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THE BOOK OF KINGS. OUTLINE OF KINGS I.Solomon and the United Monarchy 1 Kings 1-11 A.Solomon secures the throne 1-2 B.Solomon's wisdom 3-4 C.Building.

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Presentation on theme: "THE BOOK OF KINGS. OUTLINE OF KINGS I.Solomon and the United Monarchy 1 Kings 1-11 A.Solomon secures the throne 1-2 B.Solomon's wisdom 3-4 C.Building."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE BOOK OF KINGS

2 OUTLINE OF KINGS I.Solomon and the United Monarchy 1 Kings 1-11 A.Solomon secures the throne 1-2 B.Solomon's wisdom 3-4 C.Building the temple 5-8 D.Solomon's downfall 9-11 II.Parallel Histories of Israel and Judah 1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17 A.Division of the kingdom 12-16 B.Prophetic ministry of Elijah 1 Kings 17-2 Kings 2 C.Prophetic ministry of Elisha 2-9 D.Assyrian crisis 10-16 III.Judah to the Babylonian Exile 2 Kings 18-25 A.Hezekiah and Isaiah 18-20 B.Josiah's Reform 21-23 C.First conquest of Jerusalem 24 D.Second conquest of Jerusalem 25

3 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) A THE LITERARY WORLD: SOLOMON 1.The Succession Narrative (2Sm 9 - 1Kgs 2) initially keeps Solomon in the background 2.It then shows how the prophet Nathan manipulated Solomon’s rise to power 3.The secular nature of the Succession Narrative shows a more subtle view of divine involvement

4 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 1.David’s military career created an empire, Solomon’s kingship developed the empire 2.Gained kingship by eliminating opposition of David’s eldest son, Adonijah (Joab and Abiathar) 3.The single-minded brutality and ambition of Solomon is evident — executes Adonijah, Joab and Shimei By the end of the Succession Narrative (1 Kgs 2) Solomon has solidified his power and prestige

5 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 4.Divine legitimation at Gibeon and introduction to wisdom motif (1 Kgs 3) Some very interesting “problems” with this passage 1 Kgs 3:2-3 What information does the author provide? “ The people were sacrificing at the high places, however, because no house had yet been built for the name of the LORD. Solomon loved the LORD, walking in the statutes of his father David; only, he sacrificed and offered incense at the high places.”

6 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 4.Divine legitimation at Gibeon and introduction to wisdom motif (1 Kgs 3) Some very interesting “problems” with this passage 1 Kgs 3:2-3 What information does the author provide? Note: Kings is part of DH material (Deut 12:13-14) “ Take care that you do not offer your burnt offerings at any place you happen to see. But only at the place that the LORD will choose in one of your tribes—there you shall offer your burnt offerings and there you shall do everything I command you.”

7 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 4.Divine legitimation at Gibeon and introduction to wisdom motif (1 Kgs 3) Some very interesting “problems” with this passage 1 Kgs 3:2-3 What information does the author provide? 1 Kgs 3:4 How does Solomon break God’s law? “The king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there, for that was the principal high place; Solomon used to offer a thousand burnt offerings on that altar.”

8 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 4.Divine legitimation at Gibeon and introduction to wisdom motif (1 Kgs 3) Some very interesting “problems” with this passage 1 Kgs 3:2-3 What information does the author provide? 1 Kgs 3:5 How does God punish Solomon for his disobedience? “At Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream by night; and God said, “Ask what I should give you.”

9 GIBEON North of Jerusalem. What remains that is worth seeing is the water shaft

10 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 5.Solomon reorganized bureaucratic and military structures (all made possible because of peace): a.Government (adding features common to Egyptian government) i. Divided northern kingdom into twelve administrative districts, each with its own governor (changed tribal allotments) ii. Each district responsible for expenses of the royal court (Solomon’s tribe of Judah was exempt!)

