2Learning Targets:AP students in psychology should be able to do the following:• Apply attribution theory to explain motives (e.g., fundamental attribution error, self-serving bias).• Describe the structure and function of different kinds of group behavior (e.g., deindividuation, group polarization).Explain how individuals respond to expectations of others, including groupthink, conformity, and obedience to authority.• Discuss attitudes and how they change (e.g., central route to persuasion).• Predict the impact of the presence of others on individual behavior (e.g., bystander effect, social facilitation).• Describe processes that contribute to differential treatment of group members (e.g., in-group/out-group dynamics, ethnocentrism, prejudice).• Articulate the impact of social and cultural categories (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity) on self-concept and relations with others.• Anticipate the impact of behavior on a self-fulfilling prophecy.• Describe the variables that contribute to altruism, aggression, and attraction.• Discuss attitude formation and change, including persuasion strategies and cognitive dissonance.• Identify important figures in social psychology (e.g., Solomon Asch, LeonFestinger, Stanley Milgram, Philip Zimbardo).
3Lesson One: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:Describe the structure and function of different kinds of group behavior (e.g., deindividuation, group polarization).Predict the impact of the presence of others on individual behavior (e.g., bystander effect, social facilitation).
4What is Social Psychology? How other people, groups, and cultures shaped our perceptionsExamples:1. Why do people become and stay friends?2. How can a boss keep his workers happy?3. Why does violence occur?4. Why would people follow unjust rule?
5Group DynamicsHumans have a basic drive to form social bonds with others.Social group – two or more individuals sharing common goals and interests, interacting, and influencing each other’s behavior.Norms – Implicit or explicit rules that apply to all members of the group and govern acceptable behaviors and attitudes
6Social Roles: Role set of expectations about a social position defines how those in the position ought to behaveThe Power of the Situation: The Stanford Prison ExperimentDidn’t the guard, prisoners, and warden all fall into their respective roles? Why?Can something like the placebo effect cause us to fall into certain stereotypical roles?
8Working in Groups:You will undoubtedly work in groups throughout your entire life.Social loafing – members of group realize that others will complete the task (combat this by offering individual evaluations)
9Why Does Social Loafing Happen? 1. People acting as a part of a group feel less accountable, so they worry less about what others think of them.2. They may not believe that their contribution makes a difference.3. Motivation matters! – those with lower motivational levels know that someone will pick up the slack (in a group)
10When working in groups, what role(s) do you most often fall into? 30LeaderFollowerSocial LoaferMore than one of these123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
11Deindividuation:Deindividuation: The process of losing ones’ “identity” while in a group. (usually occurs when there is a heightened sense of arousal)Example: Gang members wear similar outfits and act in similar ways that are appropriate to their gang.Where does this happen?1. Sporting contests - fighting2. Church3. Rock concerts4. Protests - chanting5. Riots and Looting after natural disasters (Haiti)
12Bystander Intervention: When in trouble, we’ve been taught to go to crowded places.Kitty Genovese exampleDiffusion of Responsibility (bystander effect) – the sense of personal responsibility reduces when more people are present.
13Altruism: Bystanders don’t always diffuse responsibility Altruism - a “hero” will emerge and fight off attackers or help a person in need.Researchers debate whether there is an inborn trait of altruism or if it may be reward based.
14Diffusion of responsibility A young woman was gunned down at a gas station. A busload of onlookers saw the entire event and no one did anything. What social psychological phenomenon best accounts for this behavior?GroupthinkAltruismSocial impairmentSuper ordinate goalsDiffusion of responsibility28123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
15Social Facilitation:Social Facilitation: The presence of others sometimes helps or hurts performance.We perform better when we are doing an already learned task in front of others.We perform worse when we are doing a new task in front of others. (social impairment)Point to remember: What you do well, you are likely to do even better in front of an audience. (especially a friendly audience)
16Group polarization Group think Deindividuation Social loafing Jesse’s friends are making fun of a freshman classmate in the hallway between classes. Jesse doesn’t personally agree with this behavior but goes along with it anyway. Which psychological term describes what Jesse is experiencing?30Group polarizationGroup thinkDeindividuationSocial loafingNormative behavior123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
17Group Think:Groupthink: When the desire for harmony replaces realistic judgment.Example: When a group has to make a decision and no one stands up opposing the decision, then the group feels it is a unanimous decision. (even though it may not be) – Bay of PigsGroup Polarization – When in a group of like minded people, decisions are often more extreme than if made individually.Minority Influence – a lone dissenter holds on their opinion and ends up convincing others of their opinion.
