo did and took part himself in the games; from then on, the Pythian Games were being held every four years in Apollo’s honor.

32 Apollo VS the Dragon

33 More Apollo and the Python  Apollo's first achievement was to rid Pytho (Delphi) of the serpent (or dragon) Python. This monstrous beast protected the sanctuary of Pytho from its lair beside the Castalian Spring. There it stood guard while the "Sibyl" gave out her prophecies as she inhaled the trance inducing vapors from an open chasm. Apollo killed Python with his bow and arrows (Homer wrote "he killed the fearsome dragon Python, piercing it with his darts"). Apollo not only took charge of the oracle but rid the neighboring countryside of widespread destruction, as Python had destroyed crops, sacked villages and polluted streams and springs. DelphiPythonDelphiPython

34 Apollo and Python  However, to make amends for killing Python, as the fearsome beast was the son of Gaia, Apollo had to serve king Admetus for nine years (in some versions eight) as a cowherd. This he did, and when he returned to Pytho he came in the guise of a dolphin bringing with him priests from Crete (Apollo's cult title "Delphinios" meaning dolphin or porpoise, is probably how Delphi was so named). After killing Python and taking possession of the oracle, the god of light (Phobus) became known as "Pythian Apollo". He dedicated a bronze tripod to the sanctuary and bestowed divine powers on one of the priestesses, and she became known as the "Pythia". It was she who inhaled the hallucinating vapors from the fissure in the temple floor, while she sat on a tripod chewing laurel leaves. After she mumbled her answer, a male priest would translate it for the supplicant. Delphi became the most important oracle center of Apollo, there were several including Clarus and Branchidae. GaiaAdmetusGaiaAdmetus

35 Apollo and Prophesy  Oracle functioned under Apollo for over 1000 years  Pythia was a medium, meaning her body served as an instrument ofr divine communication  Pythia sat on bronze tripod in temple and was possessed by god, question put to her from male priest after sacrafice, she would answer, priest would put in poetry for the seeker

36 Delphi  “Know Thyself”  “Nothing too much”  Be self aware and everything done moderately  Encouraged restraint and cautiousness

37 Delphi

38 Apollo, the Far-Darter, God of Prophecy  Acquired features of a sun god  The god of male beauty  Apollo’s list of failed romances

39 Apollo and Cassandra  Cassandra was the most beautiful of the daughters of Priam and Hecuba, the king and queen of Troy. She was given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, who wished to seduce her; when she accepted his gift but refused his sexual advances, he deprived her prophecies of the power to persuade. At the end of the Trojan War, Cassandra foresaw the danger posed by the Trojan horse; the people of Troy ignored her warnings and the Greek soldiers hiding inside the horse were able to capture the city. During the sack of Troy, Cassandra was raped by the Locrian (or "lesser") Ajax, and was then given as a war prize to Agamemnon. She returned to Greece with Agamemnon, and tried to warn him of the danger which awaited him there; once again her prophecy was ignored, and both she and Agamemnon were murdered by Clytemnestra and Aegisthus. PriamHecubaApolloTrojan horseAgamemnon ClytemnestraAegisthusPriamHecubaApolloTrojan horseAgamemnon ClytemnestraAegisthus

40 Cassandra

41 Apollo and Sibyl  Ovid (Metamorphoses 14: ) tells how the Sibyl of Cumae, in southern Italy, was loved by Apollo.He bribed her by offering to prolong her life for as many years as there were grains in a heap of dust, in return for her embraces. She refused him and although he kept his word, he denied her perpetual youth, so she was commanded to centuries as a wizened crone.  In the painting the Sibyl, a young woman is shown standing before the sitting Apollo holding out her cupped hand which contains the heap of dust.

42 Apollo and Sibyl

43 Sibyl

44 Apollo and Daphne  Daphne was Apollo's first love. It was not brought about by accident, but by the malice of Eros. Apollo saw the boy playing with his bow and arrows; and being himself elated by his recent victory over Python, he said to him, "What have you to do with warlike weapons, saucy boy? Leave them for hands worthy of them. Behold the conquest I have won by means of them over the vast serpent who stretched his poisonous body over acres of plain! Be content with your torch, child, and kindle up your flames, as you call them, where you will, but presume not to meddle with my weapons." Apollo'sErosApollo'sEros

45 Apollo and Daphne  Aphrodite's boy heard these words and rejoined, "Your arrows may strike all things else, Apollo, but mine shall strike you." So saying, he took his stand on a rock of Parnassus and drew from his quiver two arrows of a different workmanship, one to excite love, the other to repel it. The former was of gold and sharp pointed, the latter blunt and tipped with lead. With the leaden shaft he struck the nymph Daphne, the daughter of the river god Peneus, and with the golden one Apollo, through the heart. Forthwith the god was seized with love for the maiden, and she abhorred the thought of loving. Her delight was in woodland sports and the spoils of the chase. Many lovers sought her, but she spurned them all, ranging the woods, and taking no thought of Eros nor of Hymen. Her father often said to her, "Daughter, you owe me a son-in-law; you owe me grandchildren." She, hating the thought of marriage as a crime, with her beautiful face tinged all over with blushes, threw her arms around her father's neck and said, "Dearest father, grant me this favor, that I may always remain unmarried, like Artemis." He consented, but at the same time said, "Your own face will forbid it." Aphrodite'snymphArtemis Aphrodite'snymphArtemis