11 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 5.Solomon reorganized bureaucratic and military structures (all made possible because of peace): a.Government (adding features common to Egyptian government) iii. Districts took care of taxation, military conscription and public compulsory labour (corvée) iv. District boundaries disregard of traditional tribal territories weakened independence

12 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 5.Solomon reorganized bureaucratic and military structures (all made possible because of peace): b.Military i.Built extensive passive defences (walls and fortified cities: e.g., Hazor, Gezer, & Megiddo) — see following slides

13 HAZOR

14 GEZER

15 MEGIDDO

16 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 5.Solomon reorganized bureaucratic and military structures (all made possible because of peace): b.Military i.Modernized weaponry (esp. chariots — at least 10 times more than David) ii.Imported horses and built chariot garrisons all over

17 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 5.Solomon reorganized bureaucratic and military structures (all made possible because of peace): c.Trade and Commerce i.Broadened trade in all directions ii.Most ambitious: agreement with Hiram (Tyre) for a fleet of ships! iii.Queen of Sheeba’s visit may have involved issues regarding this commerce (1 Kgs 10)

18 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 5.Solomon reorganized bureaucratic and military structures (all made possible because of peace): d.Construction i.Temple (most renowned accomplishment): seven years to build ii.Palace took thirteen years to build: considerably larger!

19 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 6.Theological developments during the monarchy a.Royal Theology i.The oracle of the prophet Nathan to king David (2 Sam 7)— the unconditional Davidic Covenant as follows: 2 Sam 7:16 “Your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever; your throne shall be established forever.” How long is forever?

20 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 6.Theological developments during the monarchy a.Royal Theology Incidentally... 2 Kgs 11:1 (= 2 Chr 22:10) tells of Queen Athaliah, a non-Judean, having the surviving males of David’s house murdered and seizing the throne for 6 years Thus, the “eternal dynasty” almost ended prematurely Ahaziah’s son Joash, a Judean, however, escaped the massacre (2 Kgs 11:2–3 = 2 Chr 22:11–12)

21 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 6.Theological developments during the monarchy a.Royal Theology ii.The Royal Psalms (Psalms 2, 72, 110, 132) used for coronations and associated royalty to God’s favour Psalm 2:6 “I have set my king on Zion, my holy hill”

22 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 6.Theological developments during the monarchy a.Royal Theology iii.King was God’s representative; he was the administrator of justice (this impinges on later messianic expectations) Psalm 72:1-2 “Give your king your justice, O God, and your righteousness to a king’s son May he judge your people with righteousness, and your poor with justice”

23 TEMPLE PALACE PEOPLE What do you notice? Model of the City of David (Jerusalem)

24 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 6.Theological developments during the monarchy b.Zion Theology (assured that Jerusalem is eternal) i.Psalms also refer to Jerusalem as a holy mountain and as the dwelling place of God (Psalms 46, 48, 76) Psalm 48:8... In the city of our God, which God establishes forever Psalm 76:2 His abode has been established in Salem, his dwelling place in Zion

25 IFROM STATE TO EMPIRE ( 2 Sm & 1 Kgs 1-11 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD: THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 6.Theological developments during the monarchy c.The Yahwistic History (J) i.Written during the early monarchic period (likely the time of Solomon) ii.Relates Israel’s history from creation to settlement iii.This stratum of Pentateuchal literature (one of 4 strands) reflects tension between tribal freedom under Yahweh alone and the later bureaucratic regimes of the kings

26 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) ATHE LITERARY WORLD: THE PATTERNING OF HISTORY IN KINGS 1.Repeated use of a formula to summarize and assess the reigns of the kings a.Includes reference to historical source, length of reign, and naming successor b.All northern Israelite kings were assessed negatively because they worshipped Yahweh improperly c.Only two southern Judean kings are praised (Hezekiah and Josiah) simply because their actions as kings fell in line with the author’s particular theology (DH)

27 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) ATHE LITERARY WORLD: THE PATTERNING OF HISTORY IN KINGS 2.The role of prophets and prophecy a.DH has a very particular view of prophets and formulates the narrative accordingly i.Deuteronomy 13:1-5 How does one detect a false prophet? (See next slide)