18Fundamental attribution error Groupthink Role schema Reciprocity Some difficult cuts needed to be made in the school board budget and everyone on the board knew that there had to be consensus and cooperation. Even though many members disagreed with certain proposals, each one met with unanimous support or defeat. To preserve cooperation, no one offered conflicting viewpoints. Which of the following concepts is best described by this example?30Group polarizationFundamental attribution errorGroupthinkRole schemaReciprocity123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
19Lesson Two: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:1. Apply attribution theory to explain motives (e.g., fundamental attribution error, self-serving bias).2. Describe processes that contribute to differential treatment of group members (e.g., in-group/out-group dynamics, ethnocentrism, prejudice).
20Attribution Process:Theorists believe that each of us is an amateur scientist engaged in trying to figure out why people act the way that they do.Social Cognition – refers to the way people gather, use, and interpret information about their social aspects of the world around them.
21Social Thinking Attribution Theory tendency to give an explanation for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s traits.Dispositional attributions – hold an individual responsible for his or her behavior.Situational attributions – look at factors in the environment to explain why someone acted the way that he/she does.
22Discussion Question:Do you find yourself more likely to attribute a person’s behavior to environmental factors or a person’s traits?
23Evaluating Behavior:Self serving bias – we attribute our achievements and successes to personal causes and our failures to situational factors. (group projects)Fundamental Attribution Errortendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal traits
24Social Roots of Prejudice: Some people have money, power, and prestige – others do not.This creates a “have” and “have not” world.The Just World Phenomenon: The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.Do you agree?
25How Does This Work?“Slave owners developed attitudes that “justified” slavery. They perceived the people they enslaved as innately lazy, ignorant, and irresponsible.” (Hoffman & Hurst, 1990)Do you think that over time, the slaves bought into this?So…Prejudice rationalizes inequalities.
27Us and Them:We have inherited our ancestors’ need to belong, to live and love in groups.We cheer for them, kill for them, and die for them.Ingroup“Us”- people with whom one shares a common identityOutgroup“Them”- those perceived as different or apart from one’s ingroup
28How Does This Work?Facing fear and terror (such as from the 9/11 attacks), patriotism heightens and produces anger and aggression towards “them.” – those who threaten our world.Scapegoat theory: When things go wrong, finding someone else to blame can provide an outlet for anger.Let’s look at an example:
29Dr. Z, What Do You Think?“Following 9/11, negative stereotypes blossomed. Some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab Americans. Others called for eliminating Saddam Hussein. Fear and anger create aggression, and aggression against citizens of different ethnicity or race creates racism and, in turn, new forms of terrorism.” (Zimbardo, 2001)
30Prejudice and Stereotyping: Prejudice: An unjustifiable, and usually negative attitude towards a group and it’s members.Stereotype: a generalized (sometimes accurate, but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of peopleQuestion:How do you see both of these happening at RHS?
31Causes of Conflict:Ethnocentrism – belief that our culture is superior to others.Out-group homogeneity – tendency to believe all members of another group are more similar than is true (Hitler and the Jews)
32Increasing Cooperation: Contact Theory – Equal status contact between opposing groups should lower tension and increase harmony. (Sherif study)Sherif showed that teamwork increased because of a super ordinate goal (emergency situation that requires joint cooperation)
33Lesson Three: Objectives Obedience, Power, and Social InfluenceBy the end of this lesson I will be able to: 1. Explain how individuals respond to expectations of others, including groupthink, conformity, and obedience to authority.2. Identify important figures in social psychology (e.g., Solomon Asch, LeonFestinger, Stanley Milgram, Philip Zimbardo).