46 Apollo and Daphne  Apollo loved her and longed to obtain her; and he who gives oracles to all the world was not wise enough to look into his own fortunes. He saw her hair flung loose over her shoulders and said, "If so charming in disorder, what would it be if arranged?" He saw her eyes bright as stars; he saw her lips, and was not satisfied with only seeing them. He admired her hands and arms, naked to the shoulder, and whatever was hidden from view he imagined more beautiful still. He followed her; she fled, swifter than the wind, and delayed not a moment at his entreaties. "Stay", said he, "daughter of Peneus; I am not a foe. Do not fly me as a lamb flies the wolf, or a dove the hawk. It is for love I pursue you. You make me miserable, for fear that you should fall and hurt yourself on these stones, and I should be the cause. Pray run slower, and I will follow slower. I am no clown, no rude peasant. Zeus is my father, and I am lord of Delphos and Tenedos, and know all things, present and future. I am the god of song and the lyre. My arrows fly true to the mark; but alas! an arrow more fatal than mine has pierced my heart! I am the god of medicine, and know the virtue of all healing plants. Alas! I suffer a malady that no balm can cure!" ApolloZeus ApolloZeus

47 Apollo and Daphne  The nymph continued her flight and left his plea half uttered. And even as she fled she charmed him. The wind blew loose her garments, and her unbound hair streamed loose behind her. The god grew impatient to find his wooings thrown away, and, sped by Eros, gained upon her in the race. It was like a hound pursuing a hare, with open jaws ready to seize, while the feebler animal darts forward, slipping from the very grasp.

48 Apollo and Daphne  So flew the god and the virgin - he on the wings of love and she on those of fear. The pursuer is the more rapid, however, and gains upon her, and his panting breath blows upon her hair. Her strength begins to fail, and, ready to sink, she calls upon her father, the river god: "Help me, Peneus! Open the earth to enclose me, or change my form, which has brought me into this danger!" Scarcely had she spoken, when a stiffness seized all her limbs; her bosom began to be enclosed in a tender bark; her hair became leaves; her arms became branches; her foot stuck fast in the ground, as a root; her face became a treetop, retaining nothing of its former self but its beauty. Apollo stood amazed. He touched the stem, and felt the flesh tremble under the new bark. He embraced the branches and lavished kisses on the wood. The branches shrank from his lips. "Since you cannot be my wife," said he, "you shall assuredly be my tree. I will wear you for my crown. I will decorate you with my harp and quiver; and when the great Roman conquerors lead up the triumphal pomp to the Capitol, you shall be woven into wreaths for their brows. And, as eternal youth is mine, you also shall be always green, and your leaf know no decay." The nymph, now changed into a laurel tree, bowed its head in grateful acknowledgement. river godApolloriver godApollo

49 Apollo and Daphne

50

51 Apollo and Coronis  In Greek mythology, Asklepios (Asclepius) was the god of healing. He was the son of the Olympian god Apollo and a mortal woman named Coronis. There is a legend surrounding the birth of Asklepios. According to some ancient sources, Apollo's twin sister Artemis caught the pregnant Coronis having an affair with another man. Artemis punished the betrayal of her brother by killing the woman, but either Hermes or Apollo rescued the unborn child. As an infant, Asklepios was sent to live with the wise centaur Chiron, and in time it was Chiron who taught Asklepios the art of medicine and healing. ApolloArtemisHermesApolloArtemisHermes

52 Apollo and Coronis  Adultery-  Woman killed “deservedly”  men left to do as he pleased  death seems a harsh punishment

53 Apollo slaying Coronis

54 Apollo and Marpessa  Another women Apollo chased to no avail was Marpessa, who was engaged to Idas, son of Poseidon. Apollo and Idas fought over Marpessa, so Zeus had to step in to put a stop to it. To settle the fight, Zeus allowed Marpessa to choose her mate. Marpessa chose Ida, figuring that since Apollo was a god, he would most likely tire of her. She reasoned that since Ida was a mortal he would be more likely to remain with her.

55 Apollo and Marpessa

56 Apollo and Hyacinthus  Hyacinthus was the son of the muse Clio and the King of Macedonia Pierus. He was considered to be the partner both the Greek god Apollo and Zephyrus, the god of the winds; those two deities were competing each other who will gain the favor of the handsome young man. Clio ApolloClio Apollo  One day, Apollo was teaching Hyacinth how to throw the discus and, on his striving to impress his lover, Apollo threw the discus with all his force. Immediately, Hyacinth tried to run after the discus, but was unfortunate enough to get struck by it and injure himself severely!  Despite Apollo's effort to save the young man's life with herbs, in the end the young man passed away. From the blood that was shed, Apollo created a beautiful flower, each petal of which had the letters "AI" inscribed- they were symbolizing Apollo's painful cry...

57 Apollo and Hyacinthus

58 Apollo, the Far-Darter, God of Prophecy  Cassandra  Sibyl of Cumae (like Tithonus): “As many years as grains of sand she could scoop up in her hands.”  Daphnê (laurel tree)  Marpessa  Hyacinth

59 Apollo and Inspiration  Male seers saw hidden meanings behind appearances and could heal the sick  Females were mediums and their bodies were taken possession of either willingly or against their will, loss of consciousness

60 Apollo  embodied order against barbarism and reason against irrational  connected to shamans or medicine men because he is a healer and prophet

61 Next Time HephaestusAresHermes


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