28 Deut. 13:1 ¶ If prophets or those who divine by dreams appear among you and promise you omens or portents, Deut. 13:2 and the omens or the portents declared by them take place, and they say, “Let us follow other gods” (whom you have not known) “and let us serve them,” Deut. 13:3 you must not heed the words of those prophets or those who divine by dreams; for the LORD your God is testing you, to know whether you indeed love the LORD your God with all your heart and soul. Deut. 13:4 The LORD your God you shall follow, him alone you shall fear, his commandments you shall keep, his voice you shall obey, him you shall serve, and to him you shall hold fast. Deut. 13:5 But those prophets or those who divine by dreams shall be put to death for having spoken treason against the LORD your God—who brought you out of the land of Egypt and redeemed you from the house of slavery—to turn you from the way in which the LORD your God commanded you to walk. So you shall purge the evil from your midst.

29 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) ATHE LITERARY WORLD: THE PATTERNING OF HISTORY IN KINGS 2.The role of prophets and prophecy a.DH has a very particular view of prophets and formulates the narrative accordingly i.Deuteronomy18:21-22 How does one detect a true prophet? (See next slide)

30 Deut. 18:21 You may say to yourself, “How can we recognize a word that the LORD has not spoken?” Deut. 18:22 If a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD but the thing does not take place or prove true, it is a word that the LORD has not spoken. The prophet has spoken it presumptuously; do not be frightened by it.

31 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 1.Two narratives cover the period of the Divided Kingdom a.1 Kings 12 - 2 Kings 25 i.DH material completed during exilic period (ca. 550 B.C.E.) ii.Used several sources that are cited but unfortunately are no longer available

32 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 1.Two narratives cover the period of the Divided Kingdom b.2 Chronicles 10-36 i.Three features render it less useful than the DH: It repeats much of the information in Kings It frequently alters details in order to serve specific theological purposes (e.g., 2 Chr 33:10-17) It displays an almost exclusive interest in the Southern Kingdom

33 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 2.Features that characterize the DH narrative (1 Kings 12 - 2 Kings 25) a.Theological assumption guides the construction of the narrative: i.Faithfulness to Sinai covenant brought blessing; disobedience resulted in national ruin b.Focus is on the kings of both kingdoms but they are judged according to DH theology

34 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 2.Features that characterize the DH narrative (1 Kings 12 - 2 Kings 25) c.Bias towards Judah is evident and it is due to the fact that DH is a southern source d.DH’s selective coverage of events leaves significant gaps in the history

35 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 3.The Division of the Kingdom: Four Specific Causes a.Pro-Saul people in the north unhappy with Davidic line replacing him b.Solomon’s heavy taxation and forced labour (corvée) more pronounced on the northern kingdom c.Centralization of the Yahweh cult to the city of Jerusalem deemphasized the northern shrines d.Solomon’s son Rehoboam, trying to enforce a more oppressive policy, was the final straw!

36 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 4.The Northern Kingdom (922-722 B.C.E.) a.Jeroboam I i.Served under Solomon who once tried to kill him and so he was forced to flee to Egypt ii.Chosen to be first king of the Northern Kingdom iii.Israel dominated in size (10 versus 2 tribes!), economy and military strength over Judah iv.DH concentrates on his religious reforms — the reactivation of northern Yahwistic shrines at Dan and Bethel (use of golden calves — see Ex. 32 for propagandistic narrative)

37 TELL DAN HIGH PLACE This open-air platform, called a high place (Hebrew bamah) goes back as early as the 10th century B.C.E. and may be related to Jeroboam’s religious program. Sacrifices and rituals would have been performed here.

38 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 4.The Northern Kingdom (922-722 B.C.E.) a.Jeroboam I v.Rejection of both Davidic (Royal) and Zion theology — but not Yahwism!

