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Gender, Diversity & Leadership. Outline  Stereotypes and Discrimination of Women Leaders  Assignment 3  Effects of Prejudice  Exercise: Creating an.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender, Diversity & Leadership. Outline  Stereotypes and Discrimination of Women Leaders  Assignment 3  Effects of Prejudice  Exercise: Creating an."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender, Diversity & Leadership

2 Outline  Stereotypes and Discrimination of Women Leaders  Assignment 3  Effects of Prejudice  Exercise: Creating an Organization that Embraces Diversity  Return Exam

3 Role Congruity Theory  The descriptive and prescriptive aspects of the female gender stereotype are incongruent with the leadership role  That incongruity leads to prejudice against women leaders.

4 Stereotypes  Cognitive structures that influence the way individuals process information regarding groups & group members  Descriptive Describe stereotypic beliefs about the attributes of women and men  Prescriptive Prescribe how men and women should, or ought to, be

5 Descriptive Stereotypes MenWomen AGENTIC  Aggressive  Forceful  Independent  Decisive COMMUNAL  Kind  Helpful  Sympathetic  Concerned for others

6 Prescriptive Stereotypes  Individuals should conform to their stereotypic description, AND avoid stereotype-incompatible behaviors.  Ideal women and men are described in stereotypic terms Women and men’s ideal selves are stereotypically differentiated  People hold stereotypically sex differentiated attitudes about the roles/responsibilities of women and men

7 Good Leadership is a Manly Business …or so many think….  Role congruity theory maintains that the agentic qualities deemed necessary in the leadership role are incompatible with the predominantly communal qualities associated with women  Leadership prototypes are more congruent with male stereotypes than female stereotypes Good managers are described predominantly by masculine attributes Stereotypically male qualities are thought necessary to being a successful executive

8  "There are some people here who probably don't want a woman as the No. 1. They are comfortable with women in the No. 2 position.“ –Legislative Aide, San Francisco Chronicle Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi.  Faces “cynics and doubters” who don’t believe a woman is capable of running Hewlett Packard Hewlett-Packard CEO Carly Fiorina

9 Biases in the Perception and Evaluation of Women Leaders  Two competing expectations: Those based on gender stereotypes and those based on leadership roles  Two forms of prejudice  These two forms of prejudice lead to Less favorable attitudes toward female than male leaders Greater difficulty for women to attain top leadership roles Greater difficulty for these women to be viewed as effective in these roles

10 Biases in the Perception and Evaluation of Women Leaders  Empirical evidence: Male politicians seen as better suited for pursuing the more agentic tasks of public policy Female political leaders as more appropriately suited for more communal tasks Women managers are rated as more different from successful middle managers than are male managers Women are presumed to be less competent leaders than men and less worthy of leadership positions

11 Biases in the Perception and Evaluation of Women Leaders  More empirical evidence: Male and female leaders are evaluated differently (Eagly, Makhijani, and Klonsky’s 1992 meta-analysis):  Male and female leaders are evaluated equally favorably when using a stereotypically feminine leadership style (democratic)  Female leaders were evaluated unfavorably when they used a stereotypically male leadership style (autocratic and directive)  Women were particularly devalued when the raters were men.  In sum, substantial empirical evidence reveals that stereotypes can significantly alter the perception and evaluation of female leaders

12 An Empirical Test of Role Congruity Theory  Assignment 3  Imagine that you are a researcher and your next project is to empirically test one aspect of role congruity theory. In one page or less, describe at least one testable hypothesis (that is, a specific testable proposition) that can be derived from role congruity theory. Additionally, discuss a specific way in which a researcher could feasibly go about testing your hypothesis.

13 Effects of Prejudice  Self-Fulfilling Prophecy When stereotypes produce stereotype-confirming behavior  The expectations embedded in stereotypes can be a powerful guide to behavior, creating self-fulfilling prophecies Person A’s Person A’s Person B’s Expectations Behaviors Behavior

14 Self-fulfilling Prophecy

15  Research example (Word et al., 1974) Princeton students as interviewers Differences in the way they acted to B and W applicants Retrained to treat White students like Black students  Results: White students who were treated as black students actually interviewed worse! Were reacted by outside observers as more nervous and less effective Self-fulfilling Prophecy


17 Self-esteem of the Oppressed  Kenneth and Mamie Clark (1947). Demonstrated that black children, as young as 3, rejected black dolls. Felt that white dolls were prettier and generally superior  Goldberg found similar results for gender Women rated articles as superior if “written” by a man (John vs. Joan McKay)  Swim and others have shown that these tendencies have diminished over the years

18 Stereotype Threat  Stereotype Threat Stereotyped group is aware of the stereotype Creates apprehension, which interferes with performance  Research example (Steel and Aronson, 1994) Difficult verbal test: Black and White Stanford students Two conditions:  Testing intellectual ability  Task unrelated to intelligence  Results: When task unrelated to intelligence: B & W performed equally well When testing IQ= B poorer than W


20 Creating an Organization that Embraces Diversity  Create an organization that addresses the six challenges to a successfully diversified organization identified by Morrison: 1) Prejudice 2) Poor career planning 3) Unsupportive work environment 4) Lack of organizational savvy 5) Greater comfort in dealing with one’s own kind 6) Difficulty in balancing career and family


22 Exam Return  Check exam for addition mistakes, if you find a mistake show me immediately so I can give you the points you deserve.  If you have concerns over the grading of a question, see me in my office hours with the class notes and/or text book in hand.  Do not show this exam to other people who may take this course, and do not put the exam in scoop files.

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