Chapter Preview 3 Chapter Preview · Section 3 Theories of Prejudice and Discrimination (pages 284–289) Prejudice refers to attitudes, while discrimination is about behavior. Prejudice often leads to discrimination, but in some instances discrimination creates prejudiced attitudes due to stereotyping. Each of the three major perspectives looks at different aspects of prejudice.
A.A B.B C.C Section 3-Polling Question Has there ever been a time when you’ve felt discriminated against because of someone else’s prejudices? A.Yes B.No C.It depends on the situation
Section 3 Prejudice, Racism, and Discrimination To a sociologist, prejudice refers to the widely-held preconceptions of a group (minority or majority) and its individual members.prejudice Prejudice involves a generalization based on biased or insufficient information.
Section 3 Prejudice, Racism, and Discrimination (cont.) Racism is an extreme form of prejudice. Racists believe that discrimination or exclusion is morally justified because of their own natural superiority.Racism Discrimination involves acting upon those biased opinions by treating people unfairly.Discrimination
A.A B.B C.C Section 3 Does prejudice always results in discrimination? A.Yes B.No C.Sometimes
Section 3 Hate Crimes A hate crime is a criminal act that is motivated by extreme prejudice.hate crime Each of the perspectives—functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionism—can help us understand reasons for hate crimes. Hate Groups in America
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Do you agree with the following statement: “Hate crimes occur in relatively small numbers, but the frequency is increasing.” A.Very much B.Somewhat C.Not very much D.Not at all
Section 3 Stereotypes A stereotype is a set of ideas—based on distortion, exaggeration, and oversimplification—that is applied to all members of a group.stereotype
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Have you ever been guilty of stereotyping a person and later found out that you were wrong? A.Always B.Sometimes C.Never D.Not sure
Section 3 The Functionalist Perspective Negative aspects of prejudice and racism: –The social, political, educational, and economic costs to society are extremely high. –The safety and stability of the larger society are at risk due to violence.
Section 3 The Functionalist Perspective (cont.) Positive aspect of prejudice and racism: –The self-concepts within the majority group are strengthened due to a feeling of superiority.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Do you agree with the functionalist view of the “positive aspect” of discrimination? A.Agree B.Disagree C.Sometimes D.Not sure
Section 3 The Conflict Perspective According to the conflict theory, a majority uses prejudice and discrimination as weapons of power to control a minority. They do this in order to increase control over property, goods, and other resources. Minorities tend to view one another as competitors instead of allies in the struggle against the majority.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Do you think the example in the book, demonstrates the conflict perspective? A.Very much B.Somewhat C.Not very much D.Not at all
Section 3 The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective According to this perspective, members of a society learn to be prejudiced in much the same way that they learn to be patriotic. –Pregeneralized learning period—children overhear parents making racist statements, but they have not yet learned to separate people by race or ethnic group. –Total rejection stage—children can use physical clues to sort people into groups. Two stages in learning to be prejudiced:
Section 3 The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective (cont.) Language itself can also reflect prejudices. Self-fulfilling prophecy—an expectation that leads to behavior that then causes the expectation to become reality—also plays a large role in this perspective.Self-fulfilling prophecy Members of a minority fail because of the low expectations they have for their own success. Prejudice and Discrimination
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Do you agree that language reflects prejudices? A.Agree B.Disagree C.Not sure D.Sometimes
Figure 9.4 U.S. Resident Minority Populations, 2000 and 2003 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2004–2005.
Figure 9.5 Majority and Minority Median Household Incomes Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2005.
Figure 9.6 The U.S. Population by Race and Ethnicity, 2000 and 2050 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2004.
Figure 9.7 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2005.
Snapshot Source: Adapted from Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Project, “Active U.S. Hate Groups in 2004.” Hate Groups in the United States
Transparency Menu Hate Crimes in the United States Projected Changes in U.S. Racial/Ethnic Composition Who’s on the Net—By Income Level Who’s on the Net—Race and Education Sociology Chapter Transparencies