34Ethnocentrism is the belief that: 30Ethnic foods are all goodHuman diversity is a positive forceOne’s own culture is superior to othersOther people are all pretty much alike in their opinionsCultural pluralism is a destructive goal that fosters conflict123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
35Attribute the behavior to dispositional (personal) factors You read in the newspaper that survivors in a plane accident in the Andes were discovered to have eaten other survivors during their 32-day ordeal. You will have committed the fundamental attribution error if you:30Attribute the behavior to dispositional (personal) factorsAttribute the behavior to situational factorsThink you would have done the same thing if you had been thereConsider the behavior as a signal for the moral degradation of our societyDecide never to fly in a plane again123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
36Of the following, which would be a good example of a self-serving bias: Carlos, who feels that everyone should strive to help themselves as well as othersAntoine, who says that he has bombed a test even though he always gets an AMai, who works harder for teachers who compliment her on her effortsLina, who overestimates the degree to which people agree with her opinionsBetty, who believes that she works harder than others and is under-appreciated30123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
37Key terms: Normative Social Influence Conformity influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapprovalConformityadjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standardThink about the elevator study
38Other Terms:Chameleon effect: People will naturally (unconsciously) mimic others’ expressions, postures, and movements.LaughingCoughingYawningWhy do we do this?It helps us to feel what others feel (empathize)The more we mimic, the more people like us (people like people like them) (conformity)
39Solomon Asch: Conformity Experiment In 1955 Asch conducted a simple experiment to assess conformity.Let’s look at a replication of the experiment.Click on me!!!
40What this show us..Experimentation reveals that we are more likely to conform when:1. We are made to feel incompetent or insecure2. We are in a group of at least three people3. We are in a group in which everyone agrees.NOTE: If just ONE other person disagrees, the odds that we also will disagree greatly increase.4. We admire the group’s status and attractiveness5. We have not already committed ourselves to any response6. We know that others in the group will observe our behavior.
41Discussion: Is conformity good? What do you think?Positive: If people conform to what we want we may consider them as being “open minded”Negative: If they don’t conform to what we want we scorn their inability to “give in”So….how do individualistic and collectivists cultures handle conformity differently?
42Stanley Milgram: Obedience Stanley Milgram (Yale) was a student of Solomon Asch’s and wanted to continue studying conformity and obedience.In 1974 he set up a lab to assess how obedient subjects would be when asked to physically harm another human being.Obedience: Adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.Let’s see what he came up with!!Game Show!
43What have we learned from the research on obedience? Obedience is highest when:1. The person giving the orders was close at hand and was perceived as being a legitimate authority figure.2. The authority figure was supported by a respected, well known institution.3. The victim was at a distance (killing)4. There were no role models for defiance (no one stood up to the researcher)
44Types of Power:Coercive Power: The power to punish (parents placing their kids in time out)Reward Power: The power to reward desirable behavior (boss giving bonuses)Legitimate Power: The power granted by some authority. (police officer)Expert Power: The power of knowledge (wise professor)Referent Power: The power of respect or admiration (Looking up to certain people)
45Lesson Four: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:1. Discuss attitude formation and change, including persuasion strategies and cognitive dissonance.
46Attitudes:Attitude – learned predispositions to respond in a favorable or unfavorable way to somethingMany people claim to be honest citizens, yet lie, cheat, and stealHow do we change attitudes?
47Social Thinking Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger requestExample: SalesReciprocity – your are more likely to help someone else out if they help you first.
48Ways of Changing Attitudes: The Elaboration Likelihood Model looks at two ways that attitudes can be changed.1. Central Route to Persuasion – person uses facts and figures to enable listeners to process information and think about their decisions.2. Peripheral Route to Persuasion – Superficial information is used to distract the audience to win favorable approval (pro athletes pitching a product)
49Friendships and attitudes: Proximity is the primary determinant of who will initially become friends.We are also more likely to be attracted to somebody we see everydayMere-exposure effect – the more we come into contact with someone, the more likely we are to like that person.
50Mixed Emotions:Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Relief from tension (Leon Festinger)we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistentExample- when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
51Advertising and Attitudes Advertising works well in changing attitudes and beliefsPeople will often “trust” someone that is famous or even good looking more than someone who isn’t.Millions of dollars a year are spent on advertising, especially to kids.Some argue that advertising is a social issue (female portrayal of seduction and weakness)