Bandura’s Self–Efficacy Theory Self-efficacy provides a model to study the effects of self-confidence on sport performance, persistence, and behavior. Self-efficacy is important when one has the requisite skills and sufficient motivation. (continued)
Bandura’s Self–Efficacy Theory Self-efficacy affects an athlete’s choice of activities, level of effort, and persistence. Although self-efficacy is task-specific, it generalizes to other similar skills and situations. High self-efficacy people set more challenging goals.
Benefits of Self–Confidence Arouses positive emotions Facilitates concentration Affects the setting and pursuit of challenging goals Increases effort Affects game strategies (play to win versus play to lose) Affects psychological momentum
Levels of Confidence Optimal confidence Lack of confidence Overconfidence
Optimal Confidence, Under– confidence, and Overconfidence The inverted-U illustrating the confidence-performance relationship
How Expectations Influence Performance Self-expectations, “life-scripts” and performance Coach expectations and performance
Building Self–Confidence Ensure performance accomplishments. Successful behavior increases confidence and leads to further successful behavior. Include good technical, and tactical instruction. Use game-pressure simulations. Act confidently. Instructors-coaches should display confidence. Teach athletes to display confidence.
Building Self–Confidence Use imagery. Imagine yourself as confident and successful. Train for superior physical conditioning. Fatigue erodes confidence & performance Prepare Develop performance plans and routines; plans give you confidence because _______________________________________
Building Self–Confidence Above all else…Think confidently. Focus on instruction and motivating thoughts. Avoid judgmental thoughts.
Self–Talk: --any self-statement or thought. Appropriate self-talk helps one focus on the present and keeps one’s mind from wandering. Cognitive Models Basis for Cognitive Model Watch Your Language
COGNITIVE EMOTIVE INSIGHTS Basis for Cog Model "People are not upset by things but by their idea of things." Epictetus "Our life is what our thoughts make it." Marcus Aurelius "There is nothing good or bad but thinking makes it so." Shakespeare "The mind is its own place and in itself can make a heaven of hell, or hell of heaven." Milton "The ancestor of every action is a thought - a man is what he thinks about all day long." Emerson
COGNITIVE EMOTIVE INSIGHTS “Man is the inventor of his own happiness.” Thoreau "Most folks are about as happy as they make up their minds to be." Lincoln "You are not what you think you are, but what you think, you are." Norman Vincent Peale "My life has been filled with terrible misfortunes, most of which never happened." Mark Twain “A person’s behavior springs from his/her ideas.” Alfred Adler
How Self–Talk Works Missing an important shot in a tennis match Event “Keep your eye on the ball— this match isn’t over” Self–talk Better concentration, optimism, calmness Emotional & Behavioral Responses
Self–Talk Self-talk and performance enhancement Positive self-talk improves performance. Techniques for improving self-talk Thought stopping: identify negative thought, stop the thought, focus on task-relevant thought. Changing NegaTalk to Posatalk
Changing Negative Self–Talk to Positive Self–Talk NegativePositive “He robbed me on the line call— that ball was in.” “There’s nothing I can do about it now. If I play well and focus, I’ll win anyway.”