39 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 4.The Northern Kingdom (922-722 B.C.E.) b.Four different kings i.None were able to stabilize the monarchy eventually losing territory and power along the way

40 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 4.The Northern Kingdom (922-722 B.C.E.) c.The Omrid Dynasty (result of a successful coup) i.Omri moved capital to Samaria and its splendour was unrivalled in Palestine

41 SAMARIA

42 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 4.The Northern Kingdom (922-722 B.C.E.) c.The Omrid Dynasty (result of a successful coup) ii.Enhanced Israel’s international standing through political alliances His son Ahab was married to Jezebel from Tyre iii.Jezebel’s Baalism was a serious challenge to Yahwism and DH heightens the drama with a number of narratives focusing on this struggle (see Baal image on next slide)

43 Stele Showing the Storm-God Baal Ras-Shamra, formerly Ugarit 14th-13th centuries BC Sandstone The god is shown brandishing a mace and a spear, the extremity of which is tipped with vegetation; this is an allusion to the beneficial effects of the rain released by the storm. A young and popular god, celebrated in beautiful mythological texts discovered at Ugarit, Baal is also the tutelary god the dynasty: the king of Ugarit is shown in prayer beneath the arms of Baal. The style is both attentive to anatomical detail and nobly hieratic. This stele of Baal is one of the finest pieces of sculpture that has come down to us from Oriental antiquity.

44 STELA OF MESHA, KING OF MOAB COMMEMORATING HIS VICTORY OVER THE KINGS OF ISRAEL Discovered in 1868, carries an inscription of thirty-four lines in Moabite, a script close to ancient Phoenician. The text commem- orates the defeat inflicted on the kingdom of Israel after the death of Ahab, shortly before 842 BC. The stela was erected at Dibân, capital of Moab, by Mesha, son of Kamoshyat, King of Moab.

45 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 4.The Northern Kingdom (922-722 B.C.E.) d.The Jehu Dynasty (result of a successful and very bloody coup urged by the prophet Elisha) i.Overthrowing the Omrids placed Israel in conflict with neighbouring states ii.Jeroboam II managed to restored Israel’s boundaries back to that of the old Davidic kingdom See next slide for Seal Impression

46 The seal impression above is from a seal found at Megiddo dating to the eighth century B.C.E. It belonged to "Shema, servant of Jeroboam." The roaring lion was a symbol of royal power.

47 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 4.The Northern Kingdom (922-722 B.C.E.) d.The Jehu Dynasty (result of a successful and very bloody coup urged by the prophet Elisha) iii.The prophets Amos and Hosea attacked social injustices exhibited in the Northern Kingdom during this time

48 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 4.The Northern Kingdom (922-722 B.C.E.) e.The Fall of Israel (722 B.C.E.) i.Followed five successive kings who simply added to internal disintegration ii.Assyrian expansion and consolidation under Tiglath-pileser III threatened See next slide for Map of Assyrian Empire

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50 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 4.The Northern Kingdom (922-722 B.C.E.) e.The Fall of Israel (722 B.C.E.) iii.Syro-Israelite alliance sought Judean support against Assyria but did not obtain it (see Ahaz of the Southern Kingdom below) iv.Assyrian program of deportation resettled Israelites throughout Mesopotamia and replaced them with people imported from other areas of the empire See next slide of Assyrian battle

51 SENNACHERIB’S ATTACK ON LACHISH This scene is from the palace reliefs of Nineveh and depicts Sennacherib’s attack on Lachish, a town in Judah he captured in 701 B.C.E.

52 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) a.Rehoboam (922-915) i.Solomon’s son who refused to heed advice to lessen the economic burden on Israel ii.Responsible for creating an economical dependence on Egypt and ultimately Judah became the weaker of the two kingdoms

53 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) b.Ahaz (735-715) i.Agreed to be a vassal of Assyria at an economic cost ii.This political decision opened Judah to the influence of Assyrian religious practices Even constructed an altar in the Temple for Assyrian gods iii.Kings of bordering Israel and Aram sieged Jerusalem in order to persuade Ahaz to join them against Assyria Isaiah comforts him with a prophecy (Isa 7)

54 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) c.Hezekiah (715-687) i.Instituted reforms focused on eradicating foreign worship and strengthening Yahwism ii.Led to direct conflict with Assyria, Assyrian forces attacked but then mysterious retreated

55 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) d.Manasseh (687-642) i.Reversed his father’s policies in terms of Yahwism Presented as the worst king ever! ii.His long reign (55 years) was theologically problematic — Chronicles, therefore, added the repentance story (2 Ch 33)

56 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) e.Josiah (640-609) i.Counted as one of Judah’s greatest kings with his sweeping reforms upon discovering “the book of the law” (Deut 12-26) in the Temple: Temple cult in Jerusalem purified by eradicating Assyrian and Canaanite worship Local shrines around Judean countryside were purged of non- Yahwistic elements Reform extended into area of former Northern Kingdom — exaggeration?

57 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) e.Josiah (640-609) i.Counted as one of Judah’s greatest kings with his sweeping reforms upon discovering “the book of the law” (Deut 12-26) in the Temple: Reform represented a virtual declaration of independence from Assyria

58 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) e.Josiah (640-609) ii.Scholars: first version of DH recorded at this time There was optimism and enthusiasm about Josiah’s successful consolidation of national religion Like a second Joshua, he conquered (illegitimate worship) and then had a covenant renewal with a Passover celebration The death of Josiah at the hands of the Egyptian Pharaoh in battle was not expected!

59 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) f.The Fall of Judah (587) i.The rise of Babylon was the beginning of the end for Judah See next slide for Map of Babylonian Empire

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61 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) f.The Fall of Judah (587) ii.Attempts at revolt from Babylonian imperialism eventually led to deportation of Judah See next slide for Babylonian cylinder

62 NEBUCHADNEZZAR AND THE CONQUEST OF JERUSALEM CYLINDER 6TH CENTURY B.C.E. Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 B.C.E.) defeated the Egyptians, rebuilt Babylon, and renewed the glories of an independent Babylonia for the last time. He twice invaded Judaea, capturing Jerusalem, destroying its temple, and exiling the cream of its population to Babylon. But like the other members of his dynasty (variously known as the Chaldaean Dynasty or the Tenth Dynasty of Babylon), he forbore to rehearse the details of his victorious campaigns in his own inscriptions, which dwell by preference on his pious activities on behalf of the Babylonian deities. This cylinder, for example, commemorates his reconstruction of the temple of the god of the city Marada. For his campaigns against Jerusalem, we must turn instead to the “Babylonian Chronicle,” a priestly record of the chief events of each year beginning in 747 B.C. The Chronicle’s version of matters is remarkably similar to that preserved in the Bible (2 Kings 24:10-17 etc.).

63 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) f.The Fall of Judah (587) iii.Second edition of DH created to make the ultimate disaster appear inevitable: Did not alter the terms of the original Davidic covenant — it remained unconditional (2 Sam 7) Rephrased in later references in order to making it conditional on king’s loyalty to Yahweh (e.g., 1 Kgs. 9:4-9 and Psalm 132) Psalm 132:11-12 “The LORD swore an oath to David a sure oath from which he will not turn back... If your sons keep my covenant... Forevermore shall sit on your throne”

64 IIFROM EMPIRE TO EXILE ( 1 Kgs 12 - 2 Kgs 25 ) BTHE HISTORICAL WORLD 5.The Southern Kingdom (922-587 B.C.E.) f.The Fall of Judah (587) iii.Second edition of DH created to make the ultimate disaster appear inevitable: Also blamed Manasseh for having provoked Yahweh by his reversal of Hezekiah’s reforms (2 Kgs 23:26-27) iv.Note that the demise of Judah specifically is not ever mentioned in the Babylonian records

65 Tonight’s Tutorial Assignment: Read carefully Solomon’s temple dedication prayer in 1 Kings 8:22-9:9 1.What do you see in its contents that suggest it was not something he could have or would have said? 2.Isolate expressions or sentences that you find strange in a dedicatory prayer for something that is suppose to be the greatest moment in Israelite history. 3.When would you say it was likely written and why?

66 Tutorial Preparation for Next Week: Isaiah was one of four OT prophets who operated during the eighth century B.C.E. While Amos and Hosea concentrated their labours on the Northern Kingdom, Micah and Isaiah dealt with the Southern Kingdom. Read carefully chapter seven of Isaiah and do not ignore the information in the footnotes. A.Who are the important people in this incident? B.What is their relationship to each other? C.Why are they interacting at this time? D.Why does Isaiah make an appearance? E.Why does he give a sign and what does it mean in the context of the story? Interpret the sign in terms of its original situation